Gilded age

Unit 7 Capitalism and Corruption

  • New Indian people move onto Great Plains

  • Pikes Peak gold rush

    Many did not get rich
    Some went to Nevada for silver and gold- became a state to help Lincoln’s reelection in 1864
  • Charles Daarwin publishes "On the Origin of Species"

  • Nevada Comstock Lode discovered

  • Congress authorizes transcontinental railraod

    Northern Pacific
    Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe
    Southern Pacific
    Great Northern- James Hill
  • Morrill Act provides public land for higher education

    Land-grant colleges- land was given by states for higher ed.
    State universities- UC, OSU, TA&M
  • Homestead Act

    A settler could move west and have up to 160 acres if he lived on it for 5 years and paid a $30 fee.
    Before, public land was sold for revenue. Now this land needed to be filled with farmers to help the country.
    500,000 took advantage of this (but a lot more bought from RR companies)
    The land was very dry though, and 160 acres was not enough
    Fraud was prevalent- companies would buy the land, use it for its timber, minerals, or oil.
  • World's first subway system opens in London

  • Sand Creek massacre

    Sand Creek, CO- Colonel Chivington’s militia massacred 400 innocent Indians
  • Nevada admitted to Union

  • National Labor Union organized first working transatlantic telegraph cable

  • American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) created

  • National Grange organized

    Make farmers’ lives better- picnics, concerts, lectures
    Mostly in midwest and south- 800,000 strong by 1875
    Established co-op stores and grain elevators and warehouses- to get away from big business trusts
    Entered politics to regulate RR and storage rates- did not always help
  • Ulysses S, Grant becomes President

    Most whites voted Seymor but Grant used his war glory from the Civil War in addition to gaining votes from blacks
    Republican government now in power--which called for military reconstruction
  • Transcontinental railroad joined near Ogden, Utah

  • Wyoming Territory grants women right to vote

  • Knights of Labor organized

    Secret society until 1881
    Most were allowed except liquor dealers, gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers
    Not involved in politics, but economic and social reform
    Achieved the eight hour workday for many
    Had 750,000 members by 1885
  • Suez Canal completed

  • Fisk and Gould corner gold market

    Fisk and Gould bought lots of gold to try to inflate its price so they could sell it at high prices and get rich
    They thought Grant would not allow the government to sell the gold, but it began to sell gold on “Black Friday” of Sept. 1869
  • Standard Oil Company organized

    John D. Rockefeller- the oil baron
    Horizontal Integration- allied with competitors to monopolize a market
    Created the trust- smaller oil companies gave their stock to his Standard Oil Company
  • Tweed scandal in New York

    Tammany Hall Democratic machine- Corruption, graft, and rigging of elections was led by Boss Tweed in NYC
    He was arrested after the NYT ran articles on his corruption
    Thomas Nast published many cartoons against Tweed
    Samuel Tilden prosecuted Tweed and gained fame
  • "Woodhull and Clafin's Weekly" published

  • Credit Mobilier scandal exposed

    Union Pacific RR men created this construction company (Credit Mobilier of America) to build the transcontinental RR
    This company got all the bids to build the RR, but the cost was listed as higher than necessary- giving the RR men extra cash
    They paid off some Congressmen to keep quiet
    The NY Sun newspaper eventually broke the story, but the men could not be taken for all their money, only the money they invested in the company
  • Meaphysical Club meets in Cambridge, Massachusetts

  • Liberal Republicans break with Grant

    Liberal Republican Party formed to oust Grant and the cronies, and to end military Reconstruction
    They nominated Horace Greeley for pres.- Democrats joined these ranks
  • Grant defeats Greely for presidency

    republicans renominated Grant
    they helped Grant get reelected
    They changed some things: Some 500 former Confederates were allowed to join politics again, reduced tariffs, civil-service reform
  • Panic of 1873

    Large economic growth took place, and banks gave out too many risky loans
  • Comstock Law

    Anthony Comstock- defended of sexual purity
  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) organized

    Frances Willard and Carrie Nation (violent)
  • Chautauqua education movement launched

  • Impressionist artists debut in Paris

  • Whiskey Ring scandal

    Treasury Dept. allowed distilleries to not pay excise taxes for years
    Grant’s personal secretary and Sec. of War were involved
    Grant defended and pardoned these crooks, which left a stain on Grant’s reputation
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    last effort of radical Rep.
    Blacks would have equal accommodations in public
    Tried to stop racial discrimination in jury selections
    Did not work- SCOTUS did not help
  • Resumption Act

    remove greenbacks from circulation; greenbacks could be turned in for gold starting in 1879
  • Hayes-Tilden election standoff and crisis

    Grant’s third term try was thwarted by Congressional resolution
    Republicans put up Hayes (OH) as an unknown candidate
    Democrats nominated Tilden (NY)
    Tilden needed 1 more electoral vote to win, but some Southern state returns were contested (SC, FL, LA)
    These states sent both Dem. and Rep. vote counts, which was no good- each party would declare itself as the winner
  • Bell invents telephone

    Telephone had a huge social impact (Alexander Graham Bell)
    Women went to work at switchboards
  • John Hopkins University graduate school established

  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    George Armstrong Custer led troops into Sioux territory and found gold- gold seekers flood the area
    Indians (Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho) led by Crazy Horse were ready to fight
    Custer’s militia is annihilated, but Indians are killed in the future for revenge
    Called “Custer’s Last Stand”
  • Colorado admitted to Union

  • Compromise of 1877

    Set up an electoral committee of 15 members (8 Rep., 7 Dem.)
    When disputed votes were announced in Congress, the committee obviously said the votes would favor the Republican party
    Democrats threatened with filibuster
  • Nez Perce War

    Chief Joseph and some Nez Perce are captured on the way to meet Sitting Bull in Canada
    Told they would get put back in Idaho, but were moved to Kansas
  • Reconstruction ends

    The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South
    Reconstruction is over- Democrats take advantage and intimidate and harm blacks
  • Railroad strikes paralyze nation

  • Edison invents the electric light

    changed sleeping habits
  • Henry George publishes "Progress and Poverty"

    Said there should be a 100% tax on profits from landowners
    Wealthy were scared of him, left a mark on socialist ideas
    The Landlord’s Game was made to expound on this idea (later Monopoly)
  • Dumbbell tenement introduced

    Slums were characterized by dumbbell tenements and awful smells
  • Mary Baker Eddy establishes Christian Science

    illness can be healed through prayer
  • Salvation Army begins work in America

    helped the poor
  • Garfield defeats Hancock for presidency

    Garfield barely beat Winfield Scott Hancock in the election of 1880 (39,000 votes)
  • Garfield assassinated; Arthur assumes presidency

    Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau (stalwart)
    Claimed insanity, but was hanged
    Positive note: civil-service reform was about to occur
  • Barnum and Bailey first join to stage "Greatest Show on Earth"

    Circus
  • Helen Hunt Jackson publishes "A Century of Dishonor"

    about how the gov’t dealt with Natives
    People were split
    Some wanted humane treatment
    Others wanted reservations and punishment
    Either side was not very nice
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Passed by Congress
    Prevented Chinese from immigrating until 1943
    Some who were born in the US were allowed to be citizens (US v. Wong Kim Ark)
  • First immigraion-restriction laws passed

  • Civil Rights Cases

    Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    Separate but equal facilities were acceptable under the “equal protection” clause of the 14th amendment
    Blacks were second-class citizens
  • Brooklyn Bridge completed

  • Metropolitan opera House built in New York

  • Pendleton Act sets up Civil Service Commission

    Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    Separate but equal facilities were acceptable under the “equal protection” clause of the 14th amendment
    Blacks were second-class citizens
  • Cleveland defeats Blaine for presidency

    This election was more about personality than issues (the parties agreed on most issues)
    Big change was when Irish votes in NY went to Cleveland
    Cleveland barely won
  • Mark Twain publishes "The Adventures of Huckleberry FInn"

  • Federal Government outlaws Indian Sun Dance

  • Louis Sullivan builds first skyscraper, in Chicago

    US cities grew up (skyscrapers and elevators) and out (trains, trolleys, etc.)
  • Linotype invented

    Newspaper publican grew (Linotype) but editorials were on the decline as to not offend buyers/funders
  • Canadian Pacific Railway, first transcontinental rail line, completed across Canada

  • Period: to

    Local chapters of Farmers' Alliance formed

  • Haymarket Square bombing

    Police went to break up a meeting and a bomb was thrown, killing several dozen
    Anarchists were sentenced to death for this (even though the evidence was weak)
    Hurt the Knights, and their fall was evident
  • Statue of Liberty erected in New York harbor

    a gift from France
    Nativists ignored the quote at the bottom
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Passed by Congress without Pres. Cleveland’s help
    RR cannot form pools
    RR must publicly disclose rates
    RR cannot discriminate in shipping rates (long vs. short haul)
    Set up the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
    Did not do much to help the little guys
    It did help stabilize prices though
    Also set a precedent for gov’t involvement in private business
  • American Protective Association (APA) formed

    Against immigrants, especially Catholics
  • Hatch Act supplements Morrill Act

  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Many tribes were no longer legally recognized
    Indians could not own land anymore
    Indian family heads were set up with 160 acres each
    If they “behaved” they would get the land and citizenship in 25 years
    All Indians became citizens in 1924
  • Edward Bellamy publishes "Looking Backward"

    Utopian society (socialist)- had an impact later
  • American all-star baseball team tours world

  • Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago

    In poor immigrant city area
    Helped children learn English and American-ness, provided services
    A settlement house
  • Oklahoma opened to U.S citizen settlement

  • Period: to

    North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming admitted to Union

  • "Billion-Dollar" Congress

    Republicans were ready to get their power back
    Barely had enough seats in the House- Dems threatened with quorum calls
    Rep. Speaker was Thomas Reed (ME) who was sharp with his words and scared his opponents
    He still counted Dems. as present even if they did not say they were
    Reed dominated the “Billion-Dollar” Congress- first to approve a budget of $1 bill.
    Many pensions given
    Purchased more silver
    McKinley Tariff Act of 1890- rates were up to 48.4%; hurt farmers
    These policies hurt the Rep., be
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    No more combinations that would restrict trade
    Did not really work: no power, loopholes, small companies could escape
    Hindered labor unions or combinations that restrained trade too
    More trusts were formed during McKinley’s administration than other other period
    Forces did begin to slowly mobilize against big business though
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) formed

    Stanton and Anthony
    Carrie Chapman Catt- a new breed of feminist
    Didn’t use the old argument that women are equals
    Argued that women in cities should vote because they need to be in charge of things to properly do their duties as homemakers and moms
    Helped women slowly gain suffrage
    WY granted complete suffrage first (1869)
    Many states followed, at least with partial voting rights
    Most states allowed women to hold property after marriage by 1890
  • Census Bureau declares frontier line ended

  • Emergence of People's party (Populists)

    Made up of farmers who wanted to fight the monied interests
    Wanted nationalization of RRs, telephones, and telegraphs
    Wanted a graduated income tax (didn’t happen until 1910s)
    Wanted loans for crops stored away until prices rose
    Wanted free silver
  • McKinley Tariff Act

    ates were up to 48.4%; hurt farmers
    These policies hurt the Rep., because upset rural voters caused the Dems. to crush in the mid-term elections of 1890 (and pres. election of 1892)
    Nine new congressmen were of the Farmers’ Alliance
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (repealed 1893)

    Gov’t had to issue notes for silver, people would then turn in notes for gold, draining fed. gold reserves
    Cleveland had to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act
    Free Silverites fought this repeal, notably Dem. William Jennings Bryant (NE)
    Cleveland won in the end when he promised jobs for votes, but he divided his own party
    Repeal did not help much, and gold reserves were dwindling
    Cleveland asked J.P. Morgan and other bankers to lend the government $65 mill in gold
    This worked for the short t
  • Basketball invented

  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Ghost Dancers- an Indian religious group that believed Natives would inherit the Earth- were sought after by the US gov’t
    Sitting Bull and Big Foot were captured
    When Big Foot’s people were surrendering at Wounded Knee, SD, an Indian’s gun went off
    Troops panicked and many Indians were wiped out
  • Construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad begins

  • Homestead steel strike

    in Carnegie's Homestead Steel plant started because workers were upset over pay cuts.
    Carnegie sent in 300 Pinkerton detectives to crush the strike, but the laborers won
    Fed. troops intervened and stopped the strike and the union
  • Populist party candidate James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election

  • Coeur d'Alene (Idaho) silver miners' strike

  • People's party candidate James B. Weaver wins twenty-two electoral votes

  • Cleveland defeats Harrison and Weaver to regain presidency

    Cleveland won (again) in the election of 1892- Populists divided and Republicans a mess
  • Depression of 1893 begins

    Speculation, overbuilding, labor disorders, agricultural depression, free silver issues, inability to pay loans to other nations
    Many businesses closed, jobs gone, many homeless
    Gov’t did not do much to help
  • Lillian Wald opens Henry Street Settlement in New York

    settlement house
  • Anti-Saloon League formed

    some states became dry (temperance)
  • Frederick Jackson Turner publishes "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"

    Put the pioneers on a pedestal as champions of civilization and democracy
  • Republicans regain House of Representatives

  • "Coxey's Army" marches on Washington Pullman strike

    Eugene Debs led the American Railway Union led a strike against cut wages
    They stopped a lot of RR traffic across the west
    The AF of L did not come to their aid- they were not peaceful
    US attorney gen. ordered troops- they were hindering US mail (Sherman Antitrust Act)
    Troops crushed the strike
    Debs was arrested, and later became a socialist
    Strikers could be jailed without jury trials
  • J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate loans

    $65 million in gold to federal government
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    legitizizes "seperate but equal" doctrine
  • Utah admitted to Union

  • McKinley defeats Bryan for presidency

  • Library of Congress opens

  • Dingley Tariff Act

    Senate added amendments, causing average rates to be 46.5%- did not change the McKinley or Wilson-Gorman tariffs much
  • Carlotte Perkins Gilman pubishes "Women and Economics"

    Argued for more involvement in society
    “Day-care centers,” and “convenience food stores”
  • Kate Chopin publishes "The Awakening"

    adultery, suicide, women
  • Theodore Dresier publishes "Sister Carrie"

  • Gold Standard Act

    paper currency was traded with gold
    Due to better economy, more discoveries of gold (inflation in the markets), and better extraction methods
  • United States Steel Corporation formed

    JP Morgan
    Financed the reorganization of RRs, insurance companies, and banks
    Did not think he was a dangerous money man
    organized his new still industry and founded US Steel Corporation
    Worth $1.4 billion
  • Henry Adams privately publishes "The Education of Henry Adams"

    Henry Adams (grandson of JQA) wrote American history
    Henry James- used women as main subjects
  • Oklshoma admitted to Union

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded

    Dr. WEB Du Bois was different than Washington (northern man vs. southern man)
    Demanded social and economic equality for blacks
    Helped start the NAACP in 1909
  • Indians granted US citizenship

  • Indian Reorganization Act