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Time period 6: The Gilded Age

By ereese
  • Laissez-faire capitalism (economic + political)

    Laissez-faire capitalism (economic + political)
    French for "leave alone" meaning that the government leaves the people alone regarding all economic activities. This was the separation of economy and state. This allowed the industry to be free from restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies. This method of government worked best for economic growth as it provided the incentive to create wealth. This gave people the freedom to start businesses and caused people to work harder to produce better products.
  • Tammany Hall (social + political)

    Tammany Hall (social + political)
    Emerged as the center for Democratic-Republican Party politics in the city. It helped society expand its political control by earning the loyalty of the city's immigrant community which functioned as its base of political capital. It also served as an engine for political corruption under "Boss" Tweed. Political machines were a vehicle for political enfranchisement which helped win elections by turning out large numbers of voters on election day. Controlled New York State politics.
  • Contextualization of Time period 6: The Gilded Age

    The United States is in its transformation from an agricultural to an industrialized urban society through technological advancements, large-scale production methods, dramatic social and cultural change, public reform efforts, and migrations. A period of significant economic, political, diplomatic, social, environmental, and cultural changes. Industrialization transformed rural and urban areas and migration accompanied it. 1865: close of civil war- 1898: Spanish-American war.
  • The Interstate Commerce Act (economic)

    The Interstate Commerce Act (economic)
    Federal law created to regulate the railroad industry and its monopolistic practices. This law helped the economy grow more integrated making almost all commerce interstate and international. The law was based on the public demand that railroad operations be regulated. The act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just", but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. This act helped small farmers who were using railways to send goods across state lines.
  • Vertical Integration (economic)

    Vertical Integration (economic)
    This was an attempt by one company to simultaneously control several related aspects of the media business. This was an economic change as it helped the Carnegie Steel business reduce costs along the supply chain from mining and transportation to manufacturing. He controlled raw materials and transport lines by buying out coal fields, iron mines, and railroad lines. This benefitted the economy by allowing companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency. (the 1870s-1880s)
  • Social Gospel (social + economic)

    Social Gospel  (social + economic)
    Emerged among Protestant Christians to improve the economic, moral and social conditions of the urban working class. Helped social and economic conditions as it applied Christian ethics to issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environments, child labor, lack of unionization, poor schools, and the dangers of war.
  • 2nd Industrial Revolution (economic + social)

    2nd Industrial Revolution (economic + social)
    Phase of rapid standardization and industrialization. Aided the economy by advancing the creation of steel, electricity fueled production, mass production of consumer goods and weapons. It helped socially as it became easier to get around on trains, automobiles, and bicycles as well as easier communication through the radio and telegraph. The US became one of the major economic powers in the world and the first worldwide after WWI.
  • Social Darwinism (social + political)

    Social Darwinism (social + political)
    A social theory that human races are subject to the laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin perceived in plants and animals in nature. This was a social change as society began to believe in "survival of the fittest" which was used to justify imperialism, racism, and social inequalities. The idea that certain people become powerful in society because they are innately better. Embraced the laissez-faire capitalism and racism. Believed that the gov should not interfere by helping the poor.
  • The Grange Movement (social + economic + political)

    The Grange Movement (social + economic + political)
    Founded in 1867 to advance methods of agriculture as well as to promote the social and economic needs of farmers in the United States. "actively lobbied state legislatures and Congress for political goals" as it lowered rates charged by railroads and rural free mail delivery by the post office. The Grangers regulated rising fare prices of railroad and grain elevator companies after the American Civil War. The purchasing of machinery and regulation of shipping fees aided economically.
  • The Telephone (social + economic)

    The Telephone (social + economic)
    The invention of the telephone opened worldwide communication, easier communication in wars, and the business benefits of additional communication options. This invention by Alexander Graham benefited the economy as people realized they could make more money by manufacturing them cheaper and selling them for more money. The telephone became a necessity. This invention also allowed businesses to quickly deliver messages to one another.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act (social + economic)

    Chinese Exclusion Act (social + economic)
    This act suspended Chinese immigration for ten years and declared them ineligible for naturalization. This impacted society as the number of Chinese immigrants decreased and forbade those who left to return. Many Americans on the West Coast attributed declining wages and economic ills to Chinese workers. They aimed to prevent them from benefiting from US citizenship. The act lead to years of racial hostility and marked a change in the US from a welcoming country to a gatekeeping one.
  • AFL (American Federation of Labor) (economic)

    AFL (American Federation of Labor) (economic)
    Focused on winning economic benefits for its members through collective bargaining. Represented national craft unions that each retained autonomous operations. It helped the economy grow and flourish through smart leadership, patience, and realistic goals which helped thousands of working Americans live a better life. It benefited labor by gaining skilled craft workers rather than attending to organize all workers in an industry. The building of trades.
  • Haymarket Bombing (social + economic + political)

    Haymarket Bombing (social + economic + political)
    A labor protest rally became a riot after someone threw a nob at the police. Caused hysteria in Chicago and increased anti-labor and anti-immigration sentiment and suspicion of anarchist movement because several Chicago labor leaders were anarchist immigrants from Germany. 8 radical labor activists were convicted in connection with the bombing. The execution of 4 anarchists and the decline of the Knights of Labor- a group of skilled and unskilled workers who wanted fair working conditions.
  • Rail Road Strike (economic)

    Rail Road Strike (economic)
    This had a national economic impact as companies hired new workers, workers in other industries joined the strike, and it prevented trade and commerce. 10 percent wage cute, distrust of capitalists, and poor working conditions led to workers leading strikes that prevented trains from moving which caused the economy to spiral. workers were suppressed by violence but they continued to organize to try to improve their working conditions. The strike caused half of the country's tracks to halt.
  • Ghost Dance Movement (social + cultural + spiritual)

    Ghost Dance Movement (social + cultural + spiritual)
    A cultural and social change associated with Wovoka's prophecy of an end to white expansion while preaching the goals of clean living, an honest life, and cross-cultural cooperation by Indians. They rejected the white settlers' material culture. They wanted to return to the natural state that had existed before the westward expansion of white settlers. A spiritual movement that prophesied the extinction of white people and return to old-time life and superiority of the Indians.
  • Hull House (social + economic)

    Hull House (social + economic)
    Founded by Jane Adams was one of the first settlement houses in the US. A social improvement as it provided recreational facilities for slum children, fighting for child labor laws, and helping immigrants become US citizens. Assisted Chicago's neediest residents. Added to American culture by introducing it into immigrant's native cultures, not replacing them completely. It became "a community of university women" who provided social and educational opportunities for working-class people.
  • Gospel of Wealth (social + economic)

    Gospel of Wealth (social + economic)
    Carnegie's philosophy that asserts that hard work and perseverance lead to wealth based on his observation that the heirs of large fortunes often squandered in riotous living rather than nurturing and growing them. Altered society's views that handouts would do more harm than good both for people and society as a whole. The rich were told to give their money to institutions or ideas that promote the poor to cultivate "better" habits thus improving economics and society.
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act (economic)

    Sherman Anti-trust Act (economic)
    Helped the economy by curbing concentrations of power that interfered with trade to reduce economic competition. John Sherman was an expert on regulation of commerce. Outlawed trusts, monopolies, and cartels to increase economic competitiveness. Authorized Federal Government to institute proceedings against trusts in order to dissolve them. The act hindered workers in attaining better working conditions.
  • NAWSA (political + social + economic)

    NAWSA (political + social + economic)
    Organizations formed to advocate in favor of women's suffrage in the US. Played a role in political improvement in passing the 19th amendment to the US constitution which guaranteed women's rights to vote. This helped millions of women move closer to equality in all aspects of American life. The economy was improved as women advocated for job opportunities, fair wages, education, sex education, and birth control.
  • Plessy v Ferguson (social + political)

    Plessy v Ferguson (social + political)
    US Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the "separate but equal" doctrine. African American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks. This political decision changed society as it strengthened racial segregation in public accommodations and services throughout the US and ensured its constitution by giving it constitutional sanction. Brown v Board ended up changing African Americans' hopes for the same rights as whites.
  • Standard Oil (economic)

    Standard Oil (economic)
    Played a crucial role in the US economy as it rooted strongly in areas such as railroads and other industries as well as the government. Rockefeller was able to ship so many goods that railroad companies strongly desired his business. He demanded discounted rates and his profits soared over his competitors. This helped the global economy as it developed companies for distributing and marketing products around the world. Oil production, processing, marketing, and transportation.