Road to Revolution

By elee27
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    British defeat the French. France hands over all their territory to the British(Canada and Ohio country) and Spanish(Louisiana area). British emerges as strongest naval power and the dominant power in North America. British colonists emerged from the war with increased confidence.
  • Pontiac's Uprising

    Pontiac's Uprising
    Indians are scared by the defeat of the French. They no longer have the ability to play off the opposing European powers, which was one of the only things that was keeping them safe. Ottawa chief Pontiac decides to lead violent campaign to try and drive the British out of the Ohio Valley. Many violent raids on colonists. This scared the British. Pontiac's Uprising lasted from May of 1763 until 1766.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    With the French gone from the country, colonists began traveling over the Appalachian mountains. Parliament realizes they need to do something about the Indians, so they pass the Proclamation. It prevents the colonists from exploring over the Appalachian Mountains. This angered the colonists.
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    After the Seven Years War, Britain is in heavy dept. To help pay back the expenses, they begin taxing. This was the first act passed by Parliament and it puts a tax on sugar.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    It aimed to raise revenue to support the new military force. It mandated the use of stamped paper or affixing of stamps, certifying tax payment. Stamps were required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items. Grenville regarded these measures as reasonable. People in England paid a higher stamp tax.
  • Quartering Act

    Quartering Act
    Required certain colonies to provide food and housing for British troops, which enraged the colonists.
  • Stamp Act Congress

    Stamp Act Congress
    27 delegates of the colonies got together. They make a list of their rights as Americans and ordered Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. It got the colonies one step closer to unity.
  • Parliament Repeal Stamp Act/Declaratory Act

    Parliament Repeal Stamp Act/Declaratory Act
    Non-importation agreements: enforced by Son’s and Daughter’s of Liberty, colonists boycotted and refused to use British goods. They act violently towards merchants and act is barely enforced. Britain heavily suffers and finally repeals the act. Britain retaliates the colonists rebellious behavior towards the stamp act by passing the declaratory act. It reinforced Britain's power over the colonies.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    Charles Townshend (British Politician) persuaded Parliament to pass Townshend acts. Imposed a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. Was an indirect customs duty payable at American ports. Colonists refused any taxes without representation. Non-importation agreements were renewed against Townshend Acts, but colonists took the light new tax less seriously and found they could get cheap tea via smuggling.
  • Townshend Acts Repealed

    Townshend Acts Repealed
    Repeals the Townshend Acts, but keeps the tea taxes.
  • Commitees of Correspondence Formed

    Commitees of Correspondence Formed
    After one was organized in Boston (1772), some 80 towns set up similar organizations. They exchanged letters that kept alive opposition to British policy. Intercolonial correspondence committees were the next logical step. Virginia led the way in 1773. Twelve other colonies soon joined the effort. They evolved directly into the first American congresses.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    British sends troops to Boston to enforce order in 1768. Eventually a clash between the colonists and the soldiers erupted, and people are killed. (Attucks is first killed) Both sides shared blame for the incident, but only two redcoats were found guilty. The soldiers were then released after being branded on the hand.
  • British East India Company granted tea monopoly

    British East India Company granted tea monopoly
    British East India Company was facing bankruptcy from all the unsold tea in the colonies. London government fears it will loose heavy tax revenue, so they grant the BEIC a complete monopoly of the tea business in the Americas. Infuriates the colonists, and they begin forcing ships back to England and burning and stealing their cargo.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    Governor of Massachusetts forces tea ships to stay in the harbor till they’ve sold all their tea, preventing other imports. This angered the colonists. Lead by the Son’s and Daughter’s of Liberty, 100 Bostonians dressed as Indians board the ships and spills all the tea into the Boston Harbor. It sparks more rebellions, and colonists begin burning tea everywhere.
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    Parliament passes acts to try and control the colonies. It took many of the rights away from the colonists, more specifically Massachusetts. Restrictions were placed on town meetings. New Quartering Act gave local authorities power to lodge soldiers anywhere, even private homes. The colonists called them the Intolerable acts.
  • First Continental Congress/The Association

    First Continental Congress/The Association
    12 of the Colonies sent a total of 55 delegates of well-respected men to Philadelphia to reconsider ways of addressing colonial grievances. They create The Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods: non-importation, non-exportation, non-consumption. Colonists begin to gather weapons.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    Act imposed by Parliament. Allowed the French in Québec to retain their customs, institutions, and Catholic religion. It also extended the the providence of Québec to the Ohio River. This angers the colonists.
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord

    Battles of Lexington and Concord
    British Commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington and Concord to seize the stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture rebel ring leaders (Samuel Adams and John Hancock). At Lexington shots were fired it turned into a massacre. By the time the British troops reached Concord, the colonial minutemen were gathered and ready. It was a brutal battle, but the colonists managed to drive the British back to Boston.
  • Americans capture British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point

    Americans capture British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point
    Allen and Arnold capture British forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. This gives them the supplies (gunpowder and artillery) for a Boston siege.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    Colonists seize Bunker Hill. From there they taunt the British troops stationed in Boston. British launch a frontal attack(instead of coming from the back or the side) and the colonists effectively slaughter nearly all advancing redcoats. Soon their gunpowder and artillery supplies gained from Ticonderoga and Crown Point run out, and they are forced to flee. Even still, the colonists win the battle.
  • Continental Congress adopts Olive Branch Petition

    Continental Congress adopts Olive Branch Petition
    In attempts at fixing the problem, the Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition, which reclaimed American loyalty to the crown and begging the King to prevent further hostilities. (The King denies it.)
  • King George proclaims colonies in rebellion

    King George proclaims colonies in rebellion
    King George III proclaims the colonies in complete rebellion. The act of rebellion is now viewed as treason; an act that you can be hanged for. He also hires thousands of German troops, called Hessians.
  • Failed invasion of Canada

    Failed invasion of Canada
    Americans believed that French Canada would add another colony and deprive the British from a good position for striking at the colonies. They were under the impression that the French hated the British just as much as they did, and assumed it would be an easy conquer. General Richard Montgomery captured Montréal, and was joined in Québec by General Benedict and his ragged troops. Launching their assault on December 31, 1775, the french effectively held them off, and forced to retreat.
  • Paine's Common Sense

    Paine's Common Sense
    Colonists continue to deny independence because of loyalty to the crown and fear of open rebellion. Thomas Paine (Father of Economics) publishes Common Sense, convincing colonists that their true cause is Independence. Also suggests republicanism, that all government officials should be voted on by the public.
  • Evacuation Day

    Evacuation Day
    British are forced to evacuate Boston. This frees Boston, and the British are instead forced to find refuge somewhere else. (New York)
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    June 7th, Richard Henry Lee claims the colonies ought to be free and independent states. After much debate, congress adopts the idea on July 2nd. They appoint a committee to prepare formal document stating their separation and and explanation. Thomas Jefferson writes the Declaration of Independence, and it’s officially approved by congress on July 4th. Foreign assistance would now come easier. Inspires French Revolution’s Declaration of Rights of Man.
  • Battle of Long Island

    Battle of Long Island
    With the British evacuation of Boston, they set up their base of operations in New York, where most of the people are Loyalists. In July, an ENORMOUS British fleet appears off New York’s coast. Washington is extremely outnumbered with ill-trained troops, and in the fall they are devastated by the British at Long Island. Washington narrowly escapes to Manhattan Island and over the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. The defeat lowers the Patriotic cause.
  • Battle of Trenton

    Battle of Trenton
    With winter coming soon, General William Howe(British), who was short on supplies, wasn’t willing to trek through the rough terrain in the cold after Washington, and Washington is quickly forgotten. Washington regathers his troops and stealthily recrosses the icy Delaware river. At Trenton he surprises and captures a thousand Hessians, and defeats a smaller British detachment at Princeton.
  • Battle of Brandywine and Germantown

    Battle of Brandywine and Germantown
    British devise a plan to Capture Hudson River valley. Gen. Burgoyne would push South, while Gen. Howe would push North. Gen. Arnold manages to delay the invasion till the next year. Burgoyne makes slow progress, while American militiamen start swarming. Howe decides to lead attack on Philly to leave a clear path for Burgoyne. Washington transfers his army close to Philadelphia. British beats them at Brandywine(Sep 11) and Germantown(Oct 4). Loses lowers colonial moral.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    General Howe settled down in Philadelphia and left Burgoyne alone to flounder in upper New York. Washington retired to Valley Forge. Burgoyne is quickly trapped, and forced to surrendered at Saratoga to General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777. Very important victory for the colonies. It revives the American cause.
  • French American Alliance

    French American Alliance
    French is eager to get revenge on Britain, and secretly supply the Americans through the war. Congress sends some delegates to France with Model Treaty(sought no political or military alliance- only commercial) After Saratoga, British offer alliance with everything but independence; colonists deny it. After Saratoga, French offer Americans alliance with everything (including independence); colonist wearily accept.
  • Battle of Monmouth

    Battle of Monmouth
    General Clinton (British) was ordered to evacuate Philadelphia. Washington sees this as the perfect opportunity to strike. They intercept the forces at Monmouth Courthouse. The battle was a draw- neither side won. Even still, it helped turn the tide of the war.
  • Clark's Victories in the West

    Clark's Victories in the West
    (1778-1779) Frontiersman George Clark looks to the west at scattered British forts. He decides to take the poorly defended forts by surprise. Floating down the Ohio river with only 175 men, he manages to capture 3 British forts (Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes) in quick succession. May have played a role as to why the British offered the Ohio Valley at the Peace Treaty of Paris.
  • Battle of King's Mountain

    Battle of King's Mountain
    British come up with a new plan to start in the South and work their way up North. General Cornwallis(British) invades the Carolinas. Georgia is overrun in 1778. Charleston is taken over in 1780, and proves to be a huge blow to the colonies. Tide of the war begins to turn when a group of patriot riflemen defeat a British/loyalist force at King’s Mountain.
  • Greene Leads Carolina Campaign

    Greene Leads Carolina Campaign
    General Greene, a fiery Quaker, takes on control of the south. He leads the Carolina campaign to try and wipe the British out of the Carolinas (most importantly, Charleston). He becomes known for his strategy of delay- standing and then retreating to tire out his enemy. He chooses to split his army so Cornwallis has to fight on multiple fronts. While Greene didn’t win many battles, he did win the campaign, and was successful in clearing the British out of the South.
  • Battle of Cowpens

    Battle of Cowpens
    General Greene splits the southern army so Cornwallis has to fight on multiple fronts. General Morgan takes men to lead an attack on British backcountry fort, Ninety six. Cornwallis dispatches troops to stop them, and General Morgan’s forces inflict heavy casualties to the British side. Big turning point in the Southern campaign
  • Cornwallis's Surrender at Yorktown

    Cornwallis's Surrender at Yorktown
    General Cornwallis goes to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to wait for supplies and reinforcements. French navy Admiral de Grasse plans an assault on Cornwallis with Washington. Washington swiftly marches his troops to Yorktown, accompanied by french General Rochambeau’s army. Together they trap and corner Cornwallis to the coast, where he's forced to surrender; HUGE blow to the British. While it’s the closing event of the war, fighting still continued in the south for more than a year.
  • North's Ministry Collapses in Britain

    North's Ministry Collapses in Britain
    Lord North’s ministry collapses in Britain, temporarily putting King George out of power. The Whig Ministry takes over instead.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay go to France to negotiate a peace treaty. John Jay knew France couldn’t satisfy both the Spaniards and the Americans, so he goes to London instead (against Congress’s orders). Britain is quick to negotiate the terms with America. By Peace Treaty of Paris they formally recognize the US as an independent nation, and grant them all the land west to the Mississippi, the Great Lakes, and Spanish Florida.