World history

World History Timeline

  • Queen Elizabeth dies

    Queen Elizabeth dies
    When Queen Elizabeth died, she had no children or heirs, which was a big deal. This meant that the Tutor Dynasty was over and James I would become the new king, starting the Stuart Dynasty. However, James I does not end up being a good king and believes in Divine Right, so he wanted power.
  • Guy Fawkes is executed

    Guy Fawkes is executed
    Guy Fawkes and a group of Catholics had made a plot to sneak gunpowder underneath the Houses of Parliment, where the King would be. They wanted to kill the King because they felt that Catholics weren't respected. They found Guy Fawkes in the cellars beneath the Houses of Parliment guarding the gunpowder, and he was captured and held prisoner in the Tower of London. They later tortured him until Guy confessed to his plot, and he and the group of Catholics were hung.
  • Charles I becomes King

    Charles I becomes King
    After James I died, his son Charles I took over as King. However, he turned out to be even worse than his father, as he would continuously ask Parliment for money. parliment eventually told him that if he wanted money, then he would have to sign the Petition of Rights, which limited him. He refused and eventually ran out of money, which started a war between the Royalists and Roundheads. When the Roundheads won, they beheaded the king.
  • Roundheads win the English Civil War

    Roundheads win the English Civil War
    After King Charles I refused to work with Parliment and eventually ran out of money, the Royalists and Roundheads went to war. After five years of battle, the Roundheads brought victory and beheaded the King. They chose a strong leader named Oliver Cromwell to lead the commonwealth, a new type of government that was ruled by Parliment and not a king.
  • Charles II becomes king

    Charles II becomes king
    When Oliver Cromwell led the commonwealth, a government ruled by Parliment, many people were not happy. There were very strict rules and most entertainment was banned. Also, Cromwell ended up acting like a king. After he died, they decided to go back to having a king, so Charles I's son, Charles II, became the new king. He worked very well with Parliment and brings back entertainment. The only issue is that he gets money from France in exchange for converting England to Catholicism.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    When James II ruled, he completely ignored Parliment's laws and placed many catholics into government positions. Of course, this angered many people, especially people who were Protestant. They were afraid of James II's son ruling, so they asked William of Orange and his wife Mary (James II's daughter) to come rule. When they became King and Queen, they agreed to sign the Bill Of Rights and they worked well with Parliment. This meant that the days of absolute rule were finally over.
  • Interchangeable parts are invented

    Interchangeable parts are invented
    When guns would break, people would have to replace them completely. So, Eli Whitney invented interchangeable parts, which allowed people to replace only the specific parts that were broken. It was Whitney's first invention that he patented and earned money from, unlike his Cotton Gin.
  • The Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath
    When there was a meeting deciding if temporary taxes should be placed, the third estate was kicked out of voting since they were so big. This upset them, so they met at a tennis court and made an oath that they would not leave until the King gave them a constitution. The King eventually agreed, but did not keep his promise.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Bastille was originally used as a prison, but became storage for gunpowder. When the third estate had stolen a bunch of guns, they then stormed the bastille to steal gunpowder. They overpowered all the guards and won.
  • March of the Woman (bread march)

    March of the Woman (bread march)
    Bread availability had become low and prices went up, making it difficult for the third estate to access it, and it was their main source of food. Many people were starving while the king overate all the food he wanted. The movement became a march of Palace of Versailles, and woman forced the King to come back to Paris.
  • The Cotton Gin is invented

    The Cotton Gin is invented
    The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney and Robert S. Munger. The machine was made to take the seeds out of cotton, which took much longer by hand. It made slavery more effective as they could get more done much faster. Many people say that if it hadn't been invented, slavery may have ended much sooner.
  • Vaccines are invented

    Vaccines are invented
    Before germs were discovered, people didn't know the true cause of diseases. Smallpox was a serious disease that affected a lot of the population. Edward Jenner created a smallpox vaccine, but couldn't explain how it worked. After Louis Pasteur linked germs to disease, he discovered vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies.
  • The Rosetta Stone is discovered

    The Rosetta Stone is discovered
    When a stone with Egyptian writing was discovered in an Egypt town called Rosetta, it was a breakthrough. It contained three different languages and helped them learn hieroglyphics. The first translation was made by Jean Francis Champollion.
  • Ireland joins the United Kingdom

    Ireland joins the United Kingdom
    When Ireland became part of the United Kingdom, they were seen as inferior by the British. Britain owned their land, so British landowners had power to evict Irish farmers. They were also forced to pay tithes to the Church of England, even though they were Catholic. The Irish resented the British. Ireland eventually became one of the poorest countries and had short life expectancy. Britain did not help the Irish during the devastating Potato Famine.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    Napoleon needed to pay off debt and earn money for wars. His plan to profit from the Caribbean colonies had failed, so he decided to sell a large amount of land to America, called the Louisiana Territory. It doubled the size of America and helped Napoleon gain money for France.
  • The Abolition of the slave trade

    The Abolition of the slave trade
    William Wilberforce, a religious member of Parliment spent his life fighting against slavery. However, most of Parliment was against him. Overtime, his campaign earned more people's support, and it had a slogan: "Am I not a man, and a brother?" Finally, the Abolition of the Slave Trade was passed, making it illegal to sell humans in Britain. Wilberforce was very emotional in court when it was confirmed, however it was still legal to own a slave, so there was still more to be done.
  • Spain rebells against France

    Spain rebells against France
    Napoleon was able to trick the king and prince of Spain to come to France, where he imprisoned them. He then made his brother the king of Spain so he would have family at the throne. However, Spain ended up rebelling, and Britain saw this as a chance to weaken Napoleon.
  • Napoleon is exiled to the Island of Elba

    Napoleon is exiled to the Island of Elba
    After the battle of Leipzig, Napoleon is captured and exiled to the Island of Elba. During this time, royalists put Louis XVIII on the thrown.
  • The Hundred Days

    The Hundred Days
    While Napoleon is on Elba, he manages to escape the island and return to France. While he's there, he starts a war near Waterloo and gets defeated, which marked the end of his return to power. He then gets banished to St. Helena and dies on the island due to a stomach ulcer.
  • Francis Cabot Lowell brings textile mills to America

    Francis Cabot Lowell brings textile mills to America
    While visiting factories in England, Francis Cabot Lowell memorized a lot of the ideas to bring back to America. He made a town called Lowell that was centered around a textile mill. Most of the people that lived in the town would work at the mill. Textile mills became very popular, and many immigrant women would work at them. The name for the women that worked at the mills were the "Lowell girls". Many young girls would leave the family farm to work at mills and make money.
  • Trains are introduced to America

    Trains are introduced to America
    Transporting people and goods took a long time, but once the train came into play many things changed. Trains were much faster than boats, which made transporting goods easier and quicker so they wouldn't go bad. People could see others that lived far away more often. Railroads were laid down everywhere as it became more popular. Some people thought it was dangerous since the train would go about 30-40 miles per hour, which was very fast at that time.
  • Sadler's Interview

    Sadler's Interview
    Many factories would use children for labor, and there were very harsh conditions. Children would have many health issues like bone deformation and lock knees, and got little sleep. Michael Sadler proposed a bill in Parliment to limit children's work so that kids under the age of 18 could only work ten hours.
  • The Abolition of Slavery

    The Abolition of Slavery
    After William Wilberforce had fought against slavery, and the abolition of the slave trade was passed, it was still legal to own a slave. Just three days before Wilberforce died, the Abolition of Slavery was passed. However, it only freed slaves under 6 years old. It also led to economy decline in the West Indies, and former slaves were not prepared for a free life. They didn't have much money or resources, and many didn't have homes.
  • Queen Victoria becomes queen

    Queen Victoria becomes queen
    At the young age of 18, Queen Victoria took the throne. The time period that she ruled was called the Victorian Era. When her husband died, she was in a deep mourning for the rest of her life and she greatly inspired mourning practices. Her reign lasted over 63 years and she liked to live in seclusion. She had 9 children even though she hated pregnancy and childbirth.
  • The Potato Famine

    The Potato Famine
    The Irish greatly relied on potatoes and it was a huge staple crop. An airborne fungus began causing the potatoes to rot. Many peasants had nothing to eat and were starving to death. They also couldn't pay rent. About 1 million people died and 1.5 million people emigrated to the United States.
  • The "June Days"

    The "June Days"
    Many workers in Paris were upset and felt that the government had betrayed them. They wanted money to be distributed more fairly, especially since they worked so much and weren't making much money. So, they would set up barricades in the streets made of material they found. Authorities would fire cannons at the barricades.
  • Louis Napoleon becomes president

    Louis Napoleon becomes president
    France wanted a change, so after a huge attack lead by General Louis Cavaignac, they got a new constitution that gave them a president instead of a king. Napoleon's nephew, Louis Napoleon, ran in the December election, and beat Cavaignac. This change led to a shift in the middle class and it disbanded the National Assembly. As Louis gained power, he decided to be emperor, and the people were okay with it. They all voted on it and he became emperor, but later went into exile and died.
  • The Necropolis Train

    The Necropolis Train
    When the population was doubled in England, that meant that the number of corpses also increased. They were running out of room to bury bodies, so graves were being dug up and bones left behind were increasing the risk of disease. Sir Richard Broun proposed making a big cemetery outside of the city, called "London's Necropolis." A train would take dead people to the graveyard, and they were separated according to wealth. The cemetery averaged about 3,200 burials, which was not much.
  • Schooling becomes required

    Schooling becomes required
    Children in early Victorian age hadn't gone to school, so many of the population was illiterate. Boys would go to public school and girls would stay home. Rich families would use tutors and nannies. By the end of the Victorian age, all children under 12 had to go to school. They used chalkboards since paper was expensive and teachers were allowed to use physical punishment. Literacy increased from 40% to 90%.
  • The Berlin Conference

    The Berlin Conference
    European nations had been aggressively competing for territory. To help solve this, European leaders met in Berlin to establish rules for conquest in Africa. They agreed to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa. No African leaders were invited to the conference.
  • The Boer War

    The Boer War
    There were Dutch settlers that had been living in South Africa called the Boers. The British wanted their land since gold had been discovered there, but the Boers refused to let Britain have political rights. So, the British went to war to take the land and they won. It then became the Union of South Africa.
  • The Wright Brothers invent the first plane

    The Wright Brothers invent the first plane
    Orville and Wilbur Wright were two brothers who were bicycle mechanics living in Dayton, Ohio. In Kitty Hawk, North Carolina they flew a gasoline powered flying machine. Their longest flight was 59 seconds. Their discoveries started the aircraft industry.
  • The Russo-Japanese War

    The Russo-Japanese War
    Russia and Japan both had designs on Manchuria and Korea. Japan destroyed a Russian fleet off the coast of Korea. Japan won the war and westerners were surprised at how powerful they were.
  • The Model T Car is invented

    The Model T Car is invented
    Henry Ford had a big influence on the car industry. He created the first affordable and practical car, called the Model T Ford. It was painted all black. The car industry grew bigger, so more parts were needed. This created more jobs. More roads were built and more oil was used.
  • First Battle of Marne

    First Battle of Marne
    A German army storms through Belgium and into France. When they run into French forces, they fight. They dig trenches and a stalemate occurs. This is said to be the start of WWI.
  • The Armenian Genocide

    The Armenian Genocide
    The Armenians were Christian, but they were apart of the Ottoman Empire, which was Muslim. A new power called the "Young Turks" overthrew the sultan and saw Armenians as a threat. They believed that they were traitors. So, they began attacking the Armenians, and over a million were killed. The genocide was cruel, forcing Armenians to be stripped, walk until they died, be hung from crosses, or be shot. They took Armenian property and would even sell Armenian women into sex slavery.
  • The Gallipoli Campaign

    The Gallipoli Campaign
    It took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire. It was a joint British and French operation to capture the Ottoman capitol, Constantinople. The attempt failed, and it was one of the greatest victories of the Turks.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat. There were some American passengers on the ship, which angered America. Germans claimed that the U-boat was transporting war munitions, but the British denied it.
  • Rasputin Dies

    Rasputin Dies
    Prince Felix Yusupov and three other conspirators invited Rasputin to a party. They fed him poisoned wine, but it didn't have an effect on him. Angry, Yusupov shoots Rasputin and he falls to the ground. When they go to move the body, Rasputin runs away. They shoot at him several times but he still lives. They then beat him repeatedly. To finally kill him, they tie him up in a rug and throw him into a freezing river. This story is possibly exaggerated since the account came from Felix himself.
  • The Zimmerman Telegram

    The Zimmerman Telegram
    It was a telegram sent from Germany to Mexico. Germany was going to help Mexico get some territory in America back. The telegram was intercepted by the British, who decoded it and sent it to the Americans. America then declared war on Germany, which helped the Allied side with more troops.
  • The March Revolution

    The March Revolution
    The Russian citizens were desperate for change and many protests were happening in the streets. Many police agreed with protestors and wouldn't shoot them. Nicholas looses power and is forced to abdicate the throne on March 15. A provisional government is set up temporarily but it fails. Workers refuse to work and soldiers refuse to fight. Lenin steps in, and he is seen as a good leader. The Bolshevik Part begins to grow popularity.
  • Civil War

    Civil War
    The White Army got help from France and the U.S. and they fought the Red Army. The war lasted 3 years and millions of Russians died of famine or fighting. By late 1920, the Bolsheviks finally win and get power over Russia.
  • The October Revolution

    The October Revolution
    In November, the Red Guard attacks the provisional government because they believe in a different calendar. The government collapses and Lenin establishes a radical Communist Program that made private land ownership illegal. Land was given to peasants and factory control was given to workers.
  • Czar Nicholas and his family die

    Czar Nicholas and his family die
    Czar Nicholas had grown very unpopular, and the Bolsheviks wanted to take over. So, the Red Army kidnapped the Czar and his family. While housed at the Ipatiev House, the family was led to the cellar and executed. They were buried in a forest outside of the city. For a while, some people thought that Anastasia had survived and that a woman named Anna Anderson was actually her.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Leaders of America, Britain, France, and Italy all got together to punish Germany for all the damage they had caused in the war. The treaty made it so that the German army was reduced to 100,000 men, and they were not allowed to have tanks or air-force. The Rhineland was de-militarized and the German navy couldn't have any submarines or battle ships. Germany lost all of their overseas colonies and there were new countries created. Germany saw the treaty as harsh and unfair.
  • Stalin becomes the successor to Lenin

    Stalin becomes the successor to Lenin
    After Lenin died, there was a power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky. At first, people underestimated Stalin but he was determined. Trotsky had been a successful commander and had Lenin's support, but Stalin hadn't played much part in the revolution. Stalin got control of key posts in the Communist Party. Trotsky wanted to have power, but Stalin wanted to make Russia stronger. By 1928, Stalin wins power over Russia and Trotsky was forced into exile since he was seen as a threat.
  • The Great Terror

    The Great Terror
    Stalin conducted a series of purges between 1934-1938 since he was so insecure. Millions of people were arrested and killed. People were sent to gulags, which were cruel labor camps. many of Stalin's top officers were killed, as well as Communist Party members and navy admirals. About 20 million ordinary Russians were killed during the Great Terror.
  • Trotsky is killed

    Trotsky is killed
    After Stalin won power over Russia, Trotsky was dismissed as Commissar of War in 1925. He was dismissed from the Central Committee and expelled from the Communist Party. Trotsky was forced into exile in 1929. Stalin was insecure and saw Trotsky as a threat, so he had Trotsky executed in Mexico in 1940.