Earliest period of human development. Began around two million years ago.
The only evidence we have that showed that dance existed in the paleolithic and neolithic times.
Transformed Ideas, thoughts, feelings into movement. There is Social and Religious dance. Utilized simple and imitative moves (clap, hop, stomp...)
Danced to worship/appease gods. Also to give blessings for birth, marriage, death, agriculture, before and after war, etc...
Dance solidified gender roles in society. They showed how men and women interacted. There were also gender specific performances
Period: 9500 BCE to 3600 BCE
Period in which human technology developed; the last part of the stone age. Rise of farming and metal tools.
Period: 3600 BCE to 500
Mesopotamia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, Bronze and Iron ages occurred.
Ended with the fall of multiple major empires (Romanian, Han Dynasty, Gupta.)
Development of vocal language and agriculture, invention of writing, creation of centralized government and religion, class distinction.
Believed to have brought dance to India and inspired Bharata Muni to write Natya Shastra
Wrote the Nayta Shastra; treatise on performing arts; combining dance and drama. 1400BCE-1200BCE
Period: 800 BCE to 146 BCE
Worshiped, honored, and celebrated the twelve major Olympian gods (Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, Hestia/Dionysus,) and others in mythology through theatre, dance, art, and music.
Period: 753 BCE to 476
Worshiped, Honored, and celebrated the 12 Roman Gods Jupiter, Juno, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, and Vesta through theatre, dance, music, and art.
Also called Bacchus or Liber Pater (in Rome). Often compared to Wine for his duality of joy and ecstasy to brinding rage. Celebrated by both Greeks and Romans through dance and plays.
God of music, poetry, prophecy, truth, archery, healing, art, light/sun... Celebrated and honored by both Romans and Greeks.
One of the nine muses. Patron of dancing and lyric poetry; is often seen playing the flute.
choral hymn of Ancient Greece that was mainly dedicated to Dionysus, invented by Arion, a Greek poet and musician.
Golden Age of Greece
Laid the foundation for the civilization and began with the defeat of the Persian army. (500-300 BCE)
Golden Age of Rome
Also considered "Pax Romana" or "Roman Peace." Began when Augustus came into power. Economy, Arts, Architecture, and commerce flourished. (27BCE-180BCE)
Period: 500 to 1520
The Dark and Middle Ages, and Islamic Golden Age
Begins with the fall of the Roman Empire (500CE-1000CE).
Islamic Golden Age
poets, scientists, philosophers wrote thousands of books. Scholars translated Western writings to Arabic. Advances in science and math; creation of algebra. (622CE-1258CE)
Began at the end of the Dark Ages. The start of the Renaissance. Still sometimes called the Dark Ages. (1000CE-1500CE)
Origin is debated; some say from Egypt and others say it began in India and migrated to the rest of Middle East. The dance is characterized by rocking and swaying hips and rhythmic full-body/arm movements. Blends smooth movements with staccato movements. Costume varies on location and developed in 1900's.
Catherine de Medici
Daughter of a rich family that loved the arts in Italy. She married into French royalty and eventually became Queen. Her love of the arts influenced France to embrace Italian culture (architecture, paintings, dance, fashion.) She helped introduce ballet.
introduced around 1500's when Catherine de Medici married into French royalty and influenced her Italian culture to France.
Began with the end of the Medieval Era.
King Louis XIV
Louis The Great, Sun King (le Roi Solei), King of France. Influenced a lot of art into the culture of France; a great patron in the arts. He was a dancer himself and trained for Ballet. Created the dance: Académie Royale de Danse in 1661. (1643CE-1715CE).
popular dances were the courante, sarabande, allemande, and gigue.
Composers and New Music
With the introduction of famous composers (Bach, Vivaldi and Handel,) , new styles of music were created: concerto, sonata, opera.
Fair Sex - Women Dancers
Women performers were restricted from performing with a lot of movement. It was considered immodest if they rose their leg too high, showed their undergarments, and wore a dress that showed off their legs. If they showed their undergarments, they would be fined. Men had more freedom. These barriers were broken by Marie Sallé and Camargo.
French Dancer and choreographer that rivaled Camargo that had her debut in Paris Opera. She is known to be one of the first women choreographers. She also appeared in a performance without the traditional clothing; wearing a Grecian style dress and undecorated hair. She also did not wear masks for her performances; which masks were typically worn.
Marie-Anne De Cupis Camargo
Female French Ballet dancer that rose to stardom and broke down walls that separated men and women on the French stage by performing an improvised dance in place of a male performer. Started heightening her skirt first.
Dancer and Choreographer during Romantic Era. He thought his daughter, Marie was horrid at dancing and put her through intense training. When she became successful, he choreographed La Sylphide for her to perform.
Daughter of Filippo Taglioni. Had a hunchback and teachers gave up on her. Her father took over her training, she endured and eventually became extremely popular. She starred in La Sylphide, a piece her father choreographed for her and Pas de Quatre
She was first to dance en pointe for the entire show.
Her style: Floating leaps, balanced poses and delicate, restrained use of points.
Danish Ballet Dancer, Choreographer, and Instructor
- Inventor of the Bournonville Method that focuses on grace and appear weightless and effortless. Offical Training Technique of Royal Danish Ballet.
French Dancer and member of the Paris Opera. 1821 to 1827,
Some performances that made her success- La tentation, Leda, the Swiss Milkmaid, Le Diable Boiteux , The Devil in Love
Dancer and Choreographer. Famous piece he choreographed was Giselle and Pas De Quatre.
Was fired and took out of the Opera by Marie Tanglioni because she disliked his growing popularity.
Used to date Carlotta Grisi
Introduced Theatricalized folk dance into ballet.
Her style is known as danse tacquetée
Danced in Pas de Quatre
Italian Ballet Dancer and choreographer
Debuted in 1832 at Teatro San Carlo, Fame began to spread in 1836-1837 when she appeared in Vienna. Was in Pasde Quatre
Prima Ballerina at La Scala (1838-1840)
Ballet Dancer in Romantic Era
Original Ballerina in Giselle, also in Pas de Quatre. Was Perrot's lover until he eventually left her because he did not get credit for his work.
Taught by August Bouronville.
Starred in Waldemar and Bouronville's version of La Sylphide, and Pas de Quatre
Bouronville liked Lucille so much that he vetoed her petition for a travel grant in order to have her stay with him.
Part of a bigger movement called Romanticism. Consisted of a lot of supernatural and magical fascination with a revolt against aristocratic social/political norms. These ballets were characterized by smooth, light, and whimsical movements. With the introduction of the heavy women presence in dance and changes in costume.
Cult of the Ballerina
Essentially a weirder way to call a fan club; a fan club that loved ballerinas. People back then were insane for these female dancers. There were even people who stopped a carriage and asked a performer to dance for them.
Costumes changed in the Romantic Period for ballet. Theycame to about the mid-calf and were light colored, mainly white. The shortening of the skirt allowed the female dancers to dance freely and dance more complex rhythms with their legs and feet.
During the Romantic Era, the presence of Female ballerinas increased; Women dominated ballet and gained a massive following. In this era we have even more women rise to stardom: Marie Taglioni, Lucille Grahn, Carlotta Grisi,Fanny Elssler, Fanny Cerrito, Pauline Leroux.
Type of shoe worn by ballet dancers whenever they perform pointe work; they help the dancer appear weightless and floaty.
Marie Tanglioni introduced pointe shoes into her performance to enhance her emotion and expression, and 20th century ballerina Anna Pavlova added leather for increased support because of her pains.
Choreographed by Filippo Tanglioni | Original Ballerina - Marie Tanglioni
Sylph falls in love with a man named James who is to be wed. The madge predicts that James's fiance will marry another. Sylph steals the wedding ring and James chases her into the forest. The madge enchants a scarf and tells James to catch the Sylph with it. He does, leading the Sylph to its death. ends with James hearing a wedding festival when he's still in the forest; Effie is marrying someone else.
Choreographed by Jules Perrot | Original Ballerina - Carlotta Grisi (1841)
Young peasant girl named Giselle meets and falls in love with a guy who is in disguise, and engaged. She finds out he is not who he says he is, and that he is engaged, and died due to heartbreak. Giselle becomes a Wili and saves her lover from the other Wilis.
Pas de Quatre
choreographed by Jules Perrot in 1845
Basically, the four Ballerinas: Taglioni, Grisi, Grahn, and Cerrito were rivals in dance and often quarreled which one was better than the other. This dance was created to show off their skills to see who is best. They fought over who would perform alone last, and it ended up being by birth order by the youngest starting first: Grisi, Grahn, Cerrito, then Taglioni.
Founded Ballets Russes
compared to a bulldog in appearance
diabetic and very superstitious
Took place in the last half of the 19th century. 1877-1900
French Ballet Master/Choreographer
-laid foundation for school of Russian Ballet.
-Trained by his father who was a Ballet Master starting at age seven
-first outstanding success was La Fille du Pharaon (The Pharaoh’s Daughter)
accepted one-year choreography contract in Russia with Imperial Ballet in 1847
Worked under Jules Perrot and Arthur Saint-Leon in Russia
forced to retire due to the failure of his ballet, The Magic Mirror.
Premiered 1877. Classical Ballet. Choreographed by Marius Petipa and Composed by Tchaikovsky.
One of the most difficult classical ballets to perform.
Made by Enrico Cecchetti. Known to be a strict regimen that teaches the student to be able to rely on their instincts rather than imitating their teacher's movements. Special concern of Anatomy. Has the student think of every movement with each part of their body not as a part, but in relation to developing lines.
The Royal Academy of Dance (English Method
One of the youngest methods. Focuses on attention to detail, one of the slowest training methods. Very meticulous and makes sure the student is correct in every move.
otherwise known as Russian Ballet, developed by Agrippa Vaganova. influenced by the techniques from French and Italian Ballet and developed a mixture of jumps and adiagos. They focus on developing their lower back strength, flexibility, endurance, arm plasticity, and requisite strength. Her method is known to be very clean and soft, rather than robotic and stiff.
1880-1942 Born in St Petersburg, Russia
-Accepted into Imperial Ballet School at age of nine.
also played piano and violin during student days
The Dying Swan, Cleopatre, Carnaval, The Firebird
Famous Russian Prima Ballerina and Choreographer
died from double pneumonia
before she died she asked to see her swan costume one last time
Performed in the Dying Swan.
Premiered 1890. Adapted from the 1697 story "The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood." by Charles Perrault. Choreographed by Marius Petipa and Composed by Tchaikovsky.
1890–1950 Born in Kiev, Ukraine
Ballet Dancer, Choreographer
-looked different for every role he played
-All of his Ballets were extremely controversial/really sexual
ballet Le Sacre du Printemps, afternoon of a Faun
Danced in the Ballet Russes
Les Noces (1923), The Blue Train (1924), and Les Biches (1924)
Premiered 1892. The "Christmas Ballet" of US. The story of the Nutcracker was based on a story titled "The Nutcracker and the Mouse King." written by E.T.A. Hoffman in 1816. Choreographed by Marius Petipa and his assistant Lev Ivanov. Composed by Tchaikovsky.
Duncan's Manifesto states that nature is the source of dance, and therefore rejects ballet. She believed that the steps were lackluster and the opposite of natural motion. She felt that the solar plexus and torso were the root of all movement. Also movement grows out of emotions evoked by the music. Natural movements included running, walking, skipping, jumping, and acceptance of gravity. This included material that was loose and showed off the body. Dance is an expression of the soul.
RISE OF MUSICAL THEATRE
WIZARD OF OZ (1903) BABES IN TOYLAND (1903)
SHOWBOAT (1927) PORGY AND BESS (1935)
Roaring 20's Borrowed from Vaudeville: Favored big celebrities/stars with elaborate pieces rather than songs relating to the plot and making interesting stories.
Uses advanced technique of 19th century Russian Imperial Dance
-sophisticated with modern style
-movements and technical feats are more extreme
leotard/tunic with no tutu
simplistic and minimal
mood typically set by lighting
no detailed narrative and heavy theatrical setting
not as much drama or full length story
-spacing of dancers onstage is more complex than classical
The storylines, costumes, and development of how ballets were created changed during the Classical Period.
Technique: became a blend of purity of the French ballet and the technical qualities of Italian Ballet.
Costumes: Skirts shortened to the Tutu we know today. Pointe shoes were reinforced at the ends.
Storyline: Elements of fantasy, less ethereal and more regal
Formula: 1 Villain vs 1 Hero. Hierarchy of Performers (Soloist/Ensemble)
January 22, 1904, Saint Petersburg, Russia - April 30, 1983, Manhattan, New York, NY
-choreography was not tied to virtuosity of ballerina/plot/decor; it was tied to movement
demanded women to be skinny
the four temperments (1946), Stars and Stripes (1958)
Ballet Company based in Paris that performed from 1909-1929
Run by Serge Diaghilev
Brought back the importance of the male dancer into ballet
Strayed from the traditional movement and performed without ballet/pointe shoes and used floor work/parallel feet
-brought back the feelings and expression used in ballet, since a lot of ballet had a tendency to focus on skill and technique
-brought in Russian influence than western influence
Began around the time the Classical Period ended before creation of Ballet Russes
Modern started as rebellion to Ballet. Modern dance utilizes gravity- floor, mov. of torso, balance explorations, pedestrian mov., etc.. and almost always done in bare feet (rebellion to pointe shoes.)
Modern Dance Pioneers; Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Ruth St. Denis, Ted Shawn, Mary Wigman
(1895) Danced by Loie Fuller. Originally collab with Follies Bergere.
utilized combination of fabric manipulation and Fuller's light inventions/experimentations. Illusion that she was being consumed by fire. Floor lights that were directed at her costume through glass plate that had been placed in a stage opening (of trap door). Light operator changed out colors, creating image of fire.
(1891) Danced by Loie Fuller
allowed it to be filmed by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.
German Dancer and choreographer
pioneer of expressionist dance, dance therapy, movement raining w/ out pointe shoes.
created a solo witch dance
She was another influencer of modern dance and went against social norms. She stood for similar things that Isadora stood for. She believed that ballet was not expressie enough, and she wore clothing that was different and was not attractive to the audience. She taught her students to move freely and be expressive.
Denishawn Dance Company
Started by Ruth St Denis and Ted Shawn
Denishawn dance company was considered to be the first official training school of dance in America
Successful and they toured all over the world
-they trained the first generation of true modern dance creators
-they taught basically every dance they could at the time (ballet, exoti, yoga, dance history, practical instruction...)
Six dancers that were Isadora Duncan's students. took her last name when she adopted them in 1917. Performed all over the world but dissolved when some performed on their own.
She is considered to be the creator/mother of modern dance.
-Helped free dance from its conservative restrictions
-created a manifesto "The Dance of the Future (1903)." in which she stated that Ballet goes against natural motion
Her manifesto and belief on what dance was not only brought philosophy into dance, but created a whole new genre for dance (modern.)
She went against societal norms by wearing revealing clothing as well as loose fitting clothing
Fall and Recovery Technique
made by Weidman and Humphrey
a body technique that is done by falling and then waking up. Involves contraction and release of muscles and breath cycle
Weismann expanded this technique in his works and expanded it thematically.
Founded by Humphrey (1895-1958) and Weidman (1901-1975)
Company lasted (1927-1940s)
stopped because Humphrey suffered from arthritis and was short on company members
Pioneer of Modern dance and theatrical lighting techniques
Serpentine Dance (1891)
Fire Dance (1895)
-Symbol of Art Nouveau Movement
1ST GEN. MODERN (1930's- early 1950's)
Beginning of the modern movement; the movement that started to make dance the modern dance we started today.
choreographers that started modern techniques: Graham, Humphrey, Weidman.
Rudolp von Laban made dance notation system "Labanotation" and movement assessment systems: Laban Mov. Analysis.
Choreographed by Martha Graham. The cloth represents skin and it looks like you are stretching your own skin in the performance.
Played another important role in portraying African American life to the world. Famed for her primitive dancing that was often seen as sensual. Also performed dances for political influence, as she was an activist all of her life.
Exposed America to African American culture through dance and music.
Impacts he made:Positive
-That black dancers can be successful on American stage
-black dance could only be accepted if black dancers danced in their cultural heritage
- critics said they danced insane
- concert dance was only for white artists
-started negative stereotypes
1894-1991 - Modern Dancer and choreographer
The contraction is the foundation. It is, in Graham’s vision, the physical manifestation of grief that starts from the pelvis to the spine, looking like a howling stomach.
The release is the counter movement to the contraction. Similar parts of the contraction. There is also a high release that is similar to the motion of arching your back.
Lastly the spiral, where the torso is twisted around the spine.
First African-American Dancer 1934-2018
favorite of George Balanchine, who choreogrpahed many pieces for him like Agon (1957)
-Agon included him dancing with a white woman. It was revolutionary
-to get more boys into dance, he compared Ballet to basketball, hired drummers instead of pianists, and allowed them to wear jeans.
Technique- blend of ballet, modern, Afro-Caribbean dance over drum rhythms.
foundedNegro Dance Group, which later became the Katherine Dunham Dance Company in 1937
GOLDEN AGE OF MUSICALS
OAKLAHOMA (1943) FIDDLER (1964), THE KING AND I (1951) ON THE TOWN (1944) HAIR (1968)
Perfect Balance between book, music, storyline, dance, and songs.
-Dance became more important than the chance to have women dress scantily; it was used to complement and further the story. Introduction to dream ballet, which became a part of the formula that goes further into the story without any dialogue.
-celebrities performed in musicals and films.
- well-known musicals were made
"2nd Generation Moderns" or "Transitional Moderns."
Not really a formal period of dance, but used to describe three Artist: Paul Taylor, Merce Cunningham, and Alwin Nikolais
(1934 in San Francisco)
1. “NO to spectacle…Avoid if at all possible,” matches with her theory that dance should not be dramatic
2. Her insistence on no audience participation fits with her questioning about dance: who should be allowed to create dance? Who can dance?
3. Her insistence on little movement, no magic, no eccentricity, and little virtuosity also complement her theory that dance shouldn’t be dramatic, have no expression, and no style
Born in Aberdeen, Washington.
formed Dance Theater, Grand Union, Trisha Brown Company
Focus was to make the creation of dance less complicated and easy to understand.
created movement from watching people move through their daily lives.
Made weighted bodies seem graceful
(1919-2009) - Classic modern is too dramatic
Part of his technique was assigning numbers to a movement to a body part he’d come up with and roll dice to determine which movement came first. This was called the “Hexagram idea.”
-the order of sections was also decided by rolling dice before the concert started
-Cage and Cunningham would make their works separately and put them together the night of the performance.
1. Dance is “the art of motion, left on its own merits, becomes the message as well as the medium.”
2. Lights, music, props, and costumes are needed to complete a spectacle. Nikolais designed/painted his set, composed the music.
3. Depersonalized and desexualized. Men and Women wore the same clothes that used body-altering material.
4. Loved playing with movement. Places obstacles in the dancer’s way and focused their attention on the psychical tasks of overcoming the obstacles.
(1939) in Arizona
Studied w/ Cunningham and Limon
helped create: Judson Dance Theater and Grand Union
Created Contact Improvisation
1. He took interest in pedestrian movement. Believes that Untrained dancers can contribute to dance.
Sought to minimize differences between audience and performer
Showed interest in how objects could impact movement and how body can manipulate itself around different objects
Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
"Beloved Musical Theatre couple"
Astaire (1899-1987) Rogers (1911-1995)
Performed together 6 years, 1933-1939 - 10 movies
Astaire credited w/ innovation: -film the dance in one shot, and not film it in multiple different angles.
- adamant about dance and music being integrated into the plot
Agnes de Mille
1905-1993, born in NYC
Taught herself from watching film stars on her father’s set in Hollywood.
Trained and performed w/ Marie Rambert and Antony Tudor
focused on Emotional depth
Choreographed 15 musicals and 21 ballets: Oklahoma, Rodeo(1942), Paint your Wagon(1951), The Girl in Pink Tights(1954)
1912-1996 born in Pittsburgh, PA
Breakthrough filming tech. in: Columbia.
Cover Girl (1944)
Danced with his own reflection in a window- camera trick that had never been done before
-innovative with camera and lighting techniques
-lots of mov. with camera
-first to play w/ split screen, live action with animation, double image
-made ballet commercially accepted
Choreographed for and started in: Anchors Aweigh, an American in Paris, Singing in the Rain
-rock musicals flourished thanks to inspiration from Hair
Chorus Line premiered and its formula departed from everything around it
Bob Fusse made impact by making musicals like Chicago (1975) and Cabaret (1966)
Hamilton impact: racial role reversal - people who aren’t white play men from US history that were white.
-most songs are in Rap format, much different from Traditional Musical format and Rock Musical format.
Around the time where female performers dominated ballet and male performers began to lessen. It was noticed around this time where male dancers acted more as "lifting machines" to lift up the women rather than dance most of the time. Ballet also started to be seen as more effeminate and unmanly, even though ballet began with Male dancers dominating the scene.
Why The term "contemporary" is problematic: The entertainment world stole the term and used it to define one specific style that’s very popular.
Pro thoughts consensus:
Contemporary means the present. Modern is a technique that is derived from Graham, Horton, Limon, and other pioneers that influenced dance today. Contemporary is a style and not one technique. There can be Contemporary jazz and Contemporary ballet.
started Mark Morris Dance Group/Company (1980), White Oak Company (1990) with Gerard Mortier
1. Mix of everyday mov. And folk dance with articulated mov. and pointe
2. Men and Women are equals. Varies body structures would often be found in his company.
3. His work involve a mix of seriousness and humor. They are all often quirky and kitschy, but formal
Bill T. Jones
-Had spoken narrative and videotape / biographical flair
changed Wuppertal Opera Ballet to Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch
Tanztheater= dance theater
1. Mix of dance and theater (extravagant props, sets dialogue)
The audience should be challenged emotionally and mentally
Art is a vehicle for social criticism
Anna Teresa de Keersmaeker
1. Intensify relation between dance and music
Build a repertory
Launch a dance school
Started company, Rosas in 1983
- expanded community dance
her company includes community dancers
-By creating her Toolbox
the Toolbox is not only used by nondancers, but professionals as well.
it is the foundation of how her company bases the community dance workshops.
Toolbox- Set of tools that create art through different exercises and games that guide people’s movements. Can be used by both non-dancers and professionals.