Dance History Timeline (DAH 100)

By bcelaya
  • 30,000 BCE

    Paleolithic Period

    Paleolithic Period
    This period began about 2 million years ago and ended between 40,000 to 10,000 years ago. It is the earliest period of human development and longest phase of mankind's history.
  • 9500 BCE

    Neolithic Period

    Neolithic Period
    This period began around 9500 BC in the Middle East and ended when metal tools became widespread. This was the last part of the Stone Age. It was a period where human technology was beginning to develop. It began the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution."
  • 800 BCE

    Ancient Greece

    Ancient Greece
    Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. This era was immediately followed by the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine period. Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Greek, Dark Ages, the Archaic period, and the Classical period.
  • 753 BCE

    Ancient Rome

    Ancient Rome
    As legend has it, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars, the god of war. Beginning in the eighth century B.C., Ancient Rome grew from a small town on central Italy’s Tiber River into an empire that at its peak encompassed most of continental Europe, Britain, much of western Asia, northern Africa and the Mediterranean islands.
  • 400

    Medieval Period

    Medieval Period
    This period lasted roughly from the 5th(400-500 CE) to the late 15th centuries (1400-1500 CE). It began with the fall of the Roman Empire & transitioned into the Renaissance. Eastern societies experienced the Islamic Golden Age (advances in agriculture, art, economics, industry, law, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, & technology). Belly dancing was popular. The west European countries experienced the Dark Ages (Black Plague, Dance Mania, & Catholic Church banning dance).
  • 1300

    Renaissance Period

    Renaissance Period
    The Renaissance began in Florence & spread throughout the rest of Europe. It was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity (1300-1600). It occurred after the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages & was associated with great social change. The Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature, & art. Folk, ballet, & court dances (allemande, pavane, sarabande, minuet) were popular in this time.
  • 1300

    Early Ballet

    Early Ballet
    Early ballet originated during the Renaissance from about 1300-1600. Most of early ballet consisted of court dances like the pavane, galliard, courante, and sarabande. A major influencer of early ballet was Catherine de Medici. Her love for Italian art influenced the art & dance in France greatly when she became regent. Her court dances brought about a new dance form: ballet. The first ballet ever recorded was Ballet La Comique de La Reine choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx in 1581.
  • Period: 1500 to

    African Diaspora

    Mass dispersion of peoples from Africa during the Transatlantic Slave Trades, from the 1500s to the 1800s; this Diaspora took millions of people from Western and Central Africa to different regions throughout the Americas and the Caribbean; also brought their culture and dances that influenced dance in America
  • Period: 1519 to

    Catherine de Medici

    Italian; influenced dance in France; brought her love of Italian art to France; married Henry II at 14; became regent when husband died; the idea of sheek began with her with things like high heels
  • 1581

    Comique de la Rein

    Choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyeux; first ballet recorded; court dance; supported by Catherine de Medici
  • Baroque Period

    Baroque Period
    The Baroque time period was from around 1600 - 1800. This was a time period where new musical styles (fugue, prelude, cantata, oratorio, opera, sonata, concerto) were introduced from renowned composers like Bach, Handel, and Vivaldi. The Baroque is a period of artistic style that started around 1600 in Rome , Italy, and spread throughout the majority of Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.
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    Pierre Beauchamp

    Louis XIV's dance teacher and highest paid servant; created the 5-feet positions used in ballet today
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    Louis XIV

    King of France; the "Sun King"; loved dance; made dances a huge spectacle; set ballet on the road to becoming codified art form by establishing the Academie Royale de Dance (Paris Opera Ballet)
  • First Professional Theatres

    1st professional theaters appeared in U.S.; works presented were pantomimes or ballad operas; pantomimes were one act works that replaced spoken dialogue w/wordless clowning & interpolated songs; ballad operas were comic plays peppered w/popular ballads (songs) that had been given new satirical lyrics (stage & film musicals no longer look like this but gave foundation for musicals to develop); performances halted during Revolutionary War; picked up once America was not a British colony
  • American Born Musicals

    Native born, or American born, “musicals” began appearing in the 1790s; these performances were not borrowed from Britain.
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    Genre of variety entertainment prevalent in the U.S. & Canada; inspired by concert saloons, the minstrelsy, freak shows, dime museums, & burlesque shows; 1st established by Tony Pastor; 12-20 unrelated acts; entertainers: musicians, dancers, comedians, trained animals, magicians, female/male impersonators, acrobats, one-act plays or scenes from plays, athletes, lecturing celebrities, minstrels & short films; declined due to the talking film
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    August Bournonville

    Danish ballet master and choreographer known for using softer, more human movements. Much of his work was upbeat with happy endings. He also created the Bournonville method that is still being used at the Royal Danish Ballet. He went against the norm of having mostly female lead ballet dancers and gave men equally important roles. It was said his technique fit the male dancers best; however, the female dancers were still taught the same moves as the men. He created over 50 ballets.
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    Marius Petipa

    King of Classical Ballet.
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    "Master Juba" (William Henry Lane)

    Legal name William Henry Lane; not a slave; born a free man; considered by many to be the creator of modern tap; career started in Manhattan’s Five Points neighborhood which exposed him to black & slave dances, as well as Irish & British dances; this exposure allowed him to become an accomplished buck and wing dancer; won many competitions; 1st black performer to receive top billing in a minstrel show over white in 1845; 1st to perform solos; possibly died from being overworked & poor diet
  • Romantic Ballet

    Romantic Ballet
    Heyday of Romantic Ballet was from 1830-1850. August Bournonville, Jules Perrot, & Filippo Taglioni were the main choreographers of this time. The two most well known Romantic Ballets were Coppélia by Arthur Saint-Léon (principal ballerina Eugénie Fiocre) & the Pas de Quatre by Jules Perrot (principal ballerinas Marie Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Lucille Grahn, and Fanny Cerrito). Fanny Elssler was also a popular ballerina. The costume was mainly white & introduced the romantic tutu.
  • Tap Dance

    Earliest influence in tap's development came from slaves; used to beat drums to communicate across plantations, but that was banned by white owners; slaves then used their bodies to create rhythms using their hands to beat out rhythms & feet to stomp rhythms; another early influence was Levee Dancers (groups of dancers throughout south; slaves on river boats) who beat out dances by brushing & shuffling their feet; movements copied by white performers who found fame in minstrel shows around 1830
  • Christy's Minstrels

    All black performance troupe; were instrumental in solidifying the three-act form; popularized “the line”- the structured grouping that constituted the 1st act of the 3-act show. “The line” consisted of an interlocutor, or master of ceremonies, who stood in the middle, while Mr. Tambo and Mr. Bones stood on either end. Tambo and bones were characters that were portrayed as ignorant and poorly spoken; they got conned, electrocuted or run over in various sketches.
  • Broadway Development

    By 1850 a form of musicals were commonplace on Broadway, but were not called “musicals” yet. Rather, they were called burlettas, extravaganzas, spectacles, operettas, comic or light operas, pantomimes or parlor operas. Additionally, black performers began to star in black musicals as the minstrelsy died out. Musicals during this time also incorporated elements of burlesque, minstrelsy and Vaudeville. They had lavish stage effects and had scantily clad women who wore tight fitting clothing.
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    Enrico Cecchetti

    Italian ballet dancer, mime, and founder of the Cecchetti method. Performed in Petipa's Sleeping Beauty in 1890. Taught Nijinsky, Nijinska, Balanchine, Pavlova, and Vaganova.
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    An American entertainment form consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, & music; 1st American theatrical form; “minstrel” show reached its characteristics & form in the mid-1800s; reached its height around Civil War & began to decline in early 1900s; had 3 acts; used blackface (Thomas D. Rice father of blackface); made fun of African Americans
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    Loie Fuller

    American dancer; born in Illinois; considered a modern dance pioneer because she experimented with her movement and other production elements; an innovator in dance productions, specifically stage lighting and costuming, which played a big part in theatre & dance in general. This opened up new possibilities in the production of dance. She even was an inventor, creating gel plastic sheets to add lighting effects to her costumes on stage. Known for Serpentine Dance.
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    Pierina Legnani

    Italian ballet dancer of the Classical Era. She was the principal ballerina in Marius Petipa's Swan Lake. First ballerina to perform 32 turns.
  • The Black Crook

    given credit as the 1st modern musical (though it was still not exactly like what are called “book musicals”, which means modern day musicals); came about from Wheatley, Jarrett, and Palmer; considered a prototype of the modern musical in that the songs and dances were interspersed throughout the play and the songs and dances were performed by the actors (rather than being random divertissements performed by others); toured over 30 years; over 5 hours in length
  • Don Quixote

    Don Quixote
    Classical Ballet choreographed by Marius Petipa.
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    Sergei Diaghilev

    Founded the Ballet Russes. He evolved classical ballet into a modern art form. He was not a choreographer, dancer, or composer. He was an astute showman, poor businessman, and had an eye for the arts as a genre. His concept of blending choreography w/dance, music, decor, & spectacles changed dance forever. It proved that ballet could be a serious & eloquent artform rather than just a silly diversion. He produced The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), and The Rite of Spring (1913).
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    Classical Period

    Classical Ballet took place in the later half of the 19th century from about 1877-1900. They were lavish, extravagant, high in technical skill, & had 4 acts. They were filled with elements of fantasy & were less ethereal. Marius Petipa was considered the king of classical ballet. He choreographed Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, and The Nutcracker. Some training methods of the time were the Vaganova Method, Cecchetti Method, and Royal Academy of Dance Method.
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    Bill "Bojangles" Robinson

    Tapper born Virginia; made estimated 3,500/week as solo performer (6,600 height); broke two-act rule of Vaudeville when manager established him as a solo act for Vaudeville stage; most known for his films w/Shirley Temple; partnership was controversial because they would hold hands; credited w/bringing tap movement to the balls of feet, making it lighter & cleaner & allowed for more improvisation; invented stair dance (danced up & down staircase rhythmically); schools shut down on day of funeral
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    Agrippina Vaganova

    Russian ballet teacher who created the Vaganova Method. Her Fundamentals of the Classical Dance (1934) remains a standard textbook for the instruction of ballet technique and is one of the most popular techniques today.
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    Ruth St. Denis

    American dancer; born in New Jersey; first to bring a major impact to America; founded school of Natya (1940) to continue teaching oriental dances; co-founded Denishawn with Ted Shawn; important because created first dance company that became a professional company in the U.S.
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    Rudolf von Laban

    born in the Kingdom of Hungary (part of Austrian-Hungary Empire at time); created Labanotation, Laban Art of Movement Guild & Laban Movement Analysis; became interested in the relationships between the moving human form in space and the space that surrounds human; believed movement should be accessed by all; opened dance farms (summer schools) in Switzerland; major contribution was Art of Movement Choirs (large number of people moving together in a choreographed manner); taught Wigman & Jooss
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    Michel Fokine

    Russian choreographer and dancer born in Saint Petersburg, Russia. One of 13 original Ballet Russes dancers and first choreographer for the company. Choreographed Firebird (1910) for Ballet Russes.
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    Anna Pavlova

    One of Russia's prima ballerinas born in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Started with Ballet Russes before starting her own company in 1910. Famous for her performance in The Dying Swan. Influenced modern and contemporary dances.
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    Mary Wigman

    German dancer/choreographer; pioneered expressionist dance, dance therapy, and movement training without pointe shoes; wore masks; known for Hexentanz Dance; became one of the most iconic figures of Weimar German culture; work brought the deepest of existential experiences to the stage.
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    Isadora Duncan

    American dancer; born in California; considered creator or "mother" of modern dance; was free-thinking, free-moving, investigative, innovative; she broke the rules and created new rules; rebelled against ballet (evident in Manifesto Speech in Germany 1903); had dance group called The Isadorables; Greece influenced her philosophy, dancing, costuming, & opinions about women and place in society.
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    Vaslav Nijinsky

    Russian dancer/choreographer born in Ukraine. Diaghilev became infatuated with him. He replaced Michel Fokine as next Ballet Russes choreographer. He choreographed Afternoon of the Faun and The Rite of Spring. Not typical image of a dancer. He was thick set and shortish. Was known to be electrifying on stage and could look different for every role he played. All his ballets were controversial.
  • Sleeping Beauty

    Classical Ballet originally choreographed by Marius Petipa. Composed by Tchaikovsky. Enrico Cecchetti performed in it.
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    Asadata Dafora

    born in Sierra Leone; first to use African drumming & music with African movement & indigenous to culture; normalized seeing a man of color on stage; proved African Americans could be successful on stage; reinforced racist ideas that black dancers could only be accepted in the concert dance scene if they danced within the primitive genres of dance; learned 17 African dialects; created Shogolo Oloba dance company in NYC; productions called dance dramas because included narrative & song
  • Serpentine Dance

    film made with Lumiere Brothers; choreographed and directed by Loie Fuller; no sound score; lighting effects changed colors on the fabric that made her costume; originally created as an experiment for a play called Quack MD.
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    Bronislava Nijinska

    Became choreographer of Ballet Russes after Massine. Younger sister of Nijinsky. Hired by Diaghilev in 1924. Trained at Mariinsky Theatre. Was a talented Satirist. Created Ballet School in LA in 1941.
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    Ted Shawn

    American dancer; born in Missouri; co-founded Denishawn with Ruth St. Denis; important because he created along with Denis the first dance academy that became a professional dance company in the U.S.; first to receive a world recommendation; founder and creator of Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival in 1942 (strong, athletic male dancers).
  • The Nutcracker

    Classical Ballet choreographed by Marius Petipa. Petipa got sick during its creation and had his assistant finish choreographing the piece but still got credit. Tchaikovsky was the composer.
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    Hanya Holm

    German dancer; Mary Wigman's student; made students put thoughts in their mind and make it happen (like making the body a slave to the mind); taught notation, music, & history of dance at her school; her University of Dance school taught Labanotation (leading system for recording movement); choreographed for Broadway including numbers like My Fair Lady and Kiss Me Kate
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    Martha Graham

    American modern dancer/choreographer; born in Pennsylvania; created Graham Technique (contract/release & spiraling); considered dance to be a graph of the heart; her dances did not make audience feel good; considered most influential of modern dance choreographers since its development; inspired to dance by a performance she saw of Ruth St. Denis
  • Swan Lake

    Classical Ballet choreographed by Marius Petipa and known as the most difficult ballet to perform with its double main role and 32 turns. Tchaikovsky was the composer.
  • Fire Dance

    choreographed by Loie Fuller; performed at one of the Follies; lighting and mirror under her that gave the illusion she was on fire
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    Doris Humphrey

    American dancer/choreographer; grew up in Chicago; one of Graham's contemporaries; part of creating Humphrey-Weidman Technique (catch/release) still taught today; moved to California to join Denishawn in 1917; created Humphrey Weidman dance company with Charles Weidman; played a large role starting dance at Juilliard in 1952; one of first to write book on how to make dance "The Art of Making Dances"
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    Oscar Hammerstein II

    Wrote lyrics; born in NYC; father Jewish; mother British; undergrad at Columbia University; created Show Boat (1927) w/Jerome Kern before working w/Rodgers; w/Rodgers, began “Golden Age” of musical theatre through creation of Broadway musicals from the 1940s-1950s; they revolutionized musicals by creating musicals where songs were necessary to tell story; stories were emotionally deep & psychologically complex; created Oklahoma, The King and I, The Sound of Music, & South Pacific
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    Leonide Massine

    Next lead choreographer after Nijinsky for Ballet Russes. Made Parade 1917 (Picasso worked with him to make set & costumes).
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    Fred Astaire

    Most famous work with sister was Funny Face (1927); worked with Ginger Rogers for 6 years from 1933 to 1939; insisted that a closely tracking dolly camera film a dance routine in as few shots as possible, typically with just four to eight cuts, while holding the dancers in full view at all times; wanted all song and dance routines to be integral to the plot of the film; had 3 standard dances (solo performance, partnered comedy routine; partnered romantic routine)
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    Kurt Jooss

    German ballet dancer/choreographer. Student of Mary Wigman. Mixed Classical Ballet with theatre. Founder of Tanztheater. Noted for establishing several dance companies, including most notably, the Folkwang Tanztheater, in Essen, Germany. Most famous work is The Green Table.
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    Charles Weidman

    American dancer/choreographer; born in Lincoln, Nebraska; emphasized the movements that occurred before and after falling, suspension, & succession (Humphrey Weidman Technique); known for Lynchtown & Opis 51; one of Graham's contemporaries; works were more innovative, daft, & witty with some somber pieces; work ranged from religious to serious to comical; criticized for not addressing current issues
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    Richard Rodgers

    Composer; born in NYC; Jewish; undergrad at Columbia University; created Jumbo (1935) & On Your Toes (1936) w/Lorenz Hart before working w/Hammerstein; w/Hammerstein, began “Golden Age” of musical theatre through creation of Broadway musicals from the 1940s-1950s; they revolutionized musicals by creating musicals where songs were necessary to tell story; stories were emotionally deep & psychologically complex; created Oklahoma, The King and I, The Sound of Music, & South Pacific
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    John William “Bubbles” Sublett

    considered “father of rhythm-tap” (what hoofing is); booed off stage at Hoofer’s Club in Harlem so worked hard to produce something that would get him remembered; credited w/adding use of the heel to create rhythmic sounds on the off beats (sounds made w/toes were made on the on beats); this allowed him to create more complicated rhythms than had ever been done before; taught Fred Astaire; played Sportin' Life in Porgy and Bess musical; met Buck at 11; went from singing to tap when voice changed
  • The Wizard of Oz

    One of most memorable early musicals that has been forever immortalized and became a beloved part of our culture when turned into a film musical.
  • Babes in Toyland

    One of most memorable early musicals that has been forever immortalized and became a beloved part of our culture when turned into a film musical.
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    Ford Lee “Buck” Washington

    played piano for "Buck and Bubbles" act; recorded music with other musicians at the time like Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith; was 10 when teamed up with Bubbles as a duo; Bubbles and Buck was 1st black group to perform at Radio City Music Hall in NYC; made $800 a week (highest paid performers in their genre)
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    George Balanchine

    Part of 2nd Ballet Russes. Contributed to the development of American Ballet (father of American Ballet). Created Neoclassical Ballet. His ballets rejected sweet style of Romantic Ballets & acrobatic style of Theatrical Ballet. Just focused on movement & music. Movement emphasized balance, control, precision, speed & definition. Ballet was about the woman. Redefined body image: needing to have skinny bodies. Also wanted them to be stronger, more flexible. Created nearly 500 works.
  • The Dying Swan

    Choreographed by Michel Fokine for Anna Pavlova. Premiered in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It was a short ballet that she performed about 4,000 times.
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    Agnes de Mille

    Born in NYC; turned to dance since told she was not pretty enough to be an actress; choreo was key element in solidifying the modern equation for a musical; trained w/Dame Marie Rambert at The Ballet Club (later Ballet Rambert) & w/Antony Tudor's London Ballet; focused on the emotional dimensions of the characters in her choreo; work often reflected the angst & turmoil of characters (didn’t just focus on technique); originally created Rodeo for Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo; Oklahoma famous work
  • Ziegfeld Follies

    On the Vaudeville review side, the Ziegfeld Follies were immensely popular in the U.S.
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    Lincoln Kirstein

    American writer, impresario, art connoisseur, philanthropist, & cultural figure in NYC. Never dancer. Influenced by Ballet Russes. Envisioned an American Ballet w/American style training. Opened American School of Ballet w/Balanchine in 1934. Sustained company w/organizational skills & fundraising abilities for more than 4 decades. Company's director 1946-1989. Founded School of American Ballet w/Balanchine. Had many contributions to the arts including materials related to history of dance.
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    Antony Tudor

    English choreographer, teacher, & dancer. Highly influential to make American Ballet what it is today. Wasn’t a ballet dancer but a clerk. Ballets were thoughtful & psychological. Believed ballet was a fusion of movements, not a series of separate dances that could be performed independently or in pieces. Used psychological tension & dramatic gestures to explore the human condition. Was using the language & shoes of ballet. Famous works were Lilac Garden, Dark Elegies, & The Leaves are Fading.
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    Katherine Dunham

    born in Chicago; matriarch of black dance; known for Stormy Weather, Barrelhouse Blues, and L'ag'ya; started Negro Dance Group in 1945 in Manhattan; developed ethnographic studies of dance throughout her anthropology experience; helped unite American dancers w/their African heritage; choreography based on her research reflected the black diaspora traditions of the countries she studied; dances blurred the line on what sort of movement & performance were acceptable for black people on stage
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    Ballet Russes

    Created by Diaghilev. Famous artists like Picasso would set up extravagant stages. Fokine was first choreographer then Nijinsky, Massine, & Nijinska. Pavlova started here before starting her own company. Famous works were Firebird, Afternoon of the Faun, The Rite of Spring, Parade, Les Noces, & The Dying Swan. First independent company not funded by the government. Was successful but always was on verge of bankruptcy. Toured all over world, never in Russia even with members being Russian.
  • Firebird

    Ballet Russes ballet choreographed by Michel Fokine.
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    Alwin Nikolais

    American choreographer; born in Connecticut; father of multimedia; dances were spectacles; used organ music, puppetry, interesting scene/costume design, & composed own music; inspired to dance after seeing Wigman perform in Germany; received dance training at Bennington College; director of Henry Street Playhouse in 1948 where developed abstract theatre style; lights, slides, electronic music, & stage props created environments through which dancers moved; first to use Moog synthesizer
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    Ginger Rogers

    worked with Fred Astaire for 6 years from 1933 to 1939; performed on Vaudeville early in her career but became famous working with Astaire during the 1930s in RKO's musical films; made 9 musical films with Astaire; did some pretty big work after working with Fred Astaire; won an Academy Award for role in 1940s film Kitty Foyle
  • Afternoon of the Faun

    Choreographed by Nijinsky with music collab with Debussy. Based on a poem. Was controversial because ended with the faun masterbating with scarf the nymph left behind. The style & movement was important because it rejected the classical formalism & dancers were dancing barefoot. Angular, sharp movement.
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    Gene Kelly

    Most influential in musical theatre; felt more boys & men should be dancing; dressed in blue collar men clothes; tapping was hard hitting; wanted dancers & camera to dance together; contributions were w/lighting & camera effects to create full movement/camera integration; one of first to play w/split screens, double images, live action w/animation; credited for making ballet commercially acceptable; shot to stardom w/Pal Joey; film career began w/David Selznick; breakthrough w/Columbia studio
  • The Rite of Spring

    Choreographed by Nijinsky and composed by Igor Stravinsky. A controversial dance. Wasn’t considered music or was called ugly music. Music lacked harmony. Caused a riot at the theatre. Touched on fertility rights, cat calls. So loud from riot in theatre that Nijinsky had to yell counts from side of stage. Original version was lost but notes were found and it was constructed by the Joffrey Ballet. Feet turned in. faces painted. Clothing like tribal clothes.
  • Hexentanz Dance

    choreographed by Mary Wigman; witch dance; wore mask; made while student of Rudolf von Laban
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    Fayard Nicholas (Nicholas Brothers)

    Tapper; him & his brother Harold became performers at The Cotton Club in 1932; invited by George Balanchine to perform in “Babes in Arms” in 1937; taught at Harvard University and Radcliffe College; taught famous performers like Debbie Allen and Janet & Michael Jackson; they epitomized acrobatic technique in tap known as “flash dancing;” performances were showy, flashy and full of tricks and acrobatics
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    Michael Kidd

    American film and stage choreographer, dancer, and actor; staged leading Broadway musicals from the 1940s-1950s; one of more well known musicals is Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
  • Parade

    Choreographed by Leonide Massine for the Ballet Russes. Music by Erik Satie. Costumes and set design done by Picasso. Dance showed a horse dancing around. Also had scene with acrobats dancing.
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    Jerome Robbins

    An American choreographer, director, dancer, & theater producer; worked in classical ballet, on stage, film, & television; some stage productions were The King and I, West Side Story, Fiddler on the Roof, & Fancy Free; studied modern dance in high school with Alys [CK] Bentley; joined the company of Senya Gluck Sandor; took ballet w/Ella Daganova; made stage debut w/ Yiddish Art Theater in small role in The Brothers Ashkenazi; performed in other famous works from Balanchine & de Mille
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    Margot Fonteyn

    English ballerina. She spent her entire career as a dancer with the Royal Ballet, eventually being appointed prima ballerina assoluta of the company by Queen Elizabeth II.
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    Pearl Primus

    born in Trinidad; moved to New York City at 2 in 1921; known for Strange Fruit; technique consisted of African American/ Caribbean movement blended w/modern dance & ballet; infused spirituals, jazz, blues, & literacy work of black writers w/her movement to create her performance works; work mostly centered around African American stories, ideas, and concerns; became chair of the dance program of the Five College Dance Consortium in 1990
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    Merce Cunningham

    born in Washington; studied under Graham; used "chance"; movement style often called modern on the top, ballet on the bottom; believed dance should come from the kinetic/theatrical experience & the human situation, not the story; collaborated with life partner John Cage (musician); music and dance were independent of each other; created a computer program called Dance Forms in the 1970s
  • Neoclassical Ballet

    Neoclassical Ballet
    Began in the early 20th century (1920s). Had beginnings of Neoclassicism with the Ballet Russes when dancers rebelled against Romantic Ballets. The father of Neoclassical Ballet was George Balanchine, who was part of the development in American Ballet. He focused solely on the movement and music. Some famous dances of this time were Stars and Stripes and Jewels. Gelsey Kirkland was an American ballerina who joined Balanchine's New York City Ballet company at 15.
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    Harold Nicholas (Nicholas Brothers)

    Tapper; him & his brother Fayard became performers at The Cotton Club in 1932; invited by George Balanchine to perform in “Babes in Arms” in 1937; taught at Harvard University and Radcliffe College; taught famous performers like Debbie Allen and Janet & Michael Jackson; they epitomized acrobatic technique in tap known as “flash dancing;” performances were showy, flashy and full of tricks and acrobatics
  • Les Noces

    Choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska for the Ballet Russes. Music by Igor Stravinsky. Premiered in Paris. Had an opera on stage. Many dancer. 5 parts.
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    Gerald Arpino

    American dancer and choreographer. He was co-founder of the Joffrey Ballet and succeeded Robert Joffrey as its artistic director in 1988. He served as co-director of the company's school, the American Ballet Center. Arpino created nearly fifty ballets for the company, including signature works such as Viva Vivaldi (1965), Trinity (1970), and Light Rain (1981).
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    Gus Giordano (August Thomas Giordano III)

    An American jazz dancer, teacher, and choreographer; performed on Broadway, television, & in theater; taught jazz dance to thousands in North America, Europe, Asia, and South America; founder of Gus Giordano Dance School (1953), Gus Giordano Jazz Dance Chicago (1963), creator of the First American Jazz Dance World Congress (1990), and the author of Anthology of American Jazz Dance (1975); praised for establishing Broadway or theatrical jazz dance as an internationally recognized artistic medium
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    "Luigi" (Eugene Louis Faccuito)

    An American jazz dancer, choreographer, teacher, and innovator who created the jazz exercise technique. The Luigi Warm Up Technique is a training program that promotes body alignment, balance, core strength, and "feeling from the inside." This method became the world's first standard technique for teaching jazz and musical theater dance; also used for rehabilitation.
  • Showboat

    Considered earliest musical w/modern recipe, meaning it had an integrated book & score & had dramatic themes told through music, dialogue, setting, & movement; all parts of musical were woven together to tell the story more seamlessly than previous musicals; first stage musical that was fully integrated; both white & black cast members were on stage together to tell same story; an adaptation of a novel of same title & was the story of the actors & workers that worked on a traveling show boat.
  • The Jazz Singer

    Warner Brothers Studio took a gamble on a Vitaphone film; 1st full length feature to use recorded song and dialogue; was still mostly silent and when first presented, it was still completely silent in many venues because the theatres didn’t have the sound technology; nevertheless, the film was a smash hit; the success of the film pushed studio executives to see that the talking feature “fad” might not be a fad and that they should serious think about investing more into “talkies.”
  • Period: to

    Bob Fosse

    An American dancer, musical-theatre choreographer, actor, theatre director, and filmmaker; directed and choreographed musical works on stage and screen; made impact on Broadway stage with Chicago (1975) and Cabaret (1966); style of choreography included turned-in knees, "jazz hands", the "Fosse Amoeba", sideways shuffling, & rolled shoulders; influenced by Astaire; After serving in WWII, Fosse moved to New York City with the ambition of being the new Fred Astaire
  • Heretic

    Choreographed by Martha Graham; 12 women; ideas of acceptance
  • Prodigal Son

    last of Balanchine's works for the Ballet Russes before he started creating plotless ballets. Costumes designed by Pablo Picasso.
  • Lamentation

    Choreographed by Martha Graham; darker piece; most famous piece; grieving woman sitting alone on bench; garment represents stretching inside one's own skin; said there’s always one person you speak to in the audience.
  • Talking Film

    In the late 20s/early 30s, stage musicals began to compete with the new “talking” pictures. There was not a lot of competition between the two when films were silent, but once sound entered movies, the combination of the novelty of the new “invention” and the cheaper cost of the movies drove audiences from live theater seats and into movie theater seats.
  • Period: to

    1930s Musical Period

    Two major things happened in the 30s: the 1st major musical film stars were created and included people like Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, Shirley Temple, and Bill “Bojangles” Robinson; animated musicals make an appearance with the first being Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937).
  • Period: to

    Robert Joffrey

    American dancer, teacher, producer, choreographer. Co-founder of Joffrey Ballet, known for imaginative modern ballets. One of first to have studied both modern & ballet. Created hybrid between modern & ballet that is common today. Blended the precise footwork, precision, & grace of classical ballet w/floorwork, upper body dexterity, & raw emotion of modern dance. Got rid of traditional ranking system (dancer's roles based on ranking). Created ensemble group to change out leading roles instead.
  • Period: to

    Paul Taylor

    American dancer/choreographer; choreographed Esplanade; founded Paul Taylor dance company in New York City in 1954; born Pennsylvania; studies under Martha Graham; considered choreographic chameleon
  • Period: to

    Alvin Ailey

    founded Ailey American Dance Theatre in 1958 in NYC; company still going; work still relevant; works looked kind of jazzy, others more modern, some like social dancing; created work specifically w/audience in mind; positive moving experience important; explored ideas that evoked emotion while others stripped it; technique mix of Horton Technique, ballet, & jazz; dancers train in all genres; liked to see dancers in long, unbroken leg, lines, articulated legs/feet, & dramatically expressive torso
  • Ostrich Dance

    Choreographed by Asadata Dafora; originally performed by Dafora
  • The Green Table

    Choreographed by Kurt Jooss. Inspired by Medieval Dances of Death. Depicts the futility of war and the horrors it causes. It was the first work to be fully notated using kinetography Laban (Labanotation). Death is triumphant, portrayed as a skeleton moving in a forceful and robot-like way, relentlessly claiming its victims.
  • The Cotton Club

    Club where the Nicholas Brothers became performers in Harlem; they were the only black act allowed to mingle with the white patrons
  • Period: to

    Arthur Mitchell

    Was leading dancer at NYCB. Founded Dance Theatre of Harlem in 1968 because wanted to show that blacks were capable in excelling in classical ballet. Shifted accessibility to ballet so nonwhite, middle class individuals could have access. Mitchell opened the door for other African American dancers to participate in ballet.
  • Porgy and Bess

    "Bubbles" played Sportin' Life in this musical
  • The Little Colonel

    Film starring Shirley Temple and Bill "Bojangles" Robinson; tapped on stairs scene:
  • New Dance

    choreographed by Doris Humphrey; dance trilogy explored human relationships; had fall and recovery moves; modern dance today still looks like this.
  • Yvonne Ranier

    born in California; combined pedestrian movement and design movement; no movement in one part of the dance was supposed to be more important than another (minimalism); body was a source of infinite variety of movement, not as a means to express emotion or drama; movement was direct, functional, and the void of stylization; questioned who can dance, how dance was created, & entertainment in dance; dancers did not look at audience as to not buy into theatrics of overblown drama
  • Porgy and Bess

    musical based on novel “Porgy” & deals w/African-American life in a fictitious neighborhood called Catfish Row in Charleston, South Carolina in early 20s; cast was 100% classically trained black singers; was not widely accepted in the U.S. at first; not considered a legitimate work until 1976; currently in many opera house repertoires & is performed internationally; music composed by American composer George Gershwin; “Summertime” is most famous song
  • Lilac Garden

    Choreographed by Antony Tudor. First performed in London by Ballet Rambert (British dance company). Has been in the New York City Ballet for a while & Paris Opera Ballet since 1985. Story about a marriage out of convenience.
  • Lynchtown

    choreographed by Charles Weidman; about his witness to a lynching experience; one of his more serious and violent dances
  • Period: to

    Trisha Brown

    born in Washington; created Trisha Brown Dance Company, Judson Dance Theatre, Grand Union; wanted to make dance more accessible to the audience by demystifying dance, particularly the choreographic process and make it easier to understand how choreography is made; interested in site specific work like Man Walking Down A Building; mix of nature and every day movements
  • Dark Elegies

    Choreographed by Antony Tudor. Originally performed at Rambert Ballet but also has a repertoire with Paris Opera since 1985. Less of a story & more of a theme. Accompanied by vocalists. Story about village peasants who dance their grief due to a tragedy.
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

    First animated musical to make an appearance
  • Babes In Arms

    Musical that the Nicholas Brothers were invited to perform in by George Balanchine
  • Opus 51

    choreographed by Charles Weidman; no story; based on principal finding joy and relation through movement
  • Barrelhouse Blues

    Choreographed by Katherine Dunham; first American work; about a beat old woman who goes to a dance to recapture her youth and simply have a good time; movement taken from the social dance called The Shimmy (specifically the Florida Swamp Shimmy); controversial for audiences
  • L'ag'ya

    Choreographed by Katherine Dunham; first full evening length piece; movement was blend of ballet, modern, traditional folk, social dance forms from Cuba, Brazil, and Martinique; inspired to create this piece after seeing a fighting dance in Martinique; 5 parts; fable of love and revenge and a competition of men over an attractive woman
  • Period: to

    Rudolf Nureyev

    Soviet-born ballet dancer/choreographer. Regarded by some as the greatest male ballet dancer of his generation. Began career w/Kirov Ballet (now Mariinsky Ballet) in Leningrad. Defected from Soviet Union to West in 1961. Was first defection of a Soviet artist during Cold War. Danced w/The Royal Ballet in London. From 1983-1989 served as director of Paris Opera Ballet & was chief choreographer. Produced his own interpretations of numerous classical works (Swan Lake, Giselle, and La Bayadère).
  • Steve Paxton

    Born Phoenix, AZ; helped create Judson Dance Theatre and Grand Union; most known for Contact Improvisation; believed that untrained dancers could contribute to dance and the pedestrian movement; sought to minimize the difference between the audience and the performer; showed interest in how objects can impact movement and how the body can manipulate itself around objects
  • Natalia Makarova

    Russian prima ballerina (became in 1960s) & choreographer born in Leningrad in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of the USSR. Still alive. Today stages ballets such as Swan Lake, La Bayadère, & Sleeping Beauty for companies across the world. Retired from dancing due to accumulating injuries. The History of Dance, published in 1981, notes that "her performances set standards of artistry and aristocracy of dance which mark her as the finest ballerina of her generation in the West."
  • Period: to

    Pina Bausch

    Born in Germany; Kurt Jooss' student; founder of Tanztheatre (emancipation from balletic traditions/routines & complete freedom to choose one’s means of expression); works mixture of dance & theater & included extravagant sets, props & text/dialogue; felt audience should be challenged mentally & emotionally; felt art was a vehicle for social criticism (life injustices suffered by women); works stressed feelings of alienation, anguish, frustration, cruelty, violence, & power struggle
  • Period: to

    "Golden Age" of Musicals

    When musicals hit perfect cohesive balance between book, music, storyline, songs, & dance; these elements further developed musicals; dream ballet was introduced, became part of musical formula, & contributed to story development; many songs were well known & played on radio as part of top 40s lineup; many actors & actresses were household names & the number of musicals coming off the stage & out of the movie theaters was immense; The Sound of Music, Guys and Dolls, My Fair Lady, The Music Man
  • Twyla Tharp

    Born in California; went to NY to study art history; developed movement mixing pedestrian and highly articulated ballet; known for Push Comes to Shove and In the Upper Room
  • Rodeo

    Choreographed by Agnes de Mille; her most famous ballet; originally created for the Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo; the score was by Aaron Copland; de Mille starred in the original and was so popular she received 22 curtain calls.The story was about a tomboy who wanted to find love but was an outcast in the community because she didn’t dress like a girl or hang out with the girls.
  • Stormy Weather

    Musical film Katherine Dunham danced in
  • Oklahoma

    Musical that ushered in the Golden Age; considered the first musical of the period; finished what Showboat started by integrating all the aspects of musical theatre (cohesive plot, songs that furthered the action of the story, & dances that advanced the plot & development of the characters); music created by Rogers and Hammerstein; choreographed by Agnes de Mille (most famous work; chosen to do because of Rodeo)
  • Stormy Weather

    Last film "Bojangles" starred in; was semi-autobiographical; all black musical; also starred Katherine Dunham; has famous stair clip by the Nicholas Brothers:
  • Appalachian Spring

    Choreographed by Martha Graham; lighter piece; collaboration with Aaron Copland, about settlers building new farmhouse for a new married couple; Martha danced in her 60s.
  • On the Town

    Musical that had Americana theme; based on a ballet called Fancy Free; choreographed by Jerome Robbins; about 3 sailors on leave for the day & their adventures exploring New York City; music by Leonard Bernstein; most famous song is “New York, New York"; film version done in 1949 and directed by Gene Kelly; film starred Kelly and Frank Sinatra; much of the music was replaced by music from another composer, which caused Bernstein to boycott the film
  • Mats Ek

    Swedish dancer/choreographer. Still Alive. Known for his work, Apartment.
  • Strange Fruit

    Choreographed by Pearl Primus; about lynching; sound score was a poem; was brave to perform a solo for that poem during the pre-civil war times
  • Anchors Aweigh

    known for being the first film to be successful in creating a live action/animation scene (no other company had done this prior); Kelly choreographed & starred in; story of 2 sailors, on leave in Hollywood, get recruited by police to convince a boy who keeps running away to come back home to his aunt; boy wants to be a sailor so he is enamored w/the 2 sailors; 2 sailors meet the aunt, lie to her saying they know the director of an audition she is going to because they're trying to impress her
  • Cave of the Heart

    Choreographed by Martha Graham; darker piece; dance influenced by greek mythology; story about Medea (sorceress) who found out that husband has been cheating on her; he ends up killing his mistress; coat burns him to death; cave of the heart is her angry heart that’s been betrayed.
  • Period: to

    Gregory Hines

    Tapper born in NYC; most well known for playing the role of “Jelly Roll” Morton in Jelly's Last Jam; starred in the film Tap (credited with helping to revitalize and renew interest in tap); starred in movie White Nights with Mikhail Baryshnikov; had television series called The Gregory Hines Show; had reoccurring role as Ben Doucette on Will & Grace; taught Savion Glover
  • Jiří Kylián

    Czech dancer and contemporary choreographer. Still Alive. Became artistic director of Netherlands Dance Theatre (NDT) in 1976. Choreographed Sarabande (1990), Petite Mort (1991), Forgotten Land (1981), Falling Angels (1989), and Sleepless (2004).
  • Day on Earth

    Choreographed by Doris Humphrey; explores humanity, the cycle of birth, love, loss, death, etc.
  • Liz Lerman

    Born in LA, raised in Milwaukee; pioneer of community dance; believed dance should be accessible to all; expanded on "community dance" from the way she set up her company & through her creation of “Liz Lerman Toolbox”; Dance Exchange company is a place where Lerman’s vision of arts’ accessibility can come to life; core element of Lerman’s work choreographically is the community aspect; known for Matter of Origins & Ferocious Beauty: Genome; works at ASU
  • Mikhail Baryshnikov

    Russian-American dancer, choreographer, & actor. Still alive. Brought his many training styles of classical, modern, and contemporary dances to the stage, television, and cinema in the U.S. He has accumulated many awards for his work and performances throughout his life.
  • William Forsythe

    American dancer/choreographer. Still alive. Style based on Classical Ballet, using traditional positions, but developing them to extreme. Believes music & dance are independent from each other. Known for work w/Ballet Frankfurt (1984–2004) & Forsythe Company (2005–2015). Credited w/revolutionizing ballet & hailed as “most influential practitioner of the art form since Balanchine." Work performed by every major ballet company in world. Challenged social norms. Combined choreography & visual arts.
  • South Pacific

    Musical; music created by Richard Rodgers & Oscar Hammerstein II; based on the book “Tales of the South Pacific”; explored racial issues by telling stories of two interracial couples. The first couple is an American nurse stationed at a U.S. Naval base during WWII and an expatriate French plantation owner (she struggles to accept his biracial children). The second couple is a U.S. Lieutenant and an Asian woman.
  • Guys and Dolls

    One of the more well known and beloved musicals created during the Golden Age of musicals.
  • Cinderella

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • Period: to

    1950s & 1960s Musical Period

    1- many major stage hits made into film (Oklahoma, The King & I, The Sound of Music, The Music Man, My Fair Lady, Sweet Charity, West Side Story, Oliver!); #2- musicals began to be made specifically for film (Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, White Christmas, An American in Paris, Singin’ in the Rain); #3- Disney heavily involved in musicals; invested the most in animated films- Cinderella, Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan, The Lady & the Tramp, Sleeping Beauty, Jungle Book, Mary Poppins
  • An American in Paris

    One of musicals made specifically for film
  • An American in Paris

    Story of an American painter living in a starving artists community in Paris and his adventures trying to get his work sold and pursue love; Kelly’s character dreams about dancing all over Paris with what he thinks is his lost love (dream ballet); Kelly choreographed and starred in
  • The King and I

    Musical of Golden Age; based on the book “Anna and the King of Siam”; told story of an English women who was summoned by the King of Siam (modern day Singapore) to be a governess to his children & to teach him & his household (including all his wives) Western customs; racial issues explored through Anna having many incidents of culture shock & learning to accept & love those who are different; she & king develop a love for one another; questioned multiracial relationships; film version in 1956
  • Alice in Wonderland

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • Gelsey Kirkland

    American ballerina, still alive today, who joined Balanchine’s New York City Ballet company at 15. Was pushed to the extreme. Danced with Mikhail Baryshnikov when he defected from the Soviet Union. Was on cover of Time magazine when she was 25. Performed Giselle on cocaine.
  • Ohad Naharin

    Israeli choreographer and contemporary dancer. Still alive. Currently house choreographer for Batsheva Dance Company. He served as artistic director of Batsheva Dance Company from 1990; he stepped down in 2018. During his time directing and teaching the Batsheva Company, Naharin developed Gaga, a movement language and pedagogy that has defined the company's training (not a technique). Encourages improvisation so dancers can move beyond familiar limits.
  • Alonzo King

    Born in Georgia; Still alive today; an American dancer and choreographer based in San Francisco; founded Alonzo King LINES Ballet in 1982.; believed that everyone has the potential to grow through dance; opened the San Francisco Dance Center, offering classes for both professionals and the community.
  • Bill T. Jones

    Born in Florida; moved to NY at 3; opened company w/life partner Arnie Zane in 1982; explores issues in works like those that can relate to humanity (hurt & anger); these explorations happen through the lens of racism, sexuality, gender roles, and illness; works often infused w/multimedia elements (video/text); known for Still Here & Fondly Do We Hope...Fervently Do We Pray; works can be somewhat controversial but relatable to many; professional dancers perform stories of terminally ill people
  • Singin' in the Rain

    One of musicals made specifically for film; considered best musical of all time; #5 on list of greatest American films; Kelly choreographed and starred in; based in the transition of films from silent to talking; Kelly plays lead male of the silent films & falls in love w/a woman who is a backup dancer for the movie studio he is a part of; convinces his love to be a temporary voice over role for his leading lady, who has a horrible voice, in hopes that it would jumpstart her career
  • Tensile Involvement

    Choreographed by Alwin Nikolais; most difficult works to get a good copy of; used long, elastic band type fabric as a prop for dancers to manipulate; had different-colored lighting on stage
  • Peter Pan

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • Seven Brides for Seven Brothers

    One of musicals made specifically for film; light & fun; choreo by Michael Kidd; nominated for Oscar for Best Picture in 1954; based on story “The Sobbin Women” by Stephen Vincent Benet; seven brothers live in mountains; Adam, oldest, meets & marries a woman from town; she works to “civilize” brothers; rest of boys meet town women; they kidnap them & cause an avalanche that prevents the girls’ suitors from pursuing them; girls stuck in mountains w/boys until snow melts, fall in love, & marry
  • White Christmas

    One of musicals made specifically for film
  • Edouard Lock

    Canadian dancer/choreographer. Still alive. Founder of the Canadian dance group, La La La Human Steps. Choreographed Amelia. Created works for some of the world’s leading dance companies, including the Paris Opera Ballet, the Het Nationale Ballet of Holland, The Nederlands Dans Theater, the Cullberg Ballet and the Royal Ballet of Flanders. Collaborated with several figures of the music industry, one of them being David Bowie. Was the creator and art director of his Sound + Vision world tour.
  • DJ Kool Herc (Clive Campbell)

    Father of hip-hop; born in Jamaica; originated hip-hop music in Bronx, New York City, in 1970s through his "Back to School Jam'' hosted on August 11, 1973 at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue; isolated the instrumental portion of hard funk records which emphasized the drum beat (the break) & switch from one break to another using two turntables; this breakbeat formed the basis of hip-hop music; his announcements & exhortations helped accompany rapping; created the terms b-boy & b-girl
  • The Lady and the Tramp

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • Mark Morris

    born in Seattle; started Mark Morris Dance Group (1980) & White Oak Dance Project (1990) w/Mikhail Baryshnikov; created works for American Ballet Theatre & Paris Opera Ballet; utilizes a mixed range of movements from everyday movement, to folk dance, to articulated movement, & pointe work; Treats men & women as equals in terms of choreography; works w/many body types, shapes, & sizes; Mixes serious with humor in ways unexpected & surprising; known for Hard Nut & L’Allegro il Penseroso ed il
  • My Fair Lady

    One of the more well known and beloved musicals created during the Golden Age of musicals.
  • Duet

    choreographed by Paul Taylor; minimalist work; He and his partner did not move for 4 minutes
  • The Music Man

    One of the more well known and beloved musicals created during the Golden Age of musicals.
  • Stars and Stripes

    Choreographed by Balanchine. A storyless ballet. Does utilize some structures of ballet but no plot.
  • Sleeping Beauty

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • The Sound of Music

    One of the more well known and beloved musicals created during the Golden Age of musicals; explored issues of the Nazis and their takeover of Austria prior to WWII; told the story of the von Trapp family (an actual family), of which Maria becomes a governess (although in real life she was supposed to be a tutor)
  • Revelations

    Choreographed by Alvin Ailey; most famous works; one of his first pieces; always closes his shows; tried removing it from repertoire but company lost money so they put it back in; half hour long; based on his blood memories of Texas, the blues, spirituals, and the gospel
  • Anna Teresa de Keersmaeker

    Born in Belgium; started studying dance at the school Mudra in Brussels from 1978-1980; continued training at Tisch School of the Arts; started Rosas company in 1983 that currently resides at Brussels' Royal Opera De Munt/La Monnaie; objective was to intensify the relation between dance and music, build a repertory, and launch a dance school (did all 3); Beyonce took her choreo & video concepts to make Countdown;
  • Aureole

    choreographed by Paul Taylor; remains in his company’s repertoire today
  • Imago

    Choreographed by Alwin Nikolais; all dancers wearing same costume (flowy top with art on it, colored leggings/tights), hair either was up or had an item on the top of their head that was white
  • The Fiddler on the Roof

    Towards end of Golden Age; based on a series of stories called “Tevye and his Daughters"; focused on Jewish family in Russia in 1905; Tevye deals w/children who break from traditions; daughter #1 marries for love not through arrangement (asks for permission to make happen); daughter #2 marries political revolutionary (doesn’t ask permission, only blessing); daughter #3 marries non-Jew, something he can’t forgive; community forced to flee by end; are uprooted from homes since were Jewish
  • Mary Poppins

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • Trio A

    choreographed by Yvonne Ranier; section of a larger piece (The Mind is a Muscle); questioned aesthetic goals of post modern dance, intention was to remove objects from the dance while retaining a workman like approach of task-based performances; emphasized neutral performance and no interaction with audience; she took Cunningham’s work and ideas even further
  • Cabaret

    made by Bob Fosse; made impact on Broadway stage
  • Jewels

    First completely plotless ballet by Balanchine & true Neoclassical Ballet. Three sections with different music and jewels. Costuming does have romantic tutu in each section & is the color of each jewel.
  • Satisfying Lover

    Choreographed by Steve Paxton; an exploration of his interest in pedestrian movement and the general public participating as dancers; 34-84 performers in it
  • Jungle Book

    Animated film created by Disney during time when Disney got heavily involved in musicals; they invested the most in their animated films
  • Hair

    Musical closed Golden Age; racially integrated; explored homosexuality & sexuality issues, drugs, & Vietnam War; questioned/made fun of the government & contained a nude scene; about a 1960s “tribe” (group of long-haired, politically active, hippie/counter-culture youth) who question the Vietnam draft; one of members has been drafted & debates whether to dodge the draft or give in to wishes of his conservative family; songs became anthems of counterculture movement; brought new “rock” musical
  • Wayne McGregor

    Multi award-winning British choreographer & director. Founded Studio Wayne McGregor in 1993 & is artistic director. Resident Choreographer of The Royal Ballet. McGregor was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire 2011 for Services to Dance. Company of touring dancers called Company Wayne McGregor. Made over 30 works for Company Wayne McGregor & over 15 works for The Royal Ballet. Has worked on feature films, music videos, in fashion & TV. Directed opera & choreographed theatre.
  • Hip-Hop

    Developed in Bronx of NYC in 1970s; mostly emerged from the African American, Caribbean, & Latino American cultures; also emerged from disco era; became a way for these marginalized communities of these times to have a voice & find their place in the world; created during a time when political climate was tense, the economy was declining, & there was a lot of drug use & gang violence; was a way for people to escape and express themselves, earn respect, connect with each other, & make a statement
  • Waacking

    form of street dance created in the LGBT clubs in 1970s disco era; typically done to disco music; rotational arm movement, posing, & emphasis on expressiveness
  • Period: to

    New Musical Developments (1970 - now)

    Point when rock musicals flourished (inspired by Hair). It included musicals like Jesus Christ Superstar (1971) and The Rocky Horror Show (1973). A Chorus Line (1975) premiered, and its formula completely departed from everything around it. Bob Fosse began to make impact on the Broadway stage with musicals like Chicago (1975) and Cabaret (1966).
  • Cry

    Choreographed by Alvin Ailey; dedicated to his mother and all black mothers out there; I could feel the strength in the movements; her scream from the song combined with her head suddenly lifting up to show the scream with her mouth scared me a bit; her white flowy dress was pretty as she kicked and spun (I liked how she used it to wipe her tears); I could tell this was a sad dance/story
  • Pilobolus

    dance company formed by a group of Dartmouth students; dehumanized the person so you’re not looking at bodies but rather shapes; name came from fungi
  • Jesus Christ Superstar

    Rock musical during time when new developments happening to musicals
  • Christopher Wheeldon

    English choreographer of contemporary ballet. Still alive. In 1991, joined the Royal Ballet, London; and in that same year, won the gold medal at the Prix de Lausanne competition. In 1993, at the age of 19, Wheeldon moved to New York City to join the New York City Ballet. Began choreographing for NYC Ballet in 1997. Choreographed Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and After the Rain.
  • Cloud Gate Dance Theatre

    From Taiwan; oldest Chinese contemporary dance company in China; formed by Lin Hwai-Min; uses Thai Chi; can look balletic; uses set pieces; known for Moon Water
  • Savion Glover

    Born Newark, NJ; tap lessons at 7; youngest to receive full scholarship to Newark Community School of the Arts; starred in The Tap Dance Kid; on Sesame Street; alongside Hines in Jelly's Last Jam; disapproves stereotypes from minstrel & Vaudeville; school called HooFeRzCLuB; approach is holistic, honest, & true to what dances are; wants to bring back essence of tap; dances w/heavy, hard, loud sounds & removes choreographed upper body; teaches dancers how to “hit” or say something about oneself
  • The Leaves Are Fading

    Choreographed by Antony Tudor. First performed at the American Ballet Theatre. A near plotless duet. Romantic duets of 7 couples.
  • Esplanade

    choreographed by Paul Taylor; inspired by seeing a girl running to catch the bus; always in state of falling; taken to virtuosic extremes; contains runs/skips/jumps
  • The Rite of Spring

    Pina Bausch's version of Nijinsky's original version
  • Sankai Juku

    Butoh Dance Company in Japan; arose from the Hiroshima bombing; bodies painted white; awkward/uncomfortable movements; rising from ashes from bombing
  • A Chorus Line

    Stage musical (1975); film (1985); contributed to major change in stage musicals in 70s; new developments happening; formula completely departed from everything around it; 12 Tony Award nominations (won 9); 5th longest running Broadway musical; no real story, group of dancers audition for spots on chorus line; focuses on finalists, their lives, & why became dancers; closest to a story is w/Cassie coming to audition late & spends most of audition reminiscing about failed relationship w/director
  • Chicago

    made by Bob Fosse; made impact on Broadway stage
  • Rocky Horror Picture Show

    Stage musical is longest-running British horror comedy stage musical; opened in America 1974; film version still in limited release & is longest-running theatrical release in film history; selected in 2005 for U.S. National Film Registry by Library of Congress; “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant;" story about engaged couple that gets caught in storm & seeks help at house of a mad transvestite scientist unveiling his new creation (muscle man named Rocky Horror); fame in 1977
  • Push Comes to Shove

    Choreographed by Twyla Tharp; 3 dancers; used hat; combined ballet (shoes) and post modern shrugs
  • Kontakthof

    Choreographed by Pina Bausch; portrays the struggle of courtship and human mating rituals; dancers were constantly shaking their bodies as the men got closer and closer to represent the awkwardness of trying to court a woman
  • Grease

    One of the few musical film hits after the Golden Age as musical films started to bomb.
  • Glacial Decoy

    First of Trisha Brown’s large-scale works for the stage; most noted for its slithery and highly articulated movements
  • Evita

    Part of musical period that took off in 80s where big budget musicals were inspired by the European “mega-musicals”
  • Voguing

    a highly stylized modern house dance; originated in late 80s; evolved out of Harlem ballroom scene of the 1960s; mainstream exposure in Madonna's music video “Vogue;” mimicked the poses of fashion models; typically people of color or drag scenes; a celebration of identity, community, self-expression
  • Period: to

    Lalala Human Steps

    Canadian dance group formed by Edouard Lock. Integrated punk art music.
  • Period: to

    Big Budget Musical Period

    The 80s and 90s were known for the big budget musicals inspired by the European “mega-musicals” and included musicals like The Phantom of the Opera (1986), Evita (1979) and Rent (1996).
  • Channels/Inserts

    Choreographed by Merce Cunningham; divided into 16 sections using chance; dancers had legs facing forward/parallel; had ballet lines; they faced different directions other than straight forward
  • Nelken

    Choreographed by Pina Bausch; stage covered with carnations that were completely trampled on by the end as the woman singing the song said she was waiting for the man she loved; the man used sign language to go with the lyrics of the song; this piece explored love and human relationships
  • Rosas danst Rosas

    Dance film choreographed by Anne Teresa de Keersmaker; focused on repetitive and minimalist principles; had 5 parts
  • Creole Giselle

    Choreographed by Arthur Mitchell. Story about a black dancer in love with a wealthy black man. Still had the original choreo of Giselle but set in Louisiana.
  • The Tap Dance Kid

    Broadway production that Savion Glover starred in
  • The Shadow Dance

    Choreographed by Alwin Nikolais; a section from the piece Liturgies; there were lighting effects in background that made the dancers look dark (couldn’t tell genders); played with levels and combined dancers’ bodies to create images
  • White Nights

    Dance film starring Gregory Hines and Mikhail Baryshnikov
  • Crucible

    Choreographed by Alwin Nikolais; had color effects on dancers’ bodies; looked like dancers were wearing the same costume covering their bodies (couldn’t tell the gender); a prop was used to make the stage at a different level than the dancers; almost looked like there was a mirroring effect on the ground
  • DV8 Physical Theatre

    Dance Company based in England; led by Lloyd Newson, an Australian based dancer; originally formed by an independent collective and dancers who were frustrated with the dance scene at the time; perform both live work and dance for the camera work and seek to break the barriers between dance, theatre and personal politics; the artists seek to communicate ideas and feelings clearly and unpretentiously; use both movement and text to explore their concepts; both able bodied and disabled dancers
  • In the Upper Room

    Choreographed by Twyla Tharp
  • Phantom of the Opera

    Part of musical period in 80s where big budget musicals were inspired by the European “mega-musicals”
  • In the Middle Somewhat Elevated

    Choreographed by William Forsythe. Neoclassical Contemporary Ballet.
  • L’Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato

    Choreographed by Mark Morris; premiered in Belgium; one of his masterpieces; slapping and kiss greetings for humor; had pedestrian movements mixed with social dances from court dances
  • Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men (1988, 1989)

    DV8 piece; first stage show professionally adapted for film; loosely based on story of serial killer Dennis Nilsen; explores interwoven notions of loneliness, desire & trust; founded upon the conviction that societal homophobia often results in tragic consequences; work grapples w/disturbing forces that drove Nilsen to kill for company; men dancers climbed on each other against a wall; man standing seemed to be serial killer
  • Tap

    A dance drama film; brought interest back to tap; starred Gregory Hines, Sammy Davis Jr., and Savion Glover
  • The Little Mermaid

    One of the musical animated films Disney made a comeback with as the 90s started
  • National Tap Day

    To go along with the resurgence of tap, in 1989 President George Bush Sr. created National Tap Day. It is on May 25th in honor of “Bojangles” birthday.
  • Maple Leaf Rag

    Choreographed by Martha Graham; lighter piece; storyless; composer Scott Joplin; last of her completed works before death
  • Achterland

    Choreographed by Anne Teresa de Keersmaker; live and video work; full-length; sound score had sounds of women's hands hitting platform they were sitting on
  • The Hard Nut

    This piece is Morris’s restaging of The Nutcracker. He’s set it in the 60s/70s and used set design by a graphic novelist and costumes designed in the sensibility of the graphic novelists world.
  • Beauty and the Beast

    One of the musical animated films Disney made a comeback with as the 90s started
  • Aladdin

    One of the musical animated films Disney made a comeback with as the 90s started
  • Strange Fish

    DV8 piece; 2 dancers move against wall; looks at attraction in relationships between people & their need & search for a person to love w/need for someone/something to believe in. Newson explores tyranny of couples & groups, & pain experienced when people are ostracized from these social arrangements (tied to fear humans have of being left alone); girl watching either longed to be in a relationship or was looking back at a relationship she got out of
  • Newsies

    Disney's attempt to bring back the live film musical; took time for it to become popular; flopped at the box office and only became popular as it became a cult classic; based on the news boys strike of 1899
  • Jelly's Last Jam

    A Broadway piece with Gregory Hines and Savion Glover; Hines is most well known for his role as "Jelly Roll" Morton in this production
  • The Lion King

    One of the musical animated films Disney made a comeback with as the 90s started
  • Bring in da Noise, Bring in the Funk

    Savion Glover's most famous work; won a Tony
  • Rent

    Part of musical period in 90s where big budget musicals were inspired by the European “mega-musicals”
  • The Gregory Hines Show

    Gregory Hines' television series
  • Pond Way

    Choreographed by Merce Cunningham; was exploration of the effects of water; inspired by his experiences skipping stones over water as a child; dancers also facing different directions; had turnout of the feet; usage of the side torso and ballet lines
  • Moon Water

    Dance from Cloud Gate Dance Theatre
  • Still Here

    Choreographed by Bill T. Jones; piece was created around the idea of dealing with a life threatening illness and possibly death (particularly his life partner who died of AIDS); inspired by workshops he had with terminally ill people; dancers would talk out loud what the actions represented
  • Apartment

    Choreographed by Mats Ek. Created for the soloist dancers of the Opéra National de Paris. The ballet is set to the music of the Swedish rock band Fleshquartet, performing live on stage.
  • Kajemi-Beyond the Metaphors of Mirrors

    Butoh dance from Sankai Juku Dance Company; directed, choreographed, and designed by Ushio Amagatsu; lotus flowers rise up
  • Musicals in the 2000s

    Time of revivals on both the stage and screen; include musicals like Sweeney Todd, Chicago and Hairspray. They’ve also been known for turning Disney stories and children’s books into musicals like Seussical (2000).
  • Amelia

    Film created by Edouard Lock featuring his Lalala Human Steps dance group.
  • Horses Never Lie

    A Dance for the Camera piece; explores the ideas of metamorphosis- with birth, development and renewal all being explored through the film; the piece also has a live version; movement seemed to tell the story of a newborn horse; water on clothes at beginning to make dancer look like a foal being born; camera shooting from high angles; zoom in/out
  • Sleepless

    Choreographed by Jiri Kylian. Consisted of white curtains with several vertical slits throughout. Dancers were either dancing separately or used each other for support and danced together. Lighting allowed for silhouette of dancers to project behind them on curtains. Very controlled, technical movements.
  • Cost of Living

    Piece by DV8; story about some carnival workers, following the ups and downs of their daily lives. - The woman coming in with the hula hoops brought in the circus element. The camera was low when the man with no legs led the rest of the dancers behind him over the hill. They also danced low and mainly used arms - more low camera angle work as two dancers danced together on the floor
  • Symbiosis

    Performed by Pilobolus Dance Company; wore very little clothing; chalky skin; acrobatic movement; bodies leaned and moved each other around; rubbed, rolled, pushed, climbed, stood on each other
  • After the Rain

    Choreographed by Christopher Wheeldon. Premiered at the New York State Theater, Lincoln Center. The first part of the ballet, set to Arvo Pärt's Tabula Rasa, features three couples. The final pas de deux is commonly performed outside separately from the remainder of the ballet.
  • Ferocious Beauty: Genome

    Choreographed by Liz Lerman; premiered at Wesleyan University after two years of development and hundreds of interviews with scientists, ethicists and scholars; the piece explores the complex world of genetic research
  • Vollmond (Full Moon)

    Choreographed by Pina Bausch; had water fall down in stage and a big rock
  • "Rock This Way" Song

    Sung by Aerosmith and Run DMC; helped make hip-hop global
  • Fondly Do We Hope...Fervently Do We Pray

    Choreographed by Bill T. Jones; tribute to Abraham Lincoln; chose to look at the humanity if Lincoln rather than the myth; electric guitar for the music; lighting effects with the shadows, text, and images on the white screen background; questioned the goodness of Lincoln and compared it to the goodness of people today
  • Matter of Origins

    Choreographed by Liz Lerman; the first act was in a formal theatre setting while the second act was more informal as the audience got to converse, drink tea, and have cake together in a 360 performance experience
  • Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

    Choreographed by Christopher Wheeldon. Premiered as the Royal Ballet's first full-length ballet in over 20 years.
  • Hamilton

    Musical based on a biography written about Alexander Hamilton. It has recently taken the musical theatre world by storm and is known for two things- racial role reversals where people that aren’t white are playing men from U.S. history that were white, and it’s a rap musical where many of the songs are sung in a rap format vs. the traditional musical theatre or rock musical format