American colonies

American Colonies Timeline

  • Jamestown & Virginia

    Jamestown & Virginia
    Jamestown, founded in 1607, was the first successful English settlement. Joint-stock companies increased interest. However, the colony experienced issues with labor and lack leadership, of which were saved by John Smith, who pulled the settlers ogether after the "starving time". Sir Edwin Sandys also reformed the area by creating the House of Burgesses for a form of government, and establishing the headright system which sold land and increased interest in the New World.
  • Plymouth

    After the Separatists left the Netherlands, they vowed to sail to America to practice their religion. They sailed in 1620 aboard the Mayflower. Once arrived, the Pilgrims created the Mayflower Compact to organize settlers in their new area.The help and works of William Bradford led many. Disease and hunger shook the colonists until they recieved help from Native Americans, who taught them about the land and technique for a successful lifestyle.
  • New York

    New York
    Directors of the Dutch West India Complany had two small outposts at Fort Orange and Amsterdam, bringing Dutch settlers to the area. The population was small, but with a wide wrange of ethnicities, drawing English, Swedes, Germans, and Finns. Africans were also included. The area lacked poor leadership, deemed "unstable pluralism". The land was eventually captured, and given to James, the Duke of York.
  • New Hampshire

    New Hampshire
    New Hampshire was created to be a source of profit, and was establoshed by John Mason. By the time of his death, he had built up a profitable area.
  • Massachusetts Bay

    Massachusetts Bay
    The new Puritan colony recieved a large mass of settlers in the "Great Migration", and many came in family central groups. The climate was favorable, and settlers faired well in this area. Their Puritan faith did recieve some challenges however, from Roger Williams, who supported extreme separation, and questioned the colony's charter and civil rulers,and Anne Hutchinson, who preached for the confusing Antinomianism.
  • Maryland

    Sir George Calvert, later Lord Baltimore, was the Catholic founder of Maryland. The second Lord Baltimore, Cecilius, wished to create a sanctuary for England's persecuted Catholics, and wanted to make a profit as well. The colony's charter turned Baltimore into a "palatine lord", and created a social hierarchy. When Protestantism spread, the "Act concerning Religion" was released, enforcing religious toleration in the colony.
  • Connecticut

    Many were drawn to the fertile lands of the Connecticut River Valley, and societies quite similar to Massachusetts were established. Thomas Hooker, a prominent minister, helped to define Congregational church polity. In 1639, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were passed, which created a blueprint for civil government, and in 1662, Charles II awarded the colony a charter of its own.
  • Rhode Island

    Rhode Island
    Rhode Island drew in people of independent mindsets, and was settled by figures such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams. Villagers fought over land and schemed to split the colony into pieces, which led to Parliament issuing a patent for the "Providence Plantations". Despite the dispute, the settlers of Rhode Island built up a commerce in agriculture.
  • The Carolinas

    The Carolinas
    The restoration of the Stuarts to the throne caused the charter of the Carolinas. Anthony Ashley Cooper helped to bring in many colonists, and used the works of John Locke to create the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina. He created a 'balance of government", but the constitutions had little impact on the colony. Many settlers came from Barbados, who lived off of the sale of mass-produced profit crops.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Bacon envied the aristocracy, and wished to live that lifestyle. When Native American outbreak threatened Virginia, he stepped forward and offered to lead a volunteer army. Berkeley regarded him as a traitor, causing Bacon to burn down Jamestown and begin the rebellion. He was fought, but Bacon eventually died in October 1676, and his rebels dispersed.
  • Pennsylvania

    After a great negotiation, William Penn was granted the charter for Pennsylvania. Here, Quakers flocked, and Penn created a system of government that relied heavily on the works of James Harrington. Penn had no choice but to sale parts of his land, and once he emigrated to America, he foumd that his population had been deeply divided. He died in 1718, a broken man, as his "Holy Experiment" had gone haywire.
  • English Bill of Rights of 1689

    English Bill of Rights of 1689
    The English Bill of Rights of 1689 was the result of the Glorious Revolution in England, and the restoration of the monarchy. The Bill of Rights laid out the powers of the crown, and the order of Parliament.
  • First Great Awakening

    First Great Awakening
    The First Great Awakening commenced in the 1730's and was a sweeping evangelical movement. Jonathan Edwards, a feature figure in the event, accepted Calvanist ideas, and motivated followers to work positively in the name of God. George Whitefield, and extraordinary public speaker, traveled and preached the ideas to various American colonies.
  • Georgia

    The charter for Georgia was given to James Oglethorpe in 1732. Georgia did not fair well, due to the strict restrictions placed. In 1738, these restrictions were eliminated, and in 1751, the trustees returned Georgia to the king, but it failed to ever attract many settlers.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War, or Seven Years War, marked the long struggle between Britain and France. The war caused a seven year struggle, that ended with Britain recieving Canada from France and Florida from Spain, but France kept its sugar producing islands while giving Louisiana to Spain. This treaty allowed the colonies to expand further into the newly available territories.
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    The Sugar Act was created in 1764 in order to make the colonies produce revenue for the government of Britain. This act caused to colonists to be taxed without proper representation in Parliament, and they felt as though they should be able to regulate their own taxing system.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was set forth in 1765. It forced colonists to purchase special stamps/seals to validate their created legal documents. This was further proof of the colonists being taxed without governmental representaiton, and Patrick Henry released resolves over the unjust error.
  • Quartering Act

    Quartering Act
    The Quartering Act, passed in 1765, required colonists to house stationed soldiers in their living areas. The colonists were angered by this, as they were forced to use personal property for the good of greedy soldiers.
  • Stamp Act Congress

    Stamp Act Congress
    The Stamp Act Congress was a general meeting of colony representatives with the task of discussing problems that spanned the colonies. The colonies were able to share their concerns, and provide petitions/solutions for them.
  • Parliamentary Supremacy

    Parliamentary Supremacy
    Parliamentary supremacy meant that parliament enforced ull control over the colonies. The colonists felt the effects of no representation when it came to taxation and decision-making, and were angered.
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    The Declaratory Act was passed in order to establish the supremacy of Parliament over all. This act eroded colonist respect for imperial officeholders in America, as they were being ruled by a "foreign" power.
  • Townshend Revenue Acts

    Townshend Revenue Acts
    The Townshend Revenue Acts established duties on the American imports of paper, glass, paint, tea, and lead. This was yet another example of unjusitfied taxation of the colonists without representation.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    In the Boston Massacre, boys threw things at soldiers stationed, and the troops panicked and fired, causing the deaths of 5 Americans. The victims were viewed as martyrs, and this incident fueled hatred and horror.
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    Parliament created the Tea Act, which places a tax on tea, and defeated all other tea distributors/retailers. This example of taxation without representation led to further anger and rebellion of the colonists.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The colonists protested against the Tea Act in this event by dumping thousands of dollars of tea into the harbor. This rebellion angered Britain, and caused harsh acts to be passed to punish the colonists.
  • Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts

    Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts
    The Coercive/Intolerable Acts were set as followed:
    1) Closed Boston Port
    2) Restructured the government of Massachusetts
    3) Royal governors were given more power
    4) Soldier's quartering was enforced yet again
    These acts were "intolerable" to the colonists, hence the name, and they felt as though they were "enslaved" to the government.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    In this event, colonists gathered and held a congress to discuss importation and the reaction movement. This allowed the colonists to begin to organize in a structured, rebellious action.
  • Prohibitory Act

    Prohibitory Act
    The Prohibitory Act called for war against American commerce by Britain. This pushed the colonists even further towards their ideas of independence, and caused a great deal of distrust and anger.
  • Shot heard 'round the world

    Shot heard 'round the world
    These shots were blows at Lexington and Concord, which caused many accidental deaths. This was the "beginning" of revolution for the colonists.
  • Lexington

    In the "battle" of Lexington, Britain planned to seize rebel supplies, and colonists were warned by Paul Revere of the danger. This attempt on rebel goods caused them to prepare for the oncoming battle.
  • Concord

    A shot fired in confusion in Concord caused Britain to charge, and ended wih the death of 8 Americans. The shot somewhat "began" the Revolution of America.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    The Second Continental Congress was a gathering of colonies once more to establish a center of leadership. Here, the colonists were able to create a strong centralface of power in favor of the revolution.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Peititon was issued to explain the reason/establishment of rebellion and revolution. This was an official petition in favor of the beginning of the revolution.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Thomas Paine released Common Sense in 1776, which pushed the colonists further towards declaring their independence. This gave the colonists a greater nudge towards the independence wanted by most at this point.
  • Trenton

    Continental soldiers successfully surprise attacked Hessian mercenaries in the battle at Trenton. The colonists were able to have some ground over the British army by the end of it.
  • Germantown/Valley Forge

    Germantown/Valley Forge
    A seemingly good counter-attack by the Americans ended in retreat, and when they dug-in at Valley Forge, disease took hold of the soldiers. This left the American soldiers desperate and in miserable shape.
  • Saratoga, Second Battle

    Saratoga, Second Battle
    In the second battle of Saratoga, Britain became surrounded, and after 2 small battles, Britain finally surrendered. This was a major win by the colonists that turned the Revolution completely in their favor.
  • Kings Mountain

    Kings Mountain
    Kings Mountain consisted of viscious fighting, with backwoodsmen decimating Britain and their Tory raiders. The colonists were left with the upperhand, and Britain; badly confused.
  • Yorktown

    In Yorktown, Cornwallis chose to rush his army, which caused them to be encircled by the American army, and led to his final surrender. This battle brough somewhat of an end to the Revolution.