Week 11 Timeline

  • Period: 4500 BCE to 332 BCE


    Egypt is a society immersed in religion with their countries art and architecture showcasing a formal, ordered, and timeless feeling. Some of these religious structures are pyramids, temples, and tombs. Some of these motifs have been introduced to the Western architectural vocabulary through the inclusion of columns, cornice, pylon, and dressed stone construction. In addition to these things, Egyptians have been known for their advancements in medicine, geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.
  • Period: 1000 BCE to 146 BCE


    The two principle orders in Archaic and Classical Greek architecture are the Doric and the Ionic. A third order, known as the Corinthian, first developed in the late Classical period, but was more common in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Relationships among architectural components was also a large part of Greek architecture, meaning a fragment of a molding can be used to reconstruct an entire building. Repetition and symmetry were integral to Greek design.
  • Period: 509 BCE to 27 BCE


    Rome cultivates a mixture of culture from the Greek colonists and Etruscans. Roman design establishes a language for architecture, interiors, furniture, and decorations to be used for succeeding generations. Romans were the first to use extensively the arch, vault, and concrete as building materials. Diversity and embellishments of monumental material exemplify Rome influences on Western civilizations. Some ancient Roman motifs include Garland, Acanthus Leaf & Laurel.
  • Period: 200 to 600

    Early Christian

    Christianity follows the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth and carries a lot of symbolism and motifs around this. The cross is the main symbol throughout Christian artwork and design. This is seen in the architecture as well in Latin church floor plans with the main entrance being placed at the narrow end of the long section, opposite of the altar and apse. Other common motifs and symbols in Christianity include fish, doves, and lamb. Mosaic's are also very common in Christian design.
  • Period: 330 to 1453


    The Byzantine Empire is reminiscent of Roman influence for nearly 1,000 years after the fall of Rome. The Byzantine carries many continuities to Christianity as well. Ornate symbolism is important to the Byzantine, expressing more bold Christian themes as opposed to the more reserved Early Christian décor. Gold is very prevalent in Byzantine design as well.
  • Period: 600 to


    Islamic art is heavily influenced by religion. Ornament, unity, order, & repetition are all common themes in Islamic design. Lavish decoration of allover patterns and calligraphy represents the precision of nature, mathematics, and science as shown by the universal principles of Allah’s (god) creation and power. Common motifs of Islam are meanders, stars, swastikas, rosettes, scrolls, palm leaves, and calligraphy to name a few. Typical colors include rich tones of blue, cream, & gold.
  • Period: 700 to 1150


    Romanesque architecture is derived from Roman buildings, taking note of its reliance on the round arch and individual parts to create unity. Some important motifs include the round arch, figures, animals, foliage, and geometric forms. Churches and monasteries are the primary building types, and they follow what is known as the pilgrimage floor plan. Church interiors carry the most common architectural characteristics which include rounded arches and masonry ceilings.
  • Period: 1150 to 1550


    Gothic design is based off the Christian religion, and architecture and theology combine to create a visual metaphor where religion and faith in God are all-important. Common motifs include heraldic devices, the pointed arch, fantastic figures. Some geometric shapes include lozenges or zigzags. Cathedral interiors, like the exteriors, emphasize verticality. Stained and colored glass continually filter light throughout the day so that is changes in color and intensity.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Italian Renaissance

    Italian Renaissance design is based off classical antiquity including extensive embellishments like columns, pediments, and cherubs. Key concepts in architecture include a return to the classical order and forms with a mathematical approach. The most important building types are churches, public structures, and villas. Common materials include stone or brick. In residences, textiles and wallpapers typically include scarlet, cobalt blue, gold, deep green, and cream.
  • Period: 1480 to

    Spanish Renaissance

    Spanish renaissance uses motifs of Moorish influences including ogee arches & interlaced arabesques. Common materials include granite, limestone, and brick. Gray granite with contrasting white stucco marks the classic style. Spain is also known for wrought-iron window grilles, handrails, and other decoration. Rooms typically have few furnishings, even in the wealthiest homes.The colors used are highly saturated, primarily appearing in tile work, textiles, and decorative objects.
  • Period: 1485 to

    English Renaissance

    English design gradually changed from Gothic to Renaissance style. In England, design is more eclectic than other countries and reveals more influence from France and Flanders than Italy. Common characteristics in design were defined by different periods of time; Tudor, Elizabethan, and Jacobean. The architecture has a gradual increase in order, regularity, and emphasis on proportion. Throughout this time, the interiors had highly saturated colors in textiles and finishes.
  • Period: 1515 to

    French Renaissance

    Early French design combines indigenous characteristics, Gothic forms, and Mannerist elements. Crowns and initials, which are a symbol of royalty & French kings used animal motifs to identify their individual chateaux. French Architecture uses inventiveness over rules and rich surface decoration over proportions. Some architectural features include steeply pitched roofs, larger windows, and prominent chimneys.
  • Period: to

    American Colonial: England

    The architecture and interiors are typically plain, but furniture motifs include flowers, scrolls, strapwork, or geometric shapes. The earliest shelters are typically designed more towards practicality, but they exhibit medieval characteristics such as steeply pitched gable roofs and framed construction. Common colors used come from the materials used such as the brown of wood, white or cream of plaster, and the gray of a stone hearth or wall.
  • Period: to

    European Baroque

    Baroque is an international style that dominated Europe in the 17th century uniting grand scale and architectural developments of the High Renaissance with the drama and emotion of the Late Renaissance. Common motifs in this time include pilasters and pediments, colossal columns, C & S scrolls, shells, figures, and sculpture niches. Typical materials used would be stone and brick with a contrast in color and material accent to emphasize parts and elements.
  • Period: to

    American Colonial: Spain

    Common motifs in Spain are columns, zapatas, scrolls, garlands, and foliated windows. Other motifs include geometric shapes, concentric circles, colored stripes, animals, and various symbols. Contrasting colors of different types of stone may accentuate architectural features on churches and the colors used are very saturated such as red, yellow, blue, and green.
  • Period: to

    American Colonial: France

    Motifs in French design come from French high-style or folk traditions and are found mostly on furniture and wall paneling including diamond points, lozenges, flowers, rosettes, and scrolls. Rooms are multifunctional, and most interiors are treated with paneled or plastered walls and low-beamed ceilings with hard-packed dirt and wood plank floors in all common areas.
  • Period: to

    American Colonial: France

    Motifs in French design come from French high-style or folk traditions and are found mostly on furniture and wall paneling including diamond points, lozenges, flowers, rosettes, and scrolls. Rooms are multifunctional, and most interiors are treated with paneled or plastered walls and low-beamed ceilings with hard-packed dirt and wood plank floors in all common areas.
  • Period: to

    American Colonial: Germany

    Common motifs in Germany include figures, birds, unicorns, lions, floral and scroll patterns, and geometric shapes. Designs come from many sources, reflecting the varied influences in Germany, often with religious or symbolic meaning. Germans are also known for their colorful, hand-decorated texts or documents called fraktur. They also have very distinctive German slipware for their highly saturated colors and motifs such as tulips.
  • Period: to

    American Colonial: Holland

    Common motifs in Holland include decorative brickwork, flowers, trees, and birds, Dutch motifs commonly resemble those of the Germans. Interiors usually are colorful and decorated with tiles, ceramics, textiles, and paintings.
  • Period: to

    Neo-Palladian and Georgian

    Common motifs of the Neo-Palladian & Georgian era include classical architectural details such as columns, pilasters, balusters & dentil moldings. In Queen Anne furniture, motifs include shells & acanthus leaves. Neo-Palladian is England’s national style for the first half of the 18th century. The style defines numerous country houses, smaller dwellings, and town-houses. Symmetrical, geometric, & relatively plain, forms are simple; outline are uncomplicated.
  • Period: to


    Rococo is the style & symbol of the French aristocracy in the first half of the 18th century. The name comes from rocaille (small rockeries) & coquille (cockle shell); the latter being a common motif. Themes and motifs include romance, country life, the exotic, fantasy, & gaiety. Interior & furniture motifs include flowers, bouquets tied with ribbon, baskets of flowers, garlands, shells, romantic landscapes, Italian comedy figures, musical instruments, hunting & fishing.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution introduces more materials, techniques, and forms to architecture, interiors, and furnishings, fostering novelty, innovation, and alteration. Goods during this time are well made and well designed. Common motifs of this period include emphasis on technology as illustrated on gates, porches, balconies, columns, and furnishings. Interiors place emphasis on function, efficiency, and comfort. Improvements in rail and ship transportation make products more readily available
  • Period: to

    Late English Georgian

    The Late English Georgian period adopts Neoclassicism for architecture, interiors, and furniture. The new style exhibits slenderer proportions, flatter details, and more ornamentation. Materials used include a wider range of brick colors including yellow, gray, brown, white, and cream. Improved casting techniques produce ironwork with Neoclassical motifs for balconies and window frame. Rooms are formal and unified using simple shapes with curving ends or sculpture niches for movement.
  • Period: to

    French Provincial

    General characteristics of this era include light scale, rational planning, mathematical proportions, and an emphasis on straight lines and/or geometric form. Architecture develops from rationalist views which strive for geometric volumes, structural honesty, and simplicity. Common materials used include brick, stone, and marble, with some buildings integrating cast-iron details. Society still seeks luxury, comfort, and gaiety which can all be seen in their interiors.
  • Period: to

    American Federal

    The Federal style is the first phase of Neoclassicism in America. As in Europe, the style features classical details and ornament, slender proportions, and contrasting circular and rectangular shapes. The image of George Washington and other leaders appears often, particularly in decorative arts. American Neoclassical architecture differs from England’s in scale, construction methods, and building materials. Wood-frame construction and brick prevail instead of stone.