Johann Gutenburg invented the printing press in Gemany and
the first book printed was the Bible. The result of the invention was the spread and preservation of ideas and knowlage especially about the New World.
Jan 2, 1492
The Muslm ruler surrendered to Spain ending the Reconquista. The Reconquista was a holy war where Spanish Christans tried to gain Spain back from the Muslim Moors.
Sep 7, 1492
Columbus found support from the rulers of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, to launch an expedition to find a trade route to Cathay(China).He eventually landed in the Bahamas but he thought he reached Asia. Once he got there he enslaved all of the people he named Indians and after making several trips back and forth across the Atlantic, Columbus was credited by Europeans with "Discovering America".
Jun 7, 1494
Treaty of Torsedillas
The Treaty of Torrsedillas was made by the pope in order to prevent Portugal and Spain from starting a war over the New World. This treaty created a line separating the world. Spain was limited to discovering lands to the West of this line and Portugal to the East.
Aug 14, 1495
The slave trade started growing immensley between the New World, Europe, and Africa. Africans were bought by new world traders to serve as a labor force to work on plantaions and mines. The New World traders traded weapons and gold in exchange for the African slaves.
May 10, 1497
John Cabot was and explorer that was sent on an expediton by King Henry Vlll to find land in North America for England. This was the First English Expedition to North America. On the Mathew, he landed in Newfoundland and claimed the land for King Henry Vlll.
Oct 6, 1503
A system created by Spain to control the Indian labor force In America. In this system, conquistadors were granted with an amount of Indians where they where then forced into labor to find gold.
Aug 15, 1508
The son of John Cabot, Sebastion Cabot was one of the first people to lead an expedition to find the North West passage.
Oct 31, 1517
Protestant Reformation-Henry Vlll and Elizabeth l
A religious movement in England that started to reform the Catholic church.Henry Vlll and Elizabeth l centalized the government and joined t nationalism and Protestanism. This resulting in the growth of the middle class.
Roanoke was an English colony on an island in the New World. The colony needed supplies from England but since Roanoke was hard to get to, the supplies rarely came. When the first colony left, the second colony came and was lead by John Whit.e The needed supplies by the Roanoke settlers were cut off because every ship had to go into war therefor not any supplies got to Roanoke and all of the colonists there were never found again.
The English defeated the Spanish Armada which was lead by King Philip of Spain. The battle was fought because Spain wanted to dethrone Elizabeth l, make England Catholic again, and becuase there were many disputes over trade with the New World becoming colonized.
Richard who was a geographer and author, published, "Principall Navigations, Voiges and Discoveries of the New World". He was one of the first people in England to stongly support colonization in the "New World".
Chesapeak Colonies Jamestown (Virginia)
Jamestown (Virginia) was founded by males that invested in the joint stock company (London company) in order to find instant weath in the new world.Captain John smith pulled Jamestown out of disorder by trading with the indians.Once tobacco became a commodity in New England,Sir Edwin Sandys decided to make a profit out of Virginia and promised headrights and a House of Burgesses, resulting in the movement of families. Maryland was founded by Goege Calvert as a safe haven for catholics.
An important french fur trade city founded by Samuel de Champlain in present day Canada.
New England Colonies
The Pilgrims "seperatists" migrated to the new world because the Church of England had many Catholic ideals.They signed the Mayflower Compact lead by Bradford and set up Plymouth. The Mssachusetts Bay colony was founded by puritains who believed the church of England was gong to be punished.New Hampshire and Connecticut broke off. Fundamental orders of Connecticut was the first written consitutuion in new world. Roger/Anne were exciled and set up RhodeIsland for religious freedom.
These colonies were founded for economic weath and had alot of diversity. The Dutch settled for economic prsperity in New York until Dutch West India Company took over and had bad leadership.New Jersey was founded by two men who were loyal to the king and had no legal power. William Penn(Quaker) was given Pennsylvania, attracted diverse ethnicities, and bought Delaware due to its access to the Atlantic Ocean in order to trade wheat.
The Carolinas were established for ecomonic prosperity and the stuarts gave the land to Jon Cellecton for his loyalty who wanted to set up permant settleents. Many weathly plantaion owners came from the overpopulated island of Barbadoes. They came to the carolinas to buy large tracts of land to keep in the family.Rice became a major export. Georgia was founded as a buffer state between the cCarolinas and Spaish Florid The king sent crimininals to live in Georgia long with debtors.
Nathaniel Bacon decided to revolt against the governor of Virginia, Berkeley because he was not listening to Bacons wishes. Bacon burned down James town and killed innocent indians.
This was the idea that parliment was supreme over the colonists. Parliment had the power and control to write and change laws to all of who it governs.
English Bill of Rights of 1689
The English Bill of Rights was a result of the Glorious Revolution and inspired the colonists to make their own bill of rights. It stated that the people had unalienable rights through parliment and took some power way from the monarch.
First Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a streak of protestant revivals that happened at various points oin time.These groups thought that Christianity was losing energy and spirt. Jonathen Edwards believed salvation was pre-desined. George Whitefield was a stong and emotional speaker that converted many races and classes by traveling around the colonies. The New lights followed these internant preachers around the colonies.
Seven Years War (French and Indian War)
The war began over land diputes in the Mississippi River valley and other tracts of land.After William Pitt captured Louisburg, the French were cut from recieving their military supplies.The French surrendered as they grew weaker and after Pitt lead a surprize attack.The Peace Treaty of 1763 between Britain and France eneded the war officially.Britain gained lg. tracts of land such as Florida,Canada,and all of the land west of the MIssissipppi River but they were left with a huge amount of debt.
Parliment passed this act in order to prevent smuggling and bribery in the colonies. The Act reduced the price of some goods and put a tax on molasses.
THe Stamp Act stated that there was a tax on all paper such as legal documnets, cards, and magazines.
The Quartering act declared that the colonists had to house British troops and they had to give them supplies such as firewood and candles.
Stamp Act Congress
A Meeting in new york to disscuss problems within the taxation in the colonies. The delegates from the colonies were tired of geting taxed without representation from parliment so they came together to disscuss what the next step was to fix this problem.
The Declaratory Act was passed after the Stamp Act was repealed. It was passed in order to let the colonist know that parliament still had complete control over the colonists.
Townshend Revenue Acts
Many British soldiers began being stationed in Massachusetts and colonists were geetting irritated. Young boys began throwing rocks at a couple of these soldiers and panaked, the redcoats killed these boys. The newspapers in the colonies emphasized this massacre sparking an idea of rebellion.
Parliament tried to help The East India Company from going into bankruptcy by allowing the Company to sell directly to the colonists.
Boston Tea Party
Colonists disguised themselves as Mowhawk Indians and threw overboard an immense amount of tea belonging to an East Indian Company Ship.
Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts
The acts stated that the colonists had to have a limited amount of town meetings and that the Boston port would be closed until the amount of tea from the Boston Msssacre was repayed.
First Continental Congress
This congress consisted of 55 delagates from the colonies to discuss wether they should rebel against England. The Deleagates decided to boycott trade with Engalnd until the Coersive Acts were Releaped from the Colonies.
Shots Heard 'Round The World
The Battle of Lexington and Concord was the first battle between the American colonists and the redcoats and first battle in the American Revolution.
Battle of Concord
The battle of Concord was fought at the Old North Bridge after the British Defeated the minutemen at Lexington. The Americans won for the first time against the Britsh inspiring the colonists to join the Revolution.
Battle of Lexington
The BAtttle of Lexington was the first battle fought in the American Revolution. Paul Revere told the minutemen that, "The redcoats are coming."THe battl econditoins were foggy and the Birish won and after went to Valley Forge.
Second Coninental Congress
Congress held a second meeting to organize the colonies for war and to establish a leader for the colonies. They picked a stron leader named George Washington to lead the Army
Olive Branch Petition
The colonists sent a petition to the king that stated, they woul be loyal to the king if the king gave them rights. The King denied their request.
The Act declared that the colonies couldnt trade with anyone. The Britah seized any American ship it saw and tooka ll of its supplies. Parliament passed this act to crumble America's economy in order to make them dependent on England. This act also made the colonists declare independence from Britain.
Common Sense was an Essay written by Thomas Paine that
convinced most of the new world to gain independence from Britain.
Battle of Trenton
The Battle of Trenton took place at night. The colonial soldiers lead surprized the German Messians while they were sleeping. The Americans won and gave the olonists hope.
Battle of Germantown/Valley Forge
The Continental army attacked the British in the fog in Germantown and lost. They fled to Valley forge were most of the soldiers aquired deathly diseses. This battle helped make the colonists realize that they needed help.
Saratoga, Second Battle
During the Second Battle of Saratoga, the colonists surrounded the British at night forcing the British to retreat.The Americans won and convinced Frence to support the colonies during the American Revolution.
The Battle of Kings Mountain
This Battle turned into Guerrila warefare where backcountry men killed an immense amount of British troops that drifted off their Base. The american won this battle.
Battle of Yorktown
The French helped the colonists defeat teh british with their strong navy. The Ameicans and French beat the Britah and ended the war.(Last Battle)