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US History: 1800 - 1876

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    Second Great Awakening

    Religious revival sparks changes in religious affiliations as Methodism becomes the most popular denomination, inspires social reform as it creates the benevolent empire, and diffuses the idea of spiritual egalitarianism.
  • Thomas Jefferson is Elected President

    Thomas Jefferson is Elected President
    As the first Republican President, Jefferson represents a victory for non-elite to take direct control over the government.
  • Washington D.C becomes the capital

    U.S capital is transferred from Philadelphia to Washinton D.C
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    Thomas Jefferson is President

  • Creation of Judicial Review

    John Marshall’s ruling in Marbury v. Madison creates the power of judicial review, in other words, the right to declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional.
  • Lousiana Purchase

    In his crowning achievement as president, Jefferson purchases Louisiana from France. The United States nearly doubles in size.
  • New Jersey Adopts Gradual Emancipation of Slaves

    New Jersey was the last northern state to adopt gradual emancipation of slaves.
  • Tecumseh's Confederacy

    The alliance among Native tribes increases the threat of a Native uprising.
  • First Steamboat

    First Steamboat
    Robert Fulton establishes the first commercial steamboat along the Hudson River
  • Jefferson's Embargo Act

    Although the act closed the American ports to all foreign trade to maintain American neutrality during the European conflict, it sent the nation into a deep depression instead.
  • Atlantic Slave Trade is Outlawed

    Congress decides to outlaw the slave trade in the United States, in order to not concede any moral high ground to Britain and in response to the Haitian Revolution.
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    James Madison is President

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    War of 1812

    War of 1812 sought to prevent alleged British efforts to keep America subjugated and, therefore, foments and strengthens patriotism.
  • Lowell Recreates the Powered Loom

    From memory, Lowell recreates the powered loom used in Manchester, England. Thus, he contributes to the technological industrialization of America.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Jackson’s victory in the Battle of New Orleans boosts morale, although the battle is carried out after the war had ended.
  • James Monroe is Elected President

    Monroe's election marks the death of Federalists.
  • The American System

    Calhoun and Henry Clay promote the American System, that aimed to make America economically independent from Europe and called for a network of roads and canals that connected the nation.
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    James Monroe is President

  • Missouri Crisis

    The crisis over admitting Missouri into the union as a slave state increases tensions between the North and the South.
  • Adams-Onís Treaty

    John Quincy Adams negotiates with Spain to cede Florida to the United States.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and determined slavery for the rest of the Louisiana Territory.
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    Arrival of Irish Catholic immigrants

    The arrival of Irish Catholic immigrants fosters nativism.
  • Lowell's Mill

    Lowell's Mill
    Lowell's Mill becomes the first modern American factory as it centralized the process of textile manufacturing under one roof.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine declares that the entire hemisphere is henceforth off-limits to European colonization
  • John Quincy Adams is Elected President

    After a corrupt bargain with Henry Clay that circumvented popular sovereignty, John Quincy Adams is elected president.
  • Creation of the Erie Canal

    The Erie Canal secures New York City’s position as the nation’s largest and most economically important city
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    John Quincy Adams is President

  • First Long-Distance Rail Line

    Maryland launches the first long-distance rail line, the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.
  • Andrew Jackson is Elected President

    Jackson's election represented the victory of the interest of ordinary Americans (democracy) against the powerful elite.
  • Tarriffs of Abominations

    Tariffs anger southern states and induce fear that the federal government would attack slavery.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Calhoun argues the doctrine of nullification: states have the right to nullify an act from the federal government. The crisis united the ideas of secession and states’ rights.
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    Andrew Jackson is President

  • Indian Removal Act

    Congress relocated Indians that lived in the east to the west of the Mississippi River, therefore opening a widespread availability of cheap land for the cultivation of cotton.
  • Turner's rebellion

    As a consequence of the bloody revolt, the South institutes much stricter slave laws to prevent another slave rebellion.
  • Texas Declares its Independence from Mexico

    American settlers in Mexican Texas opposing Santa Anna's policies began to call for independence from Mexico. Thus, their independence allowed the possibility of its annexation to the United States.
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    Martin Van Buren is President

  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Cherokee Indians were forced to travel from Georgia to present-day Oklahoma, with many dying along the way.
  • Ten-Hour Movement

    NEA mobilizes a partially successful movement to limit workdays to ten hours across all industries.
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    William Henry Harrison is President

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    John Tyler is President

  • Child Labor

    Labor activism demands limits for child labor based on age, working hours, and assurance of schooling.
  • Communication Revolution

    Samuel Morse created the first telegraph line, thus revolutionizing communication.
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    James K. Polk is President

  • Texas is Annexed

    Tyler's official offer to annex Texas is accepted, and thus Texas becomes the 28th state.
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    Mexican American War

    As a result of the war, the United States gained lands that would become the modern-day California, Utah, and Nevada and parts of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming. Also, the Rio Grande became the southern boundary with Mexico.
  • Oregon Treaty

    The agreement fixes the U.S - Canadian border at the 49th parallel. Besides, it also gave the Oregon territory to the U.S.
  • Gold Rush

    The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in California foments western expansion as settlers desire to make themselves rich.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton organized a convention that sought to improve women's rights as it advocated for property rights, access to professions, and the right to vote.
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    Zachary Taylor is President

  • Creation of the Know-Nothing Party

    The Know-Nothing Pary is created as a result of nativism.
  • Compromise of 1850

    The compromise admits California as a free state, determines that popular sovereignty will determine slavery in Utah and New Mexico, and establishes a stricter fugitive slave law.
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    Millard Fillmore is President

  • Uncle's Tom Cabin

    Uncle's Tom Cabin
    Published by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the novel stirs anti-slavery sentiments and harnesses support to end the bondage of black Americans.
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    Franklin Pierce is President

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    The act establishes the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, determines that popular sovereignty will decide whether slavery would be allowed, and repeals the Missouri Compromise. As a result, it led to a period of violence known as Bleeding Kansas.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford

    Supreme court rules that Congress has no right to abolish slavery in the states and that slaves are not citizens.
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    James Buchanan is President

  • South Carolina secedes from the Union

    As a result of South Carolina's secession, other southern states such as Florida, Mississipi, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana also secede.
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    Abraham Lincoln is President

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    Civil War

    As a result of tensions that sprouted from the secession of the southern states, the Union and the Confederacy fight.
  • The Confederacy is Born

    The Confederacy arises as all the southern states that seceded join together to form a new republic that admitted slavery.
  • Jefferson Davis is Elected President of the Confederacy

  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    Confederates attack on Fort Sumter as a reaction to Lincoln's intention to resupply the fort marks the start of the civil war.
  • Battle of Antietam

    The deadliest one-day battle in all American military history. Union victory stopped Lee's attempt to invade the north, convinced Lincoln to change the general, and prevented the Confederacy from being acknowledged and aided by Great Britain and France.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Lincoln issues a proclamation that freed all slaves in the Confederacy, transforming the character of the war from a struggle for unity to a crusade for freedom.
  • Homestead Act

    The act allows settlers to claim the land from the west after they have lived on it for five years, thus fomenting western expansion.
  • Start of the Battle of Gettysburg

    Lee's charge to invade the north again ultimately failed as he lost a third of his army, therefore changing the tide of the war to the Union's favor.
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    Andrew Johnson is President

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    Reconstruction

    Following the civil war, it attempted to address the problems of newly freed slaves and the problems that arose as a result of the war.
  • 13th Amendment

    The 13th amendment is ratified, thus prohibiting slavery in the United States.
  • 14th Amendment

    The 14th amendment is ratified, granting citizenship to all persons born or in the United States, including former slaves. Furthermore, it guaranteed equal protection under the law for all citizens.
  • First Transcontinental Railroad

    First Transcontinental Railroad
    Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads are joined at Utah, thus creating the first transcontinental railroad.
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    Ulysses S. Grant is President

  • 15th Ammendment

    The 15th amendment is ratified, giving blacks the right to suffrage.