Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE
SOCRATESAccording to Socrates, “no one commits an evil act knowingly and doing wrong arises out of ignorance.” A person will commit only moral evil if he lacks moral knowledge. Sometimes, a person may have knowledge but he deliberately commits an evil act to satisfy
his hidden motive.
Period: 428 BCE to 348 BCE
PLATOMoral values are objective in the sense
that they exist in a spirit-like realm beyond subjective
human conventions. Plato states that they are absolute,
or eternal, in that, they never change, and also that
they are universal insofar as they apply to all rational
creatures around the world and throughout time.
Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE
ARISTOTLEAristotle’s “The Golden Mean Principle” states that to be happy, live a life of moderation. In everything that we do, we must avoid extremes (Roa, 2007). For example, in taking food, we must eat accordingly with the proper amount of food proportional to our
bodies’ needs. Any excess or deficit in the food intake would cause problems to our health too much food, equals gluttony, no food – starvation.
Period: 341 to 270
UTILITARIANISMThe theory argues that what makes an act right is its consequences and not the motive of the action. The effects or consequences determine the goodness or badness of an action. An act is good if and when it gives good results if it works, if it makes you successful, and if it makes you attain your purpose. Otherwise, it is bad.
MORAL POSITIVISMThomas Hobbes believes that human beings are basically selfish creatures who would do anything to improve their position. Hobbes’ moral positivism anticipates the chaotic outcome if laws are not abided by. It is a must for every nation to have someone who would manage and administer them. Hence, the creation of laws and the obedience of its subjects are important in the order and maintenance of peace in countries.