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Time period 4 (1800-1848)

By ereese
  • Cotton Gin (economic)

    Cotton Gin (economic)
    A revolutionary invention that separates cotton seeds from cotton fiber. This was an important invention that reduced the amount of time it takes to separate cotton seeds from the fibers which sped production. The number of workers needed to remove seeds but it actually increased the number of slaves plantation owners needed to plant cultivate and harvest cotton.
  • Barbary Pirates (social + political)

    Barbary Pirates (social + political)
    Pirates from the Barbary states seized American merchant ships and held crew for Brandon. They demanded that the US pay tribute to Barbary rulers. Thomas Jefferson refused to pay. Their goals were to enslave captives and to ransom hostages for tribute. They defined the foreign policy of the United States in its earliest days. If they failed to pay, the pirates would attack their ship and take their goods as well as enslave crew members or hold them for ransom.
  • Louisiana Purchase (social + economic)

    Louisiana Purchase (social + economic)
    Helped the United States expand across the continent. Buying a large piece of land for 15 million dollars doubled the size of the US. This new land helped us move toward Manifest Destiny. Thomas Jefferson bought the Lousiana territory from France. The purchase led to the formation of several new US states.
  • Steamboats (economic)

    Steamboats (economic)
    Water vessels propelled by steam built by Robert Fulton by inspiration of the steam engine. These boats were an important shift in American transportation for the new nation carrying produce to markets and occasionally transporting passengers across waterways. These allowed for a more efficient way to transport supplies across the water by holding a lot of cargo and supplies at one time which was a huge improvement on the original transportation of the paddle-boat.
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (social + political)

    Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (social + political)
    the Chesapeake set its target for the crew of a British vessel. This vessel was fired upon by HMS Leopard of the Royal Navy for refusing to allow a search for deserters. This attack angered the American public and government and eventually led to the War of 1812. The Leopard sent a message demanding to search the Chesapeake for British naval deserters but the Commodore refused and Leopard sailed to Halifax so the men could be tried.
  • Embargo Act (political + economic)

    Embargo Act (political + economic)
    A law passed by the US congress signed by president Jefferson that prohibited American ships from trading in all foreign ports. This act was, however, a fail because it was costly and unpopular. It ended up hurting the American economy more than the French or British which resulted in widespread smuggling.
  • Non-intercourse Act (economic)

    Non-intercourse Act (economic)
    Lifted all embargos on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. They wanted to be able to damage the economies of the UK and France. This act was mostly ineffective however but was a contributing factor to the War of 1812. They were hoping to force Britain and France to change their policies towards natural vessels by depriving them of American trade. This was unsuccessful.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe (social + cultural)

    Battle of Tippecanoe (social + cultural)
    Fought over white expansion into Indian territory. The United States secured victory. This was a primary catalyst for the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States. This ended the natives dream for a confederacy against the settlers and forced them to join forces with the British as the only defense to their homeland.
  • War of 1812 (social + political)

    War of 1812 (social + political)
    Conflict fought between the United States and Great Britain over British violations of US maritime rights. This war ended with the exchange of ratifications of the Treaty of Ghent. The British public grew tired of the sacrifice and expense of their 20-year war against France. Caused by a series of trade restrictions introduced by Britain which were to impeded American trade with France.
  • Hartford Convention (political)

    Hartford Convention (political)
    A series of meetings in which the New England federalist party met to discuss grievances about the ongoing war of 1812 and political problems arising with the Federal government. New England states did not support the war. This convention resulted in the declaration calling on the Federal Government to protect the New England and supply financial aid to New England's damaged trade economy.
  • Era of Good Feelings (political)

    Era of Good Feelings (political)
    Reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the War of 1812. It was called this due to their lack of partisan political strife. This label is both accurate and inaccurate for this era. It is accurate because of the growing sense of nationalism, but there were still debates on slavery and other issues and unpleasant tensions continued to build.
  • Tariff of 1816 (economic + political)

    Tariff of 1816 (economic + political)
    Tariff passed by congress to protect the U.S manufactured items from overseas competition. The U.S wanted better protection of of the growing economy and industry as well as its products used for overseas trade. This helped pay debts and encouraged people to buy goods that were made in America. This was a 25% tax on foriegn-made cotton and whoop products as well as leather and iron. This helped raise money that helped pay war debts and was lent to manufacturers.
  • 2nd Bank of US (economic + political)

    2nd Bank of US (economic + political)
    The second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the US during its 20-year charter. This bank had the same powers and responsibilities of the first national bank, however it was supposed to maintain the "currency principle". It worked to establish a sound and stable national currency and regulate public credit issued by private banking institutions through fiscal duties.
  • Adam's-Onis Treaty (territorial + social)

    Adam's-Onis Treaty (territorial + social)
    A treaty between the United States and Spain that ceded Florida to the U.S and defined the boundary between the U.S and Spain. During this, the United States recognized Spanish sovereignty over Texas. This was an important shift because it settled border disputes between the United States and the Spanish empire and proved vital to the nation's security. Adams insisted that the boundaries be extended to the Pacific.
  • Panic of 1819 (economic)

    Panic of 1819 (economic)
    An economic crisis in the United States caused by the end of years of warfare between France and Great Britain. They finally settled their differences in 1815. This was caused at the end of the war when banks in the country failed, mortgages were foreclosed which forced people out of their homes and farms. This caused a failure in agriculture and manufacturing triggering widespread unemployment. Economic expansion ended.
  • Cult of Domesticity (social)

    Cult of Domesticity (social)
    An opinion about women saying that they should stay at home and should not do any work outside of their homes. This ideology tied the woman's virtue to piety, submissiveness, and domesticity. This was a prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes in the United States and had no real change in the ways of American identity until women began to fight harder for equal rights in both work and politics.
  • Indian Removal Act (social + political)

    Indian Removal Act (social + political)
    Signed into law by President Andrew Jackson. Authorized the president to negotiate with southern Native American tribes for their removal to federal territory west of Mississippi river in exchange for white settlement of ancestral lands. The president was given the power to remove Indian tribes living east of Mississippi. This relocated Indians east of the territory to the West of the Mississippi River.
  • Nullification Crisis (political)

    Nullification Crisis (political)
    A political crisis during president Jackson's presidency. It involved a confrontation between the state of South Carolina and the federal government. The south was protesting against the series of protective tariffs that taxed all foreign goods in order to boost sales of US products. This crisis caused a battle between Unionism and state's rights which eventually leads to the Civil War.
  • Women's Right Movement (social + political)

    Women's Right Movement (social + political)
    A diverse social movement in which women worked to gain the right to vote as political equality and social reforms. Women wanted equal pay for equal work, the right to vote, and the right to work in the jobs they were capable of working in. Many men and women did not agree with this concept. Education for women was also minimal at this time. This happened at a Seneca falls women's rights convention when they realized in order to achieve reform, they needed to win the right to vote.
  • Industrialization (economic)

    Industrialization (economic)
    A period of industrial growth in the United States leading up to the Civil War. This was a major economic shift as machines began to replace man-powered labor and means of manufacturing became more efficient increasing the production rate of industries tremendously. The united states had a lot of coal, iron, and other resources and technology to help expand its economic presence. People were able to work longer and more effectively.