Road To Revolution

  • The French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War
    The French and the British were the two major empires present in North America in the eighteenth century. The English were settled along the eastern coast, with the French up north in New France (Canada). The disputed territory was now the Ohio River Valley, a fertile land the English coveted to farm, and French coveted for the beaver. Though the English, under General Braddock, got off to a rocky start, they were eventually able to capture Montreal and Quebec from the French and their Indian
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    Road to Revolution

  • The French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War
    were able to drive the French and their Indian allies out of North America. The only possession that the French were allowed to keep was a few sugar islands in the Caribbean. Since the French and Indian War elminated an enemy from North America, the colonies were able to focus only on driving the British out, and not two separate European empires. More military experience and a hostile treatment by the British during the war also fueled the fire for revolution.
  • Albany Plan of Union

    Albany Plan of Union
    Prior to the French and Indian Wars, the English government suggested a more unified relationship between itself and the colonies. That June, representatives from mostly northern colonies and the six Iroquois nations gathered in Albany, New York. Benjamin Franklin from Pennsylvania was the first to come up with a plan of action. Under Franklin's plan, the colonies would elect delegates to a Continenal Legislature, which would then be presided over by a royal governor. This plan however, was shot
  • Albany Plan of Union

    Albany Plan of Union
    down by both the British and colonies alike. The British felt that it was too much freedom for the colonies, but the colonies felt that the royal governor would not grant them enough freedom. Regardless, this was the first attempt that the colonies made to unify themselves, as they previously existed in chaos and self rule. The colonies would need to be even more united than this to fight the British.
  • The Battle of Quebec

    The Battle of Quebec
    The Battle of Quebec was lead by British General James Wolfe and French General Marquis de Montcalm. In the dead of night, Wolfe lead his troops to Quebec to cature the port and finally end the war. He and his troops climed the Heights of Abraham, and by dawn, 4,500 British and American troops were on the cliff top. General Montcalm was completely caught off guard, and did not even believe that the British were there until morning. The British lost over one thousand men, including General Wolfe.
  • The Battle of Quebec

    The Battle of Quebec
    troops, including General Wolfe. The French casualties are unknown, but they also lost their general, General Montcalm. The British ended up taking the port of Quebec, which became one of the deciding factors in their victory in the war.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris officially ended the Seven Years' War, and the smaller sub conflict, the French and Indian War. According to the treaty, France lost all of their North American colonies, as Britain retained New France (Canada). The English empire was now the main empire in North America, as the French were completely driven out. The only possession they retained was their sugar island of Haiti. With the French out of North America, a major enemy was eliminated for the colonies. They now saw
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    the enemy of France eliminated in North America, the colonies saw no need for the presence of British troops. The French were also greatly angered by their empire being taken away by the British. Their one consoling thought was that since they lost their empire, maybe the British would lose theirs.
  • The Proclamation of 1763

    The Proclamation of 1763
    The Proclamation of 1763 was an act by the British government in response to the French and Indian War. At this point in history, the relationship between the British and the Native Americans was rocky. The Natives took the side of the French in the war, and were upset more than ever about the British taking more and more land for their colonies. Since the British government was running out of money from paying off war debts, they were sick of defending
  • The Proclammation of 1763

    The Proclammation of 1763
    war debts, and were sick of defending the new territories the colonists were settling. The Proclamation of 1763 was supposed to settle relations with Indians by not allowing the colonists to settle beyond the Appalachians. The colonists, on the other hand, believed that they had worked for this land, and that they had the right to settle it. This act only fueled the fire of rebellion, as the colonists thought the British government had too much control.
  • The Sugar Act

    The Sugar Act
    The original Sugar Act of 1733 put a six percent tax on sugar, molasses, and certain kinds of wine. Originally, the sugar act was supposed to help Britain fund its wars and defend the colonies, however, the colonists continuously evaded the tax by smuggling, trading with other countries, or completely ignoring it altogether. After the French and Indian War, the act was modified in 1764, and cut down to only three percent. The though process behind this was if the tax was less,
  • The Sugar Act

    The Sugar Act
    percent, thinking that if the tax was less, the colonists would pay it. However, the British could not have been more wrong in their thinking process. The colonists still did not pay their taxes, and because of other "intolerable acts" by the British, probably turned to smuggling and ignoring the law even more. The Sugar Act was just one more tax that made the colonies angry enough to plot rebellion.
  • The Quartering Act

    The Quartering Act
    After the end of the French and Indian War, the British has aquired several new territories in the New World that were now their responsibility to defend. To do so, the presence of British troops remained in America even after the war was over. Because England suffered from debt, they did not have the money to keep soldiers in proper camps while in America. As a solution to this problem, England passed the Quartering Act, an act that stated that each colony would provide basic essentials for the
  • The Quartering Act

    The Quartering Act
    essentials for the troops within its borders. This would include food, utensils, beer, cooking, cider, and candles. The Act would be expanded in 1766 to include housing. The anger of the colonists was mainly for two reasons. First of all, they saw no reason for a standing army. The French were defeated, and they built up their own militia to rely on. Second, providing for the soldiers and themselves was a major cost for most families. The colonists not only found themselves wanting the British
  • The Quartering Act

    The Quartering Act
    armies out, but also the British government and the influence from their mother country entirely.
  • The Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was originally imposed on the colonies to fund defense for the region near the Appalachian Mountains. The tax itself required the colonists to pay extra money for every piece of paper they used. This included legal documents, newspapers, licenses, and even playing cards. The colonists were not as worried about money as they were about personal freedoms. The colonies were angered that the British has not received permission from the colonial legislatures, and that if the stamp act
  • The Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act
    the act was accepted without a fight, the British would feel that they would have free liberty to impose taxes on the colonies whenever they wished. The stamp act ended up receiving so many complaints that it was repealed the following year. This was perhaps the first true rebellion in the colonies, which proved successful. A successful rebellion over taxes would lead to the mindset that the colonies could get their way, if they fougt hard enough.
  • The Stamp Act Congress

    The Stamp Act Congress
    The Stamp Act Congress was assembled in New York City, largely under the leadership of John Dickinson from Pennsylvania. There, they drew up a declaration of rights and greivences, which complained that they British did not have a right to tax the colonies without approval of colonial representation. Although they criticized the stamp act, they did make sure to pledge their loyalty to the king, as the air of rebellion had not become popular yet.
  • The Stamp Act Congress

    The Stamp Act Congress
    The Stamp Act Congress closely resembled the Albany Plan of Union which had come together just eleven years before. The difference was that this time around, the colonies were more unified, and could come together with a plan that pleased everyone. The colonies were now learning to be more unified, and were seeing the benefits of a home rule.
  • Repeal of the Stamp Act

    Repeal of the Stamp Act
    After many complaints and outright acts of violence, the British Parliament was forced to repeal the Stamp Act on March 18th, 1766. The repeal sparked great joy in the colonies, as it was now recognized that their fighting for their rights was a success. Not only did the colonies avoid taxes, but this was an example of how colonial unity prooved to be imperitive to a successful government.
  • The Declaratory Act

    The Declaratory Act
    The Declaratory Act was put in place the same day as the repeal of the Stamp Act, and was written by the same person, William Pitt. The act stated that Americans were still subjects of the crown, and that Parliament had every right to make laws and pass taxes in and pertaining to the colonies. The colonists looked at the act as an oppression of the crown, and were more angry than ever as they still felt looked down upon by the crown.
  • The Townshend Acts

    The Townshend Acts
    Charles Townshend was one of the biggest supporters of the colonies paying for their own defenses and wars. The acts put a tax on glass, tea, lead, paper, and paint, and were intended to pay British officials in the colonies, so that the colonists could not hold power over them by witholding their salaries. The acts also provided the British with writs of assistance, which were blank search warrants that allowed any colonial house, ship, or other type of personal property to be searched
  • The Townshend Acts

    The Townshend Acts
    house, ship, or personal property to be searched at any time, without cause. The colonists responded angrily and violently to these acts. The writs of assistance took away their personal privacy, while the taxes again came with no permission from the American legislature. As British grip grew tighter, the will of the colonies to pull away grew even stronger.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre began on a night when a few men and boys began to taunt a British sentry standing guard outside a house. When the colonists started throwing not only snowballs, but glass and pieces of wood, British soldiers came to the sentry's aid. Before long, the soldiers began to feel increasingly threatened as the mob grew larger, and shots were fired openly into the crowd.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    Four died on the spot, and a fifth died days later. Six others were injured. Paul Revere was the first to coin the term "massacre" as a piece of propaganda to use against the Britsh. When it came time for the soldiers' trial, John Adams, future president, served as their attorney. The men were found innocent, but the damage had been done. Paul Revere's famous engraving had already flooded newspapers, and the hatred for the British soldiers was alblaze.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    Now more than ever, a protest for the present of British soldiers came about. Revere's engraving became the first anti-British public opinion, and the rest of the colonists were quick to follow him. The engraving and hatred towards British soldiers united the colonies even more as they prepared to rebel.
  • The Quebec Act

    The Quebec Act
    The Quebec Act was passed as a part of the Intolerable Acts. Prior to the act, the British had not bothered with their newly aquired territory of New France, nor integrated them within the empire. The act first established a government in Canada, followed by the institution of English law. The French also gained permission to worship their Roman Catholic religion, a privledge that was rare for a Protestant nation to offer. Their boarders were also extended down to the Ohio River Valley,
  • The Quebec Act

    The Quebec Act
    boarders were also extended into the Ohio River Valley, a coveted settling place among England's colonies in America. This enraged the colonists, as Catholic foreigners had been given more freedom than they were. They had also believed that since they fought for the Ohio Valley that it should be granted to them instead of the French. This was yet another unfair act by Britain to oppress and exploit them.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The anger that ensued the Boston Tea Party came from the British passing the Tea Act, which gave the almost bankrupt East India Trading Company a full monopoly on American tea. This way, the company wouldn't have to go through the colonial middleman, and be able to sell their tea at a cheaper price. When none of the East India Tea sold in Boston, the ships' owners went to leave, only to be told by the British government to remain in Boston until the tea sold.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    British that they were not to leave until the tea had sold. When the boats were not leaving as scheduled, Sam Adams and a group of close followers boarded the ships dressed as Indians and dumped 342 boxes of tea into Boston Harbor. This act outraged the British, as it was the first major rebellion put up by te colonists. The closing of Boston Harbor resulted in this act, but the British would keep an even tighter hold on the colonists in the short time they were still theirs.
  • The Intolerable Acts

    The Intolerable Acts
    The Intolerable Acts were passed after the violent outbreak of the Boston Tea Party. The closing of Boston Harbor was the first part of the acts, as it would not be reopened until the colonists paid for all of the damages to replace the tea. The second part of the act was that British officials who committed crimes in the colonies would be taken to England for a trial. Therefore, they would have a chance of not being convicted of a crime, as their home country would let them off with an easier
  • The Intolerable Acts

    The Intolerable Acts
    as their home country would let the off easier than the rebellious colonies. The Quebec Act, which extended the boarders of the French, was the third part to the acts. The Americans saw these acts as a slap in the face, and felt they were neglected and taken advantage of by Britain. They increased rebellious acts in the colonies, but also increased colonial unity as a plan to fight the British was now underway.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    The first continental congress was actually a larger correspondence committee. 12 colonies (except Georgia) sent delegates to Philadelphia for a total of 55 men present. Instead of focusing on independece, they focused on making right the wrongs which Britain had done. They formally complained to the British government their idea of "no taxation without representation" and even formed an association to facilitate the boycott of all British goods. This was the first true sign of colonial unity,
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    congress was the first true example of colonial unity, and would later evolve into the men who would guide America throught its first steps in becoming its own nation.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    Battle of Lexington and Concord
    The Battle of Lexington and Concord did not start as a battle at all. British troops had been sent to Concord to capture John Hancock and Sam Adams, smugglers who had been warned prior to the British attack. On their way, in the town of Lexington, they ran into a group of Minutemen, the continental militia. Historians to this day to not know who shot first, but 8 American casualties resulted in the battle, and several others were wounded. As the British marched on toward Conconrd, militiamen hid
  • The Battle of Lexington and Concord

    The Battle of Lexington and Concord
    to Concord, the militiamen hid behind stone walls, trees, and any other land form. They shot openly at the British marching by in formation, resulting in 300 casualties. Not only did these two battles start a whole revolution, but they began it with the colonists on top. This confidence lead them to defeat the greatest army that the world had ever seen.
  • Thesis Statement

    Thesis Statement
    The American Revolution was fought for political advancement of the colonies. Their cry of "No taxation without representation" remained a running theme through their strife for equality among British citizens. With representation in British government, or a system of home rule that worked with Parliament, perhaps war would have been avoided altogether.