Marco Polo returned to Europe and spread the word of the glories of his 20 year sojourn to china. Indirectly led to the discovery of the New World.
Oct 29, 1492
Columbus Sights New World
Columbus sights the Bahamas after 6 weeks of failure at sea
Jun 7, 1494
Treaty of Tordesillas
Spain divided the New World with Portugal, keeping most for themselve sbut giving some of the land that is later to be Brazil
Oct 10, 1498
Vasco de Gama
He was the first to find an all water route to India and this one the influential expiditions that ultimately lead to the discovery of the New World
Aug 29, 1521
Cortes Attacks Tenochtitlan
Cortes laid seige to Tenochtitlan after the Aztecs had attempted to force tehm out because of their cruelty.
Sep 29, 1558
Elizabeth Becomes Queen
Elizabeth takes the throne in England and fired up her people, making them want to explore the New World and spread Protestantism.
The Lost Colony
Walter Raleigh landed in Roanoake the lost colony, off the coast of Virginia, named vaguely after the queen. It was the 1st English landing in the New World
Virginais company's 3 ships landed at Jamestown. It was the first permanent English settlement. Had tried landing at Chesapeake Bay, but they were attacked by Indians, so sailed away to Jamestown.
John Smith Captured
John Smith was captured by the Indians and put to mock execution in which Pohcahontas saved him at the last time.
House of Burgesses
Was the first form of representative self government among the colonies. Formed in Virginia and was at first considered like a "miniature parliament"
The Mayflower landed at Plymouth rock after a rough 65 days at sea.
North East Confederation
One of the first unified grouops that sprouted among the colonists and it was formed mainly for protection against foes.
Act of Toleration
Act of Toleration passed in Maryland that said all Christians that professed divinity of Jesus were allowed. Created as a Catholic haven fleeing prosecution.
Census on Indians
A census revealed that only 2,000 Indians were still alive in Virginia, about 10% of the origional population before England landed.
1,000 Virginians broke out od control because they were angry with Berkely's friendly policies toward the Indians because they had been attacked by them numerous times
The Great Awakening
Started in the 30's and went into the 40s. Was a huge revitalization of religious veiws that swept throughout the entire country. Influential speakers such as Jonathon Edwards and Whitefield preached piously of hellfire
Proclamation Act of 1763
declared that the colonists couldn't go beyond the Appalachian mountains. Not made to oppress the colonists but rather to improve relations with the Indians
Proclamation of 1763
Parliament declared that the colonists couldn't move beyond the Appalachain mountains. Mainly created to better the colonists relationship with the Indians
forced stamps to be put on ANY type of official document so it was impossible for people to ignore and it affected almost everybody. Violators of the law had to be tried in admiralty courts (courts under British rule). Colonists hated this act and some stamp distributors were harassed to the point that they quit.
Large mob of colonists were taunting the British soldiers, and overwhelmed, the soldiers opened fire into the crowd and killed 5 people. John Adams represented the British soldiers in court. It was called the "massacre" mainly for propoganda among the colonies.
When British ship landed on port in RI, colonists boarded, beat up the crew, and then burned the ship. Trial was held but no one wanted to come forth and testify, so no one was prosecuted.
Firsts Continental Congress
Called by committees of correspondence and was to meet in Philadelphia to discuss ways to help colonial problems. All colonies except Georgia attended. It deliberated for 7 weeks. Most significant thing from it was the Association.
1.The Association called for a complete boycott of British goods.
2.Suffolk Resolves were also created by the cc which declared Massachusetts a “free” state and told everyone to take up arms
Parliament passed these restraints on Boston to clamp down on the colonists and try and prove its power over them. Even though it was just in Boston, the other colonies united and protested and helped them out a lot.
1.Boston Port Act-closed port and was strictly enforced
2.Massachusetts Governor Act-shut down committees of correspondence and set up British assemblies
3.Murder Act-moved trials to Nova Scotia or England
Lexington and Concord
British troops (lead by Gage) were sent to Lexington and Concord to seize gunpowder and to bag the radical ring leaders John Hancock and Sam Adams. Minute men refused to disperse and British fired the “shot heard round the world” Gage had to fight his way back to Boston and on the way 73 Brits were killed and 174 wounded.
Second Continental Congress
They offered Indians a treaty and almost proposed for them to be like a 14th colony.
1.Put Washington in charge of continental troops.
2.Authorized attack on Canada
With gunpowder and supplies gained from the recent victory at Ticonderoga and Crown point, the colonist succesfully captured Bunker Hill. This is what made British general Gage leave Boston.
"Olive Branch Petition"
A letter that the colonists sent to King George asking for mercy and peace. George didn't like it though and completely disregarded it.
Stamp Act Repealed
Parliament repealed it mainly because of the many violent colonial outburts and the non-importation agreements
Richard Henry Lee of Virginia stated that the colonies are and should be free. This bold quote is what inspired the Declaration of Independence.
Met in Philadelphia because the first attempt failed in the Annopolis Convention. All the delegates had similar philosophies and were critical of the Articles of Confederation. Looking to make a new constitution.
Washington Became President
Washington was the only president to ever be elected uninimously. Established the cabinent and the idea of two term presidency.
National Bank Created
The first national bank was created by Hamilton, after much opposition from Jefferson who said it was unconstitutional. It was chartered for 20 years and was located in Philadelphia.
France and Britain Declare Wat
Both sides kind of expected the U.S. to join their side, however
Washington declared neutrality. Angered the Jeffersonian democratic republicans.
Judiciary Act of 1793
Judiciary Act was passed and it organized the Supreme Court with 5 associatesa and 1 chief justice. John Jay became Americaz first chief justice.
Battle of the Fallen Timbers
New army led by "Mad Anthony Wayne" finally defeated the Miami Indians which led to the peace treaty with them.
Big flare up that occured in the south because of the excise tax on whiskey. The people thought that it was unfair and raised whiskey poles and tarred and feathered people in anger. Washington got together some troops to go and stamp out the trouble, but by the time he got there, everything had died down. Demonstrated the strength of the national government.
Spain made this treaty with the U.S. that granted them pretty much everything they wanted and allowed them control of the Mississippi River because they were afraid that the U.S. was about to form an alliance with Britain.
Treaty of Greenville
The Indians signed a treaty with the U.S that gave them huge amounts of the Old Northwest and and most of present day Ohio. The Indians got $20,000 in exchange with $9,000 annually
Adams Elected President
John Adams won by a very narrow margin. The large support of New England is what helped him win. The electoral votes came down to him winning 71 for Adams and 68 for Jefferson, who became the vice president.
When president Adams sent 3 envoys to Paris to talk to them about the ships that the French had been seizing. They wanted to talk to Tallyrand, the French foreign ministerr. Tallyrand asked $250,000 just to be met with however and America saw this as a huge insult.
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Federalist reigned congress passed these laws to spiff up the population. They changed the naturalization period from 5 years to 14 and allowed aliens to be kicked out of the country with any sign of resistance. A lot of the time people were thrown out wrongly though
Marbury vs. Madison
Adams is leaving office and appoints certain judicial posts and appoints people to fill those posts, this was creating new jobs for people just at circuit court level. Jefferson didn't deliver these appointments that Adams had made. So William Marbury sues for his appointment and the judges come to the conclusion that the creating of the jobs was what was unconstitutional.
This case established judicial review and says that the supreme court has the power to say whether something was constituti
Battle of Tralfagor
Horatio lord Nelson of Britain proved Englands naval superiority when he crushed both French and Spanish fleets.
Replaced the old embargo and it reopened trade with all the world except the two most important-Britain and France.
The agreement was signed between Britain and the U.S. American envoy met with Britains prime minister Erskin. England said that they would drop the Orders of Council and America agreed to drop their trade restrictions on Britain. Britain didn't end up keeping their side of the deal though
Madison Declares War
Madison decides that declaring war with Britain is the only choice that the U.S. really has and congress passes 2 weeks after his request. The New England colonies full of Federalists don't like this