Prohibited settlement West of Appalachia. Britain used this act to control taxes and the fur trade. The colonists though it would be temporary and there was no one in the colonies to actually enfore the new law.
Sugar (Revenue) Act
This law was suppose to raise money to pay off the debt in Bratian. Taxes were put on sugar and molasses. Colonists argued that England had the power to regulate trade but not to tax. The colonists favored internal taxes. Non-importation agreements (boycotts) began.
Colonial assemblies were told that they could not print their own money. It also stated that all taxes to England had to be paid in specie which is gold or silver.
The law required that Britain would tax anything that was printed and that it needed a stamp. If the colonies violated the tax, they would be put in British courts. Many colonies protested and harassed the stamp sellers.
Colonial communities were to shelter soldiers upon their request and take care of them. Colonial assemblies were to pay for the soldier's expenses.
The Townshend Act
This law taxed lead, paint, glass, and tea. The British also gained control of judges and colonial governors since they were on their pay roll. Colonists learned that they lacked good reasons to protest but insisted on using intimidation and physical force.
In Boston, a group of British soldiers accidently fired their weapons into a group of protesting citizens. A few colonists were killed and word about the "massacre" spread thoughout the colonies. This gave the colonists yet another reason to be mad at England.
England was strongly pushing the Trade and Navigation Acts in Rhode Island and the moment the Gaspee ran aground, the colonists rebelled. 150 colonists filled the ship and beat up the crew while setting the ship on fire, The rebellion encouraged new committees of correspondence.
Gave the British East India Company a monopoly to sell tea to the colonists. Colonists in Philadelphia and New York turned the tea ships around to go back to England. In Boston, the Royal Governor had the ships remain in port where the colonists refused to have it uploaded.
These acts were meant to punish the Boston colonists. The Boston Port Act closed the port and was enforced by English war ships. The Mass. Government Act stated that government officials had to be appointed royaly instead of elected. The Murder Act allowed government officials to transfer trials to England or Nova Scocia. The Quebec Act extended the Canadian line to the Ohio River. The Intolerable Acts encouraged the colonists to support each other.
First Continental Congress
Delegates met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia. Twelve out of the thirteen colonies sent delegates. The main objective of the meeting was to discuss the wrongs inflicted upon the coloines by England and hoped that a unified voice would get them a hearing in London.
The Revolutionary War
Fought between the colonists and Britain. The American Revolution solidified American independence. The American colonists were supported by the French and led by General George Washington.
Lexington and Concord
The beginning shots of the Revolution were heard at Lexington. Colonists were storing weapons in Lexington and gun powder in Concord. British General Gage was sent to capture these weapons along with John Hancock and Sam Adams. Word of Gage's plan leaked across the colonies and reached Lexington and Concord. Minitemen reacted quickly to the news and met the unexpecting British. They then headed to Concord to meet the British troops.
The Second Continental Congress
The Congress had three main objectives. They wanted to get the Indians on their side. Delegates planned on naming Gearge Washington leader of the continental army. During the meeting Montgomery and Benedict Arnold gave them the authorization to invade Canada.
George Washington: Commander in Chief
Washington used his calm and determined sense of patriotism to give the Revolution its backbone. He kept the Revolution from collapsing or merging into civil conflict. His spirit and devotion made him a symbol of America and the Revolution.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
This battle was fought between the colonists and British troops. Although both sides lost a lot of men it was considered a moral victory for the colonists.
Declaration of Causes of Taking up Arms
The Second Continental Congress issued this document to explain the thirteen colonies reasons for taking up arms in what would become the Revolutionary War. The document also represented an important development in the political thought that went into the motives behind the Revolution.
Olive Branch Petition
The Second Continental Congress approved this document in hopes of working things out peacefully with England. After receiving the Declaration of Causes of Taking up Arms, King George refused to open the Olive Branch Petition.
This act was one of Great Britian's retaliation tactics. English residents were forbidden to trade with the American colonists.
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
Paine's political pamphlet brought the Revolution into sharp focus for the colonists by blaming their suffering on the Britich monarch King George III. The pamphlet also advocated the immediate declaration of independence.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson. Declared independence from British Rule. The Declaration discussed ideas of natural law and the Social Contract inspired by John Locke, and it listed the grievences against King George III.
Crossing the Delaware
Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River and marched to Trenton, New Jersey. They then attacked Hessian (Germans) soldiers quartered in and around the village. This suprise attack was a huge victory for the colonists.
Battle of Saratoga
This battle was a huge turning point in the Revolutionary War. Brought about the French Alliance and showed that the Americans had a good chance at winning the war.
After the colonists won the Battle of Saratoga, the French realized that they had a chance of winning the Revolution. France agreed to supply America with troops, supplies, money, a navy, and weapons.
Battle of Camden
American troops marched into Camden, South Carolina. The battle did not favor the colonists and their General, Horatio Gates "chickened out" and ended up running away to Charlotte.
Battle of Cowpens
The battle of Cowpens was another huge victory for the colonsits under General Daniel Morgan. Britsish troops became undisciplined and the colonists used this to their advantage. The colonists became more orgainzed and were able to destroy Cornwalis' light troops.
Articles of Confederation adopted
The Articles became America's first constitution. The individual states were given large shares of power. Under the Articles, Congress was denied the right to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce, and enforce laws. The Articels of Confederation led to the development of today's U.S. Constitution.
General Greene and his troops were able to use the terrian to attack Cornwalis. The casualties Cornwalis had was the final straw in a series of setbacks. Cornwalis then abandoned the Carolinas and marched for Virginia.
Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris formally ended the Revolution and recognized the independence of the United States. It also set the Mississippi River as the western boundary of the U.S. The treaty also stated that all British troops in the northwest forts were to evacuate.
Cornwalis went to Wilmigton to gather supplies. He then went to Virginia and ended up completely surrounded by Washington and his troops. Cornwalis was forced to surrender.
An excise tax was placed on whiskey. This angered many colonsits in the south, backcountry, and Pennsylvania. Washington and Hamilton rode to Harrisburg to squash the rebellion. The moral of teh story: don;t mess with the federal government.
African pirates continued to mess with American trade ships. The US began to build up their navy and offered the pirates 1 million dollars to leave them alone.
We were on the verge of anther war with Great Britain because England was violating our decision to be neutral. Jay went to England to discuss certain matters. British soldiers were to leave the forts by 1796 and the United Sates would pay off prerevolutionary debts.
Pickney was sent to Spain to secure the Right of Deposit of the Mississippi River and Port of New Orleans. Spain awarded Pickney the Right of Deposit in order to avoid going to was with either Britain or America.
Treaty of Greenville
It set up boundaries for land that belonged to Indians and land open for white settlement. The US also gave twelve tribes $20,000 worth of goods.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Constriction of civil liberties by the federalists. Required that a alien had to live in the US for fourteen years before they could become a citizen. The sedition acts made it illegal to criticize high government officials which meant taking away the colonists freedoms of speech.
Convention fo 1800
The US decided to nullify the French Alliance. We also established a trade partnership/commercail treaty with France. France gove Louisiana to Spain.
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury sued Madison for not delivering his judicial appointment that Adams had made on his last day of office. Madison won and it was decided that Adams had illegally created new judicial positions. The court case also established the pricniple of judicial review. Judicail review: gives the judicial branch the right to review the actions of the executive and legislative branches.
Louisiana Purchase Treaty
For 15 million dollars, the US bought 828,000 square miles of land. The United States roughly doubled in size and could now expand westward.
Thomas Jefferon's Inaugration
Jefferson strongly believed in giving states their own power. Jefferson also read the Constitution very strictly and was hesitant when he had to make a decision that wasn't in the Constitution. Jefferson also got rid of rank setting. He did not want war and decreased the size of America's army and navy.
French set up the Continental System in order to anger England. It basically said that it was illegal for anyone in the world to trade with Britain.
Orders in Council
England issued the Orders in Council to forbid the French from trading with them or anyone else. The British Navy also blocked the French and allied ports.
This act banned America from all foreign trade from any other country. It ended up hurting America's economy but boosted manufactoring in the North.
Non Intercourse Act
Followed the Embargo and banned all trade with England and France. Americans still smuggled goods to France and England.
This replaced the Non Intercourse Act and propsed that whoever opened up trade with the US an embargo would be placed on the other country. Frnace opened up trade first and an embargo was placed on England.