Timeline #6: 20th Century Music

Timeline created by David_Ayers
In Music
  • Les Six "Created"

    Think Simon Cowell puts a boy band together, this is Satie's version. Les Six coined by Henri Collet.
    Famous works, Le Coq et l’Arlequin (1918), Le Bœuf sur le toit (n/d), L'Album des Six (1920), Les mariés de la tour Eiffel (1921)
  • the Harlem Renaissance

    William Grant Still and Langston Hughes (poet)
    There emerged a kind of cultural capital of African American arts, including literature, painting, and music
    Lasted up until the depression in the 1930s, but provided a cultural movement well into the 1940s
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    John Philip Sousa

    Bandmaster, known for marches:
    The Washington Post (1889)
    Semper Fidelis (1888)
    Stars and Stripes Forever (1897)
    El Capitan (1896)
    At least 9 operettas
    Started “The President’s Own” Marine Band
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    Charles Ives

    One of the most innovative and original composers
    One of the great American composers of the first half of the 20th century
    Most of Ives’ works were not known until the 1950s
    Made his living in insurance (Ives & Myrick)
    Polytonality
    Polyrhythms and Polymeters
    Quotations of American tunes and hymns (“Americana”)
    Limited atonality
    The Unanswered Question (1906)
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    Luigi Russolo

    Futurist painter, composer, and builder of experimental musical instruments wrote a creed or manifesto titled “The Art of Noises” (1913)
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    Nadua Boulanger

    Taught practically all 20th Century American composers except George Gershwin, whom she refused to let in her class.
    Composer, but preferred to help other composers find their “voice.”
    Her sister died and she dedicated her life to teaching in memory for her sister.
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    Louis Durey

    Born in Paris –non-musical family
    Instigated the first Les Six album
    Wrote songs for the French Resistance during WWII
    Wrote with Vietnamese themes in the 1960s as a protest to the war
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    Sergei Prokofiev

    Russian composer: orchestral pieces, piano works and film music
    Seven symphonies, suites, incidental music, five piano concertos, two violin concertos, one cello concerto, operas, ballets, choral music, film scores, and other works.
    “Peter and the Wolf” (1936)
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    Arthur Honegger

    Born to Swiss parents – considered himself Swiss
    Huge compositional output in all mediums
    Appreciated the “architecture of music
    Composed most of his works on commission
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    Darius Milhaud

    Born on the southern coast of France
    Studied Debussy, immediately rejected Impressionism
    Became close friends with Tailleferre – gave her needed encouragement to continue composing
    Traveled to Brazil with Claudel in 1918 – this influenced his compositions
    American Jazz also influenced his work
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    Germaine Tailleferre

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    William Grant Still

    First Black American composer to have a symphony and opera performed by a major ensemble (1931, 1949)
    First Black American to conduct a major symphony orchestra (1936)
    A Black Pierrot” from Songs of Separation, (1949)
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    Henry Cowell

    John Cage’s teacher
    He was an American innovator who was drawn to non-Western music
    A huge supporter of Charles Ives
    He invented chance music
    He invented new techniques for playing the piano
    Cowell coined the term tone cluster, which he used often after 1912
    “The Tides of Manaunaun” (1912)
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    Scott Joplin

    Raised in Texarkana, Texas
    The Sting (1973) featured his music
    Title: Maple Leaf Rag (1899)
    Charlie Chaplin chose to include it in the music to accompany his 1928 film, The Circus
    Joplin himself is playing onto a piano roll
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    George Gershwin

    American composer: wrote classical, concert hall music infused with jazz and popular music
    Wrote for Broadway, film, and the concert hall
    Virtuoso pianist
    His most famous works include:
    An American in Paris
    Rhapsody in Blue
    Porgy and Bess (opera)
    Lady, Be Good!
    Concerto in F (for piano and orchestra)
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    Federico Garcia Lorca

    Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director
    Shot dead by the fascists for making anti-fascist comments and staging anti-fascist plays
    Involved with Salvador Dalí (1904-1989)
    Spent time in the U.S.
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    Georges Auric

    Studied composition in Paris with Satie’s teachers, Neo-classicist, Film Music, Ran SACEM, Music journalist
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    Francis Poulenc

    Born in Paris to rich parents
    Self-Taught, but had musical tutors
    With Milhaud, traveled to meet Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg, but both rejected their style
    His partner Pierre Bernac (baritone) premiered many of his songs
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    Duke Ellington

    Major band leader in the swing era (1930s) and then in the big band era (1940s)
    Composed hundreds of tunes, film scores, concertos, concert pieces, and works for the theater.
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    Aaron Copland

    Composer, teacher, critic, conductor, and sponsor of concerts. Taught at Harvard, gave lectures and conducted festivals in many American schools
    Composed a variety of genres, but not a huge amount of works
    Copland’s style is mostly tonal. He did write atonal music, but it is not the popular part of his output
    Appalachian Spring(1944)
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    Elliott Carter

    An American composer; influential as a teacher and as a composer for 50 years
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    Olivier Messiaen

    Serialist French composer and teacher
    Known for incorporating bird songs into his music
    Many of his works focus on religious subjects, including aspects of non-Western cultures and religions – “Art is the ideal expression of religious faith.”
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    John Cage

    Innovated many modern compositional techniques
    He helped change the definition of music to “organized sound
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    Billie Holiday

    Billie Holiday: one of the leading female jazz singers
    She broke racial barriers by performing with white bands
    Known for her renditions of blues songs
    Billie’s Blues (1936)
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    Billy Strayhorn

    Strayhorn composed A Train
    Strayhorn and Ellington collaborated on songs for many years
    The “A” train is the subway line that runs through Manhattan up to Harlem (NYC)
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    Milton Babbitt

    American composer, music theorist, and teacher interested in computer music
    Wrote an article for High Fidelity magazine called, “The Composer as Specialist” (1958)
    Later the article was published under the title, “Who Cares if You Listen?”
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    Leonard Bernstein

    Conductor
    Composer
    Teacher
    Pianist
    Lecturer
    TV personality
    West Side Story (1957)
    “Make our garden grow” from Candide (1956/1989)
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    György Ligeti

    Hungarian composer – settled in Germany
    Active in electronic music and as a teacher
    Interested in clusters of sounds, orchestrally and chorally
    His choral music is especially complex and beautiful
    Became well-known when his music was in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
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    Pierre Boulez

    The most important composer (and conductor) of the French avant-garde
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    Luciano Berio

    The leading modern Italian composer of the 20th century
    Helped establish the electronic studio in Milan which became a center of avant-garde activity
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    Karlheinz Stockhausen

    German composer who made innovations in electronic music and all sorts of other types of experimental music
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    George Crumb

    American composer, best known for his anti-War sentiments during the Vietnam War (1955-75)
    Makes use of non-Western musical idioms
    Created a new spatial notation to accommodate his musical innovations
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    Henryk Górecki

    Had so much success and popularity that other composers criticized him
    His style combines:
    the slow harmonic movement of minimalism
    Neo-tonality (with the new consonance of major 2nds)
    Clusters
    Strong emotional symbolism
    TONAL
    Symphony No. 3 (Symphony of Sorrowful Songs)
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    Paul Lansky

    American composer, theorist, professor at Princeton, and critic
    A pioneer in digital sound synthesis
    Embraced computer assisted composition and even wrote a computer opera
    Followed in Varèse’s footsteps