The Magna Carta was an English doctrine passed in 1215 that gauranteed unalienable rights to both Nobles and Freemen.
Roanoke is Founded
Sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh, Roanoke, "The Lost Colony:, was founded off the North Carolina Coast.
By 1590, there was no trace of the settlerss that were originally there.
Jamestown is Founded
Founded by Captain John Smith and 105 cavaliers in 1607, Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in the the New World.
Jamestown was named after King James III of England.
Cheap Labor is Introduced to the New World
Brought by the the Dutch to Jamestown, the first African American indentured servants arrived in the New World.
House of Burgesses
With all of its representatives elected on July 30, 1619, the House of Burgesses became the first representaive assembly in the United States.
The Pilgrims Arrive
The Pilgrims, who were Puritan Seperatists, left England on September 19. The 103 passengers landed on December 26 at Cape Cod.
The Pilgrims created and signed the Mayflower Compact, an agreement for self-government that introduced majority rule, soon before landing
Providence, Rhode Island, founded by Roger WIlliams, was a democratically ruled colony that kept their church seperate from their government.
Passed by the British Parliament in 1660, the Navigation Act controlled the shipping and commerce of the colonial economy to suit England's agenda.
Rebel leader Nathaniel Bacon led planters against the oppressive British Governer Sir William Berkeley. The group burned down Jamestown Vifginia on September 19, but the rebellion collapsed when Bacon was killed.
Pennsylvania is Founded
William Penn founded Pennsylvania after signing a treaty with the Delaware Indians and paying the due amount.
Salem Witchcraft Trials
In Salem, Massachusetts , women accused of withcraft by their fellow colonists were executed by special court. 20 alleged witches were executed during that time.
Poor Richard's Almanack
Published by famous inventor and peacemaker Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanack informed the colonists of weather patterns and gave them tips for success, It was published annually until 1757.
The Zenger Trial
After criticizing the Britsh governer of New York's conduct, John Peter Zenger was charged of libvel and taken to trial, This event made the colonists thirst for the freedom of speech and press.
The Great Awakening
Jonathan Edwards, a major figure in the Great Awakening, a movement in the 1700s that revived strong religious beliefs and actions, held his famous sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God".
Albany Plan of Union
After being approved by delegates from 7 colonies, the Albany Plan of Union, created by Benjamin Franklin in an attempt to unify the colonies against British oppression, was rejected by colonists.
French and Indian War Ends
After the French and Indian War began when the French took over Fort Duquesne, years of harsh battles followed, The war finally ended when the Treaty of Paris of 1763 was signed. As they lost the war, France gave up Canda and the Midwest to Great Britain.
The Sugar Act
To pay for the French and Indian War debts, England first placed the Sugar Act on the colonies. This act taxed items such as lumber, molasses, and rum.
Passed by Parliament on March 22, the Stamp Act taxed the stamps that were required on all official documents used within the 13 colonies in order to pay for English soldiers and debt from the French and Indian War.
The Quartering Act, passed by Parliament on March 24, required the colonists to house any British troops.
The Townshend Acts, passed by Great Britain in 1767, levied taxes on glass, painter's lead, paper, and tea to pay for the salaries of English governor's.
After protest in Boston over the Townshend Acts and verbal attacks on occupying British soldiers, the British troops fired into a mob in Boston, killing 5 people including Crispus Attucks, the alleged leader.
Boston Tea Party
In response to the Tea Act and other unjustified las passed by Parliament, Bostonians dressed as Native Americans crept onto an East India Co. ship and threw its cargo overboard.
After the Boston Massacre was seen as rebellion inBritain, Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts, which banned the use of the Boston Harbor until the wasted tea was paid for.
First Continental Congress
Held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as a response to the Intolerable Acts, the First Continental Cngress called for the United States to rebel against British tyranny.
"Give me Liberty or give me Death"
While addressing a convention in his home state of Virgina, Patrick Henry uttered the famous Revolution slogan, "Give me Liberty or give me Death!"
Lexington and Concord
The Battles of Lexington and COncord were the first of the Revolution. At Lexington, MA, the Minutemen lost the battle, but their fortune was changed at Concord, where they sent the British home.
"...shot heard round the world." -Raplh Waldo Emerson
In order to alert the Patriot militia of the approaching British army, Paul Revere, William Dawes, and William Prescott rode to the North Church and hung up one lantern, all while announcing, "The British were coming."
"Common Sense", written by Thomas Paine, sold over 100,00 copies and convinced the common American to support independence from England.
Declaration of Independence
Approved by the Continental Congress on July 4, The Declaration of Indpendence expressed the colonies' desire to break free from England and form their own nation. It was written by Thomas Jefferson.
The Stars and Stripes
After General Washington defeated Cornwallis at Princeton, the Continental Congress authorized the first American Flag, the Stars and Stripes.
The Battle of Saratoga
After the Americans defeated English General Burgoyne's forces at Bemis Heights and cut off the British escape route, Burgoyne was forced to surrender 5,000 men. This important battle, known as the Battle of Saratoga, convinced the French to aid the colonies in their fight for independence.
Introduction of the Articles of Confederation
Adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777, which was before the end of the Revolutionary War, the Articles of Confederation took effect on March 1, 1781, but ultimately failed due to a lack of federal power.
Led by naval hero John Paul Jones, the Bonhomme Richards successfully defeated the Engligh ship Serapis in a naval battle that gained renown in the colonies with the quote, "I have not yet begun to fight."
The Battle of Yorktown
After General Cornwallis was forced to retreat into Yorktown, VA, General Washington and Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau attacked his forces and forced Cornwallis to surrender. This was the final battle of the Revolutionary War.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Both England and the United States signed this treaty to officially end the Revolutionary War and approve American Independence. It set the boundaries of the new country at the Mississippi to the West, Canada to the North, and Spanish Florida to the South.
In order to protest unfair government policies, Revolutionery War veteran Daniel Shays' and hundreds of other debt-ridden farmers stopped debt hearings in Massachussets courts.
With George Washington presiding, the Constittion Convention opened in Independence Hall, Philadelphia and the format of the new Constitution was debated over. After months of arguments, Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution.
In order to set rules for statehood in the Northwest Territories, the Continental Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. This ordinance set the orderly pattern of growth for the new United States.
Published by Federalists John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, these series of essays sought to gain support for the Constitution and harm the Antifederalist cause.
The First President
Chosen as the first president of the United States, George Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789. John Adams was chosen as his vice president.
The Creation of Departments.
Thomas Jefferson, elected as first Secretary of State, Henry Knox, elected as the first Secretary of War, and Alexander Hamilton, elected as the first Secreatary of Tresury, were the original heads of the US Departments.
The Federal Judiciary Act
Created by the Supreme Court, the Federal Judiciary Act set the number of Justices as 6. John Jay was approved by Congress as the 1st Chief Justice.
Bill of Rights
Introduced by James Madison in an effort to please the Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights granted unalienable rights to the citizens of the United States.
Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin revived the use of slavery in South as the cotton industry was made exponentially more profitable and efficient.
In Pennsylvania, farmers whose livelihood depended on the growing of potatoes protested the Whiskey Tax of 1791, but were later supprtessed by the federal militia. The tax was not repealed as it had been ruled a justified one.
Washington's Farewell Address
While setting the precedent of a maximum two 4-year terms, President Washington also warned against the growth of political parties and urged the US to remain neutral in foreign issues.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by the Federalist Party, the Alien and Sedition Acts reduced the political influence of immigrants within the United States in order to maintain Federalist control.
The Second President
After 35 ties within the House of Representatives, Thomas Jefferson was finally elected as the 2nd President of the US. Aaron Burr became his Vice President.
Marbury v. Madison
After denying Wiliam Marbury the right to sue because his methods were unconstitutional, Chief Justice John Marshall established Juscial Review, the principle that the Supreme Court has the final say in the interpretation of the Constitution.
The Louisiana Purchase, purchased by the United States from Frane for a toal of $15 million, more than doubled the land area of the United States.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Ending on September 23rd, 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition resulted in the first maps of the Louisiana Purchase and all the land west of it as well, although inaccurate portrayals of the Great Plains resulted out of it, as well.
Passed by Congress in 1807, the Embargo Act banned all trade with foreign countries and did not allow US ships to sail to foreign ports. It was passed to show US neutrality in the French-British War, but only resulted in protest from Americans.
The War of 1812 Begins
Caused by Britain interfering with US shipping, impressing US naval officers, and supporting the Native Americans, the War of 1812 was declared by Congress on June 18.
The Battle of Lake Erie
Oliver Hazard Perry, famous naval hero of the War of 1812, led the US fleet on Lake Erie in their defeat of the Britsh in the Battle of Lake Erie. A later invasion of Canda by forces on land failed.
Burning of Washington D.C.
After they defeated US forces at the Battle of Bladensburg, British forces landed in Maryland and proceeded to burn down the Capitol Building and the White House.
Inspired by the the United States' resilence against the constant bombardment by British forces at The Battle of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key wrote the "Star Spangled Banner".
Treaty of Ghent
After 2 years of intense fighting, the War of 1812 between the US an Engalnd finally came to an end with the Treaty of Ghent. The United States victory in the war led to an increase in patriotism, and increase in Amercan manufacturing, and showed America was a world power.
THe US Gains Florida
After Spain decided it was not necessary for them to keep maintaining Florida, they agreed on the Adams-Onis Treaty with the US and ceded Florida to them.
In an effort to curb colonization efforts in the Americas and protect Latin America, the US passed the Monroe Doctrine, which banned further colonization attempts. This established the US as a world power.
Held in front of Congress, the debate between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne began over protective tariffs and their effects the South and North, but soon elevated to a debate over states' rights.
Indian Removal Act
Proposed by President Andrew Jackson, the Indian Removal Act, imposed mainly on the CHerokee Indians, forced them to move to Oklahoma and resulted in the Trail of Tears, a journey in which 1/4th of the Cherokees died.
Led by Nat Turner, a Virginian Slave, this rebellionresulted in the death of 57 whites in the area. Later, troops were called in, thus ending the rebellion. Nat Turner was hanged for his actions.
Trail of Tears
As a result of the Indian Removal Act passed by Andrew Jackson, the Cherokee Indians were led on the Trail of Tears to the Indian Terrotopry. Due to horrible living conditions, 1/4th of them perished in the effort.
The Telegraph is Invented
After years of research and multiplr failed attempts Samuel F. B. Morse sent the first ever telegraph message to his lab assistant in his lab. The language used in telegraphs, morse code, was named after Samuel F. B. Morse.
US-Mexican War Begins
After the United States annexed Texas and President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to seiz disputed land, Congress declared war against Mexico. Mexico responded by declaring war 10 days later in what became a war to fulfill Manifest Destiny.
California Gold Rush
After gold was discovered in California, 80,000 gold prospectors came to the state from all over the world in an attempt to find the gold.
Treaty of Gaudalupe Hidalgo
After US troops captured Mexico City, the capital of the country, on September 14, 1847, Mexico submitted to the US and signed the Treaty of Gaudalupe Hidalgo. The treaty gave the US the Mexican Cession, a piece of land that included California and New Mexico.
Seneca Falls Convention
Led by activists Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the Seneca Falls Convention met in New York to discuss different resolutions such as the Declaration of Sentiments, which consisted of basic civil rights for women.
Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850, created by Henry Clay, admitted California as a free state to please the North, but also tightened the Fugitive Slave Act and made it so that Congress could no longer pass slavery laws in the Mexican Cession area.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Published by Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" depicted slavery as what it was, immoral and unjustified, and angered many Southern slaveowners.
Formed in Ripon, Wisconsin, the Republican Part formed out of the ashes of the Northern Whigs. Including famous leaders such as Abraham Lincoln, the Republicans opposed slavery.
Created by Stephen Douglas, the Kansas-Nebraska Act left the issue of the legalization of slavery in the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska up to popular sovereignty, or voting.
The event known as Bleeding Kansas because of bloodshed began wiht the Sack of Lawrence when a proslavery mob attacked Lawrence, Kansas and destroyed the town. It finished with the Pottawatomie Massacre when John Brown led an antislavery contingent and attacked Missourians and kiled 5 people.
Dred Scott vs Sandford
Slave Dred Scott sued for his freedom as his deceased owner had taken him to a territory where slavery was illegal. Scott was voted against as Congress ruled slaves could not sue as they were not citizens. Also, this resulted in the ruling that Congress could not ban slavery in territories.
The Raid on Harper's Ferry
John Brown and 21 of his followers seized Harper's Ferry, a federal arsenal in Virginia, and urged slaves to fight for their freedom. When no slaves came to help, Brown was captured by Marines an later hanged for treason.
The Election of 1860
Winning a 4-way race, Republican candidate Abraham Licoln won the presidency in 1860. As he was Republican, though, his election had severe consequences for the union.
The Confederate States of America
With Jefferson Davis as president, the Confederacy waas frmed by sven Southern states. It had a governemnt that was based upon the principles of states' rights and an economy based on slavery and cash crops.
The Battle of Fort Sumter
The Civil War began at the Battle of Fort Sumter when Confederate forces fired at Fort Sumeter in an attempt to capture it. They succeeded 2 days later on April 14.
Battle of Bull Run
After pressure from American citizens, a Union Force led by McDowell went through Bull Run to capture Richmond, Virginia. They were met by Confederatee forces and a long, even battle ensued. The Confederates were victorious after reinforcements arrived.
Battle Of Antietam
In what was the bloodiest single day in the Civil War, Union forces in Maryland overtook the Confederate forces, even though there were mass casualties on both sides. Even with the Unoin victory, they had lost 13000 men.
Hoping that free slaves would be willing to join the Union's Army, President Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation as a military tactic in 1863. It freed all slaves in the South.
The Battle of Gettysburg
In the turning point of the Civil War, Union forces in Pennsylvania led by Meade held off Lee's Confederate forces and ended Lee's invasion of the Union.Overall, this battle had the most total deaths in the Civil War.
Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant and ended the long fought Civil War.
Ratified on December 6, the 13th amendment to the Constitution abolished all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude within the United States.
the 14th amendment, which gave all people born or naturalized within the borders of the United States citizenship, was ratified by Congress July 9.
The 15th amendement, passed on February 8, made it so that a person's race did not inhibit their vting rights. Women's voting rights were still not gauranteed.
American Red Cross
Founded by Clara Barton, the American Red Cross is a charity organization that aids those that have been through life-altering disasters.