U.S. History

By baileyd
  • Great Awakening

    Great Awakening
    -unorganized widespread movement of evangelical christian sermons and church meetings
    -chruch leaders feared that many colonists's dedication to their religion was declining and that the religious commitment of previous generations had been lost
    -individual ministers tried to renew an enthusiasm for religon through emotional and spirtitual sermons
    -ministers began holding revivals
    -colonists began questioning authority of the British Government
    -gave colonists a feeling of equality, many found a
  • The French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War
    -started because the French and British were both interested in Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region
    -French wanted to protect their profitable fur trade, British wanted part of the fur trade and room for their colonies to expand
    -French began building a series of forts to protect their fur trade along important rivers near the Great Lakes
    -French were requested to leave, but said they wouldnt no matter what
    -many casualities
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    -Battle at Fort Necessity was 1st battle of what colonist called French and Indian War
    -Fought for control of colonies and trade routes, colonists became angry
    -British won, colonists began moving to the frontier region
    -ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, wanted to diffuse(spread) the spirit of peace because the war had spread trouble in four parts of the world
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    -leaders feared that more fighting would take place on the frontier if colonists continued to move onto Indian lands
    -purpose was to prevent more loss of life
    -banned any further British Colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, creating a dividing line between colonial and indian lands
    -also ordered colonists who had already moved to the upper Ohio Valley "to remove themselves from such settlements"
    -many colonists hated Proclamation
  • Proclamation of 1763 2

    Proclamation of 1763 2
    -felt British should allow the colonies to expand rapidly following France's defeat
    -proved difficult to enforce and ignored by most people
    -Showed that colonists and British officials had different ideas about what was best for the colonies
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    -help pay for French and Indian War
    -helped pay for army
    -1st law passed designed specifically to raise money for colonies
    -colonists saw it as unfair taxation, unjust, and that it violated their rights
    -They began to boycott it (started in Massachusetts)
    -After asking colonists for a plan to pay military expensess and not receiving one, the Prime Minister proposed the Stamp Act, colonial government strictly enforced duties
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    -passed in March 1765
    -required colonists to purchase a stamp for newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, etc
    -colonists formed "Sons of Liberty"; boycotted goods and used violence to frighten tax collectors
    -sold stamps and turned proceeds over to the Britsh government
    -colonists who didnt pay would be tried in the hated "Vice Admirality Courts"
    -colonists were very upset, began protesting almost immediately
    -Parliament repealed it in March 1776, then issued Declatory Act
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    -passed in June 1767
    -placed taxes on imported glass, lead paints, paper, and tea; made easier for tax collectors to get writs of assistance
    -used revenue to pay for military expenses and the salaries of colonial governments
    -colonists thought this took too much power away from the colonial courts and legislatures, and gave the power to royal officials
    -colonists feared royal officials didnt have their best interests in heart
    -colonists used boycotts
  • Townshend Acts 2

    -British reaction; soldiers were sent to Boston
    -October 1768, colonists were killed in Boston Massacre
    -March 5, 1770, most of the acts were repealed by Parliament
    -March 5, 1779, troops removed from Boston; soldiers involved in Boston Massacre were tried in court
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    -between colonists and British soldiers
    -the strong tension between them finally exploded
    -sentry struck civilian, word spread, and a huge crowd gathered
    - small company arrived to protect sentry, suddenly soldiers fired, killing African American sailor Crispus Attucks, sailor James Caldwell, Irish immigrant Patrick Carr, ropemaker Samuel Gray, and apprentice Samuel Maverick
    --referred to killins as the "Boston Massacre"
    -protestors began using it as propoganda
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    -used to pay for military, war expenses, and salaries of colonial governments
    -kept in place duties on imported teas and allowed British East India company to export directly to the colonies
    -colonists used boycotts, propoganda, held the Boston Tea Party, and destroyed tea shipments in some colonies
    -British reaction; passed the Intolerable Acts
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    -3 ships arrived with Britishn tea, in Boston Harbor
    -Sons of Liberty demanded they leave and not unload cargo
    -Thomas Hutchinson(governor of Ma) ordered the ships to unload
    -captains, afraid of both sides, decided to lay anchor and wait
    -on the night of Dec. 16, a group of colonists disguised as Indians crept on to each of the 3 tea filled ships
    -colonists dumped 90,000 pounds of tea in the harbor
    -as word spread, shouts echoed, "Boston Harbour is a teapot tonight"
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    • closed Boston Harbor -punishment for Boston Tea Party, made colonists quarter (house and supply) British soldiers -canceled Massachusett's charter -moved trials of colonial officials to Britain -allowed new Quartering and Quebec Act, which gave Canada control of the Ohio Region -colonists called for large scale boycotts, published propoganda, and convened the first Continental Congress -Shut down harbor until tea was paid for -British reaction; repealed act in 1778
  • Battle of Lexington/Concord

    Battle of Lexington/Concord
    April 18th, Revere and William Dawes received word British were crossing Charles River, they warned the Minute Men the British were coming
    -morning of April 19th Minute Men met British troops at Lexingotn Village green, near Concord
    -shot was fired, and battle started
    -colonists were frightened
    -colonists called the British "Red Coats"
    -British retretated back to Boston after suffering more than 250 casualties compared to the 100 the colonists lost
    -the battle ended after that
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    -In mid June, the British prepared to secure Charlestown
    -colonial forces, warned of plan, dug defensive trenches nearby Bunker Hill
    -British awoke to see that colonial soldiers had secured Bunker Hill
    -colonists retreated when they had run out of amo
    -British gained control of hill but suffered over 1000 casualities
    -despite defeat , it was a moral victory for the colonists
    -it demonstrated that despite superior British firepower, they could withstand a frontal assault from British Army
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    -pamphlet arguing whether to break away from Great Britain
    -within 3 months colonists had bought around 120,000 copies
    -eventually sales reached 500,000 copies
    -written by lawyers, such as John Dickenson
    -includes how system of monarchy in European countries, such as Britain was unnatural and wrong
    -Paine said countries should be ruled by laws mad eby the people
    -extremely controversial
    -publication became a turning point on the views of government
  • Common Sense 2

    -as fighting continued continental congress decided to make the idea of independence a reality
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    -defined what colonists believed to be their rights, spelled out their complaints against Britain, and declared the colonies were free and independent
    -influenced by the suggestion of Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia
    -captured spirit of Thomas Paine's ideas by strongly criticizing King George lll for depriving the colonists of trial by jury, imposing taxes without the colonists' consent, dissolving colonial charters and legislatures, and commiting two dozen other alleged crimes
  • Declaration of Independence 2

    -also drew inspiration from enlightment philosophers like John Locke
    -on July 4, 1776 members of the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence, dissolving all allegiances to the British crown and creating the USA
    -colonists were nervous to be taking such a big step
    -those who chose to fight for their independence were called Patriots and those who remained loyal to the Britsh were called Loyalists
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    -between Burgoyne and Patriots
    -Burgoyne suffered a major defeat
    -formally surrendered to General Gates
    -marked greatest victory up to that point for the American forces
    -the victory boosted foreign support for the Patriots
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    -the war was going badly for the Patriots
    -Benedict Arnold turned to British side
    -Patriots and French surrounded Cornwallis's army with at least 16,000 soldiers
    -didnt want British ships leaving Chesapeake Bay
    -Patriots held Yorktown in state of siege for weeks
    -French Navy prevented any rescue of Cornwallis's army
    -early October Patriots prepared for attack
    -fearing bloody defeat Cornwallis surrendered
    -when British prime minister received word of the surrender he declared, "It's all over"
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    -with surrender at Yorktown, Patriots had captured largest British force on the continent
    -very few battles occured after that, and those that did were minor
    -in 1781 a committee from the Continenetal Congress began serious peace negotiations with the British
    -the two nations finally signed the Treaty of Paris
    - treaty laid out new borders
  • Treaty of Paris

    -As General Washington disbanded the Continental Army he reflected on the triumph his new country had achieved."The citizens of America," he declared,"Are.. acknowledged to be possessed of absolute freedom and independency"