Unit 3 1450 CE to 1750 CE Mueggenborg

  • Period: Apr 18, 1415 to Apr 18, 1460

    Henry the Navigator

    -Took a fleet of 200 Portuguese ships into the Mediterranean and seized the Barbary fortress of Cueta
    -He was the Princ eof Portugal
    -Founded his Institute at Sagres
    -Never sailed on any of his expeditions and rarely left Portugal
    -He sent fifteen expeditions to navigate south of the cape from 1424 to 1434
  • Period: Apr 21, 1483 to Apr 21, 1530


    -He was the founder of the Mughal dynasty
    -He defeated the Sultan at Panipat, captured Agra and Dehli, and established himself as Sultan
    -Controlled an empire that extended from the Deccan to Turkestan
    -Babur was succeeded by his son, Humayun
  • Period: Apr 18, 1492 to Apr 18, 1504

    Christopher Columbus

    -On his first trip, Columbus led an expedition with three ships
    -They landed on an island they called Guanahani, but Columbus later renamed it San Salvador
    -He thought he had made it to Asia, and called this area the Indies, and called its inhabitants Indians
    -They were looking for gold to take
    -He also sailed to the island of Dominica , Trinidad, Venezuela, Mexico, Honduras and Panama
  • Period: Apr 18, 1492 to Apr 18, 1524

    Vasco da Gama

    -He was a Portuguese explorer
    -He led an expedition that opened the sea route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.
    -they brought back spices
    -The local ruler, the Zamorin, welcomed the Portuguese, who at first thought that the Indians, actually Hindus, were Christians
  • Apr 25, 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    -It was an enormous widespread exchange of agricultural goods and communicable diseases between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
    -The first European import, the horse, changed the lives of many Native American tribes on the Great Plains
    -They also traded food like tomato sauce, potatoes, coffee, and sugarcane
    -varieties of domesticated animals and infections diseases were both strikingly larger in the Old World than in the New
  • Period: Apr 21, 1501 to

    Safavid Empire

    -It was an Islamic Empire was strong enough to challenge the Ottomans in the west and the Mughals in the east
    -It covered all of Iran, and parts of Turkey and Georgia
    -It suppressed all religions except Shi'a
    -The Empire declined when it became complacent and corrupt
  • Period: Apr 18, 1504 to Apr 18, 1539

    Hernan Cortes

    -First he went to the island of Santo Domingo
    -He became mayor of Santiago de Cuba and stayed there until 1518
    -He became friends with the aztecs
    -He took Montezuma hostage and asked for a huge ransom of gold and jewels -He was made governor and captain general of New Spain in 1523
  • Period: Apr 18, 1509 to Apr 18, 1535

    Francisco Pizarro

    -Joined many other explorers like, Alonzo de Ojeda, Alonzo de Ojeda, and Espinosa
    -He explored of Panama to discover the Pacific Ocean, present Republic of Costa Rica, south of Panama, South of Columbia, and Peru
    -Destroyed the Inca capital
    -Founded Lima
  • Period: Apr 20, 1517 to

    Protestant Reformation

    -It reformed the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church
    -Ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity
    -Martin Luther posted 95 theses on the church door in the university town of Wittenberg
    -Luther argued that the Bible, not the pope, was the central means to discern God’s word
    -Lutherism was created
  • Period: Apr 18, 1519 to Apr 18, 1522

    Ferdinand Magellan

    -Magellan was a Portuguese sea captain
    -He was the first to sail around the world
    -Dicovered how big the Pacific Ocean really is
    -Studied Columbus's maps
    -He was killed when he took part in a battle between rival Filipino groups on the island of Mactan
  • Apr 25, 1519

    Creaton of Colonies in the New World

    -The Europeneanes colonized in America for the first time
    -Colonized for religious freedom
    -Found new crops and goods
    -They also wanted expaned Europe
  • Period: Apr 21, 1526 to

    Mughal empire

    -The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority
    -It ruled most of India and Pakistan
    -It had a Centralised government
    -Persian language mixed with Arabic and Hindi to create Urdu
    -They had a system of education that took account of pupils' needs and culture
  • Period: Apr 20, 1550 to

    Scientific Revolution

    -It was a period of time in which there was a great change in scientific thoughts
    -Galileo found that the Earth was not flat, but round
    -Isaac Newton found that when the color white is passed through a prism, the light is turned into different colors
    -The ideas led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed starting in Ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages
    -It was a time for finding scientific answers through expirements
  • Period: Apr 22, 1582 to

    Matteo Ricci

    -He was an Italian Jesuit missionary who introduced Christianity to China
    -He volunteered for missionary work overseas
    -He was appointed director of Jesuit activities in China
    -In Beijing he preached the Gospel, taught science to scholars, and translated Christian works into Chinese
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    -The Tokugawa Shogunate was a feudal military dictatorship in Japan
    -It was established by Tokugawa Ieyasu
    -Their religion was Buddhism and Shinto
    -Its emperors were Go-Yōzei and Meiji
    -Its Shoguns were Tokugawa Ieyasu and Yoshinobu
    -It was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
  • Period: to


    -He was an Italian physicist and astronomer
    -He built the telescope
    -He found that the Moon was not smooth, but mountainous and pitted
    -Believed in Copernicus' theory that Earth and all other planets revolve around the Sun
    -He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1633 because he "was going against the church" with his work
  • Period: to

    Thirty Year War

    -It was a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries.
    -Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe
    -It ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    -It was the final dynasty of the Chinese Empire
    -It was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro
    -The imperial rulers continued to strengthen the centralized system
    -Under the corrupt ruling of the later rulers, various rebellions and uprisings broke out
    -The Revolution of 1911 led by Sun Yat-sen broke out and overthrew the Qing Dynasty
  • Period: to


    -It was an intellectual movement
    -The thinkers of the Enlightenment were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only
    -Other philosophers advocated a philosophical rationalism deriving its methods from science and natural philosophy that would replace religion as the means of understanding nature and destiny of humanity
  • Period: to

    Triangle trade

    -It was a route to recieve slaves
    -The first route carried fish, lumber, and other goods from New England to the West Indies
    -From the West Indies merchants carried the rum, along with guns, gunpowder, and tools to West Africa
    -Here, they traded these items for slaves, they carried the slaves to the West Indies where they were sold
    -The slaves were treated badly and lived in harsh conditions on the boat; some didnt make it.
  • Period: to

    Peter the Great

    -He centralised government
    -He modernised the army
    -He created a navy and increased the subjugation and subjection of the peasants
    -Challanged Golitsin and removed both Sophia and Golitsin from power and ruled as Russia’s sole leader
  • Period: to

    Catherine the Great

    -She came to Russia at the invitation of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna as the bride of the heir to the throne, Peter Feodorovich
    -She was christened into the Orthodox Church as Ekaterina Alexeevna
    -She overthrew her husband Peter III
    -She was crowned Empress of All Russia
    -She undertook a wide range of internal political reforms, waged two successful wars against the Ottoman Empire and occupied vast territories on Russia's southern boundaries, eventually advancing the country's border to the Black
  • Period: to

    French-Indian War

    -I was the final Colonial War
    -The conflict occured out in Europe, India, and North America
    -Europe, Sweden , Austria, and France were allied to bring down Frederick the Great, King of Prussia
    -The English and the French battled for colonial domination in North America, the Caribbean, and in India
    -The English did ultimately come to dominate the colonies
  • Period: to

    Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

    -Came into power when government was in debt
    -Aimed to reinstate the parlements
    -Believed he should always consult public opinion
    -Convoked the Estates-General
    -Was involved in the Seven-Years War
    -Wished to expel British from India
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    -Was a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies on the North American continent
    -The colonists overthrew British rule
    -Revolutionaries seized control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army
    -They formally declared their independence as a new nation, the United States of America
  • Decleration of the Rights of Man

    -It was passed by the National Assembly
    -It became the preamble to the Constitution of 1791
    -It was a summary of the ideals and principles of the Revolution
    -It justified the destruction of a government based upon absolutism and privilege, and the establishment of a new regime based upon the inalienable rights of individuals, liberty, and political equality
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    -It was a period of radical social and political uprising in French and European history
    -It abolished and replaced the French monarchy with a radical democratic republic
    -External threats also played a dominant role in the development of the Revolution
    -It was caused by unhappy population of France
  • Storming of the Bastille

    -It occurred in Paris in the morning
    -French peasants were in search of arms and ammunition to defend the Revolution against Royalist counter insurgents.
    -The man and woman on the street becoming involved in the Revolution.
    -Released peolple in prison
    -Two days after the storming of the Bastille, the National Assembly ordered that this symbol of despotic power be burned to the ground
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    -Transformed French Saint Domingue into an independent state run by former slaves and the descendants of slaves
    -Hundreds of rebellions occurred in the New World during the centuries of slavery; St. Domingue Slave Revolt achieved permanent independence
    -French against slaves
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    -Took over Army of Italy
    -Seized Egypt
    -Made reforms in administration of the departments
    -Made reforms in higher education
    -Established Banque de France
  • Period: to

    Congress of Vienna

    -Settled issues from French Revolutionary War, Naploeanic Wars, and dissolution of Holy Roman Empire
    -Established boundaries of France, Napolean's Duchy of Warsaw, and the Netherlands
    -Came to be known as Concert of Europe
    -Attempt to forge peaceful balance of power
  • Waterloo

    -Napoleon was defeated by combined armies.
    -The defeat at Waterloo put an end to Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French
    -It marked the end of his Hundred Days' return from exile
    -Napolean delayed the battle to let ground dry, meanwhile the other armies were getting ready to attack.