Unit 3 The Early Republic

  • Articles of Confederation Put into Affect

    The Articles of Confederation was actually adopted in 1777 but not put into affect until the war ended in 1781. The Articles of Confederation set up a single-house government with each state sending one representative. The writers of the Articles kept in mind the complaints Americans had with England's form of government. For this reason, most of the governmental responisbilities were placed within each individual state's governments. The national government had little power under the Articles.
  • Land Ordinance Passed

    The founding fathers of our country knew the possibilites that would come along with colonizing the new lands. Congress began selling the lands to wealthy American settlers. Jefferson set up a system of surverying lands and created the first townships. However, each township was a six by six mile square. The only way to buy land was to purchase a whole "township". This did not last long because most families could not use this much land nor afford the price.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Years after the war, Americans faced an economic depression due to all the debt they owed allies and England. American governents raised taxes to help raise revenues. The middle class was hit especially hard. Daniel Shays, a former Revolutionary War Captain led a group of close to 1000 New England farmers in revolt. The group was compromised relatively quickly but the rebellion created an idea that a stronger central government was necessary.
  • Northwest Ordinance Passed

    In 1787 Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance as a way to officially colonize the lands east of the Mississippi river that the Americans now owned. The new territories would have strict rules to follow though if they wanted to become a state in the Union. Admission to the union could be attained when the free settler count reached 60,000. Slavery and indentured servants would be prohibited. Education would be encouraged. This event was significant because it encouraged western colonization.
  • Constitution Put Into Effect

    In 1787, the United States Constitution was put into effect. This was the second official document that the nation would us a national guideline. It preceded the Articles of Confederation and was created to hopefully fix the problems that arose from the Articles. The Constitution delegated most of the power to the National government instead of to individaul state governments. The Constitution being put into effect caused the election of our first presdient, George Washington.
  • Washington Elected 1st President

    In April of 1789, George Washington was sworn in as the first president of the United States. Washington is still the only president to be unanimously selected. Washington earned a name for himself as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. During his two terms he set the precedence for all of the later presidents. He delegated powers to a cabinet and only stayed for two terms. Both of these are principles that are still used today.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    In 1794, a group of Pennsylvania famers rebelled because they felt they were being mistreated. They attacked the houses of tax collectors and destroyed court houses. Washington used the 15,000 troops of the Continental Army to take down the Rebellion. The government was able to take down this rebellion much easier than they were able to during Shay's Rebellion. This helped the Constituion gain appreciation from everyday citizens in the fact that this new government could protect its country.
  • XYZ Affair

    One of the major issues facing Adams during the time he came into office was how he was going to handle foreign affairs. Specifically affairs with France. In order to keep peace like Washington had suggested, Adams sent three delegates to France. The French Prime Minister refused to meet with the American delegates unless they payed 250,000 dollars and then promised to pay them 32 million dollars later. The delegates refused to accept the deal and the event came to be known as the XYZ affair.
  • Adams Replaces Washington.

    In 1797, Washington turned down the chance of being elected for a third straight term because he felt no man should be in charge for too long. Washington warns the country in his farewell adress not to get involved in foreign affairs and warned us of possible conflicts within our country. John Adams defeated Jeffereson by a narrow margin to become the 2nd President of the United States. Adams came into office with large foreign issues facing him which would lead to him not being re-eleected.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    The federalists gained enough seats in Congress in 1798 to pass the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Naturalization Act increased the length of time needed to become an American citizen. The alien acts gave the power to the President to remove any immigrant they wanted from the United States. The Sedition Acts made it illegal for people to put things that criticize officials in the newspapers. All of these laws were made to keep the Federalist party in office.
  • Jefferson Defeats Adams

    The Federalist Period Came to an End in 1800 when Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. Adams dealt with some complex foregin affairs during his term which ultimately lead to him not getting re-elected. Jefferson was the head of the Democrat-Republican group who thought the country should be based around hardworking farmers, not around the wealthy merchants in the North. Jefferson undid a lot of Adam's work. His coming into office brought about a new look the young American government.
  • Marbury vs. Madison Case

    Before John Adams left office as President, he appointed a man named William Marbury to the supreme court. After Jefferson took office, Marbury still hadn't been sworn in so Jefferson and congress didn't put him on the court. Marbury sued Madison, Jefferson's Secretary of State. The court ruled it unconstitutional and the doctrine of judicial review was established.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    In 1803, Thomas Jefferson sent a delegate to France to buy the New Orleans territory from Napoleon, the French leader. Napoleon was on a quest to conquer the world and needed the extra money. He offered the delegate the whole Louisiana territory for 15 million dollars. Napoleon was okay with this because he thought he could take the money and then just frocefully retake the land later. This never happened and Jefferson was able to double the size of the United States for a very cheap price.
  • Lewis and Clarke Expedition

    In 1804, two men by the names of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark took an expedition westward to explore the Louisian land previously granted to the United States. Lewis and Clark had two goals. One was to find where the Mississippi River lead and the other was to explore the plants and animals that lived in the unknown lands.
  • Embargo Act

    In 1807 Thomas Jefferson put the Embargo Act of 1807 into effect. The Napoleonic Wars were going on over in Europe during this time. American ships were being captured by both England and France to try to stop them from trading with the enemy. Jefferson instilled a full on embargo of trade with foregin countries to try to show them the importance of American trade. The Embargo backfired and was later repealed.
  • Madison Elected President

    James Madison was elected in 1808 making him the fourth president of the United States of America. Madison was a Democrat-Republican like his predecessor , Thomas Jefferson. Madison was the Secretary of State while Jefferson was in office so he had experience when he took office. During Madison's presidency impressment of American ships contiuned and conflicts with foreign nations strengthened. This ultimately led to Madison's decision to declare war on Britain beginning the War of 1812.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    When Jefferson took over as president, he wanted to gain more farming land for the Americans. Tecumseh, an Indian tribe leader gathered his and several other northeast tribes to try to take a stand against the western migration of the American settlers. In 1811, while Tecumseh was away, William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indiana territory defeated the tribes of Indians. The British had been supplying the Indians with weapons which intensified the conflicts between the two countries.
  • United States Declares War on Britain

    In 1812, James Madison declared war on England. This was the first international conflict the young country experienced. Madison felt the need to declare war because of the English Navy's impressment of American ships. England was also supplying the Native Americans in the western part of the United States with weapons. This war would come to be known as the Second War for Independence.
  • Treaty of Ghent signed

    After a decisive American victory at Lake Champlain, Peace Negotations werer finalized. Ending the two years of fighting, the Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1814 signifying the end of the War of 1812. Neither side won the war and boundaries and regulations were restored to how they were before the War began. The Americans had held their own against one of the world's most powerful armies. This brought a surge of Nationalism through the country.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    New of the Treaty of Ghent being signed didn't reach parts of the United States until a month after the Treaty was signed. During this period, the British army attacked the American forces at New Orleans. Andrew Jackson, the General of the Americans, lead a group of untrained "nobodys" agaisnt the powerful British forces. The Americans won the battle and Jackson's name began to be known throughout the country. This helped him later get elected President.