War history p1

The Vietnam War

  • Ho Chi Minh Born

    Ho Chi Minh Born
    Born in Vietnam
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    Settles in France

    Lives in France after his stint as a sailor and in the army. Is introdiced to Karl Marx's ideologies and becomes a founding member of the French Communist Party.
  • Minh on Russian Revolution

    Minh on Russian Revolution
    Minh becomes inspired by it and tells colleagues to, "make contact with the masses to awaken, organise, unite and train them, and lead them to fight for freedom and independence." Knows that a direct return will result in arrest so stays in China and creates the 'Vietnam Revolutionary League.
  • Japanese invasion of IndoChina

    Japanese invasion of IndoChina
    This invasion created a window of oppurtunity for Minh to free his country from foreign rule. Created the Vietminh and under General Vo Nguyen Giap they began guerrilla warfare against the Japanses. Received supplies from Soviets and Chinese later on the U.S. During this time the Vietminh gained invaluable millitary epxpertise for the future.
  • Minh's Declaration

    Ho Chi Minh announced the formation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. But the Soviets and the Americans have already agreed to divide the Country.
  • French attempt to regain control

    French attempt to regain control
    France attempts to re establish Vietnam as one of its colonies. Fighting borke out instantly. The Vietnemese were fighting a loosing battle in the early stages of the war.
  • Mao gains control over China

    Mao gains control over China
    Mao is in charge of China and is able to provide a safe base for the Vietnemse soldiers.
  • Stalemate

    The Vietminh now had large protions of North Vietnam under thier rule and the French had the south.
  • Dien Bien Phu

    Dien Bien Phu
    French Genral Navarre hoped to outmanouver General Vo Nguyen Giap by drawing him out into a lrage battle. Set up a complex at Dien to block route to laos and Vo took the bait. But instead of a frontal assault Vo chose to surround the French by digging in trenches and placing over 70,000 men aroudn Dien.
    Limited French airsupport using Chinese anti aricraft weaponry.
    Pleaded for help but was ignored in favor of the Geneva conveniton
  • Offensive on Dien Bien Phu

    Vo launches a massive offensive on Dien for 56 days pushes French to a small part of Dien.
  • The French Surrender

    France Surrenders and agrees to move out all troops and meet at Geneva to dicuss the outcome.
  • Geneva Conference

    Geneva Conference
    Several things were hammered out at the negotiantions.
    1.Vietnam divided at the 17th paralle. Minh in the North and Ngo Dinh Diem in the south. Ngo was chosen beacuase of his anti-communist leanings.
    2.French troops withdraw from Vietnam and North Vietnemses withdraw from the South
    3.The Vietnemses people would be free to choose were to live
    4.Genral election before July 1956 under international scrutiny
  • Ngo Doesn't agree to hold Elections

    Results in people starting to move from homes and start forming resistance groups in the jungles of Vietnam.
  • Escalation

    1200 of Ngo's officials killed by the guerrilla in the forests.
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    Ho Chi Minh Trail

    A series of routes that ran through Laos/Cambodia and the Vietnam borders. It was used to arm and supply the Vietcong in the south. Was extremley difficult to destroy or disrupt because it was very fluid and its locations. Mjority of it was not in Vietnam making it hard to destroy and if a base was bult on it the route would just shift.
  • National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) Formed

    National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) Formed
    Minh agrees to supply the guerrilla units with aid and creating the 'Vietcong'
    They primarliy used guerrilla warfare tactics. Ambushes, traps, acts of terror mostly the Vietcong never engaged the enemy directy and preferred to use 'hit and run' tactics
  • Millitary advisors

    Kennedy a year ago pledged extra aid to Vietnam and increased the number of millitary advisors from 700 to 12,000
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    Agent Orange

    Used during this timespane, It was a defoilant a chemical able to take away the jungle cover of the Vietcong. Six million gallons of it were used. Orange caused many other effects such as cancer, death and genetic problems which lead to birth defects. Operation Ranch Hand is the name of the operation
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    Impact of war On Vietnam

    Civilian population devestated. Thousands of anti personell mines killing many civilians. Agent orange destroyed a millio hectares of forest land. Many villages caught between cross fire. Destroyed image of the US millitary.
  • Protest in Saigon

    Protest in Saigon
    Thich Quang Due a Buddhist monk self imolates himself to protest the Diems gov't religious policies.
  • Diem Overthrown

    Diem Overthrown
    Diem's gov't is overthrown by South Vietnam's milltary with Nguyen Van Thieu beacoming the new leader.
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    Allegedley North Vietnam opened fire on U.S. destroyers and this lead to the U.S. declraring war on North Vietnam. This incident itsef is surrounded in controversey, Certain messages from the warships were ignored in favor of more 'convenient' ones that could have sparked the war much quicker.
  • Gulf Of Tonkin Debate

    President Lyndon Johnson proposes the resolution. It passes 82-2. It allowed Johnson to wage war on North Vietnam without a declaration of War from Congress.
  • Operation Flaming Dart

    Operation Flaming Dart
    A US base was attacked by the Vietcong. The US could either ignore the minor attack or respond. Choosing the later he initiated a large scale millitary operation. Communications centres were instantly attacked in the North via US Carriers.
    The attacks had no real millitary objective but a political one. It would show the massive strength of the US millitary and make the North feel as though opposition would be futile.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    A massive air campaign against North Vietnam. Purpose to demoralize the north and destoroy its industrial and poltical capacity. The operation was a faliure because it was designed so as not to provoke Soviet or Chinese response. Since majority of the supplies came from those nations the op didn't have the optimum effect. The airstrips couldn't be defended then American troops sent.
    Over 900 aircraft lost several hundred thousand tons of bombs dropped and the $1Billion dollars was the cost.
  • The Draft increased

    The Draft increased
    The rate was increased from 3000 per month to 33,000 per month. The working class couldn't afford to avoid the draft and started to burn their papers to protest. Muhammad Ali also did this, this showed the US was divided about the war.
  • Troops

    By the end of the year over 200,000 US trooops in Vietnam.
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    'Anti war'

    This movement started primarily due to the hippy movement and the effect of media. Hippies preached love and not war. The media itseld brought imaged and videos of what the war was actually like. Children running in terror, the My Lai massacre significantly shifted U.S public opinion.
  • Anti War protests

    Anti War protests
    50,000 come out in N.Y. This is significant as the populace is clearly divided making the gov't fight a war on two fronts at home to appease th public and in Vietnam.
  • Troops

    Over 400,000 doubled in one year alone
  • Operation Cedar Falls

    30,000 Allied troops destroy Vietcong supply sites near Saigon and discover a massive system of tunnels.
  • Troops

    490,000 troops in Vietnam buildup rate decreasing slowly as the anti-war movement becomes popular back home.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    Genral Tet from the north created the plan involving 70,000 Vietcong and 100 targets to be attacked simultaneously. The Tet offensive succeded because the U.S was not excpecting a large scale attack as they had been used to the guerrilla tactics. The Capital Saigon was also attacked and even the American embassy was stormed. Eventually the U.S won but the blow to the morale was devestating. A small guerrilla force managed to shock the most advanced nations defences. This didn't look good for P.R
  • Khe Sanh

    Khe Sanh
    It was a US base on the Ho Chi Minh trail and the site of one of the Bloddiest battles in the Vitenam war. Genral Giap hoped to surrounf the base with 20,000 men and hoped the US would bring in reserves weaking other parts. He was wrong the Americans entrenched and the Vietcong layed siege. US airpower pinned the NVA down. The French lost Diem the same and the morale was crippled by it, the US couldn't afford to loose. Soon route 9 reopened allowed reinforcement of the base ending attack.
  • My Lai

    My Lai
    Members of Charlie Company, 22th brigade entered the Vietnamese village of My Lai and massacred its residents. The mission was 'search and destroy' which lead to 300 innocent civilians dying. The reason for it was never found but studies say it was because of inept leadership, low morale or just psychological damage. Damged American morale alot, the public was out raged and wanted the war over even faster.
  • Vietnamization

    Plan to give the south more responsibility to fight to war. The first U.S troops would be withdrawn and the South Vietnamse army would be increased in size. Fears were that the removal of U.S. troops would result in the Vietcong winning the war.
    The pheonix program involved the CIA infiltrating and killing Vietcong sympathisers, over 40,000 killed by the CIA.
  • Troops

    540,000 the maximum number of US troops in Vietnam.
  • Rolling Thunder

    The operation is cancelled
  • Operation Breakfast

    Nixon gives the go ahead to begin Covert bombing og cambodia. Conducted without any knowledge of the American public and congress for 14 months.
  • Ho Chi Minh's death

    Didn't have much of an effect the north would end up retaking Saigon in 1975 and rename it Ho Chi Minh city.
    480,000 troops, the US started to move out as the My Lai massacre is made public.
  • Troops

    280,000 troops secret peace talks held in Paris.
  • Kent State University

    Kent State University
    Students were protesting and the National guard formed a line in front of a university building the protest burned to the ground. The students were ordered to disperse when they didn't tear gas was fired and when that was finished live rounds were sent into the crowd, killing 4 students and wounding 10. The image of your own gov't killing its own people was not a good one and again shifted especially when it was so similar to the Boston Massacre igniting the revolution. The US was more anti war.
  • D.C protest

    D.C protest
    300,000 people came out and many were veterans. The veterans publicly threw away their medals and ribbons on the steps of the U.S Capitol.
    The Americans were shocked men from the millitary against the war, public opinion was starting to change rapidly against the war.
  • Troops

    140,000 left in Vietnam as the war nears its end.
  • Pentagon Papers

    Pentagon Papers
    The New York Times publishes the Pentagon Papers. These reveal that the Nixon administration was conducting covert operations without the knowledge of the people
  • Operation Linebacker

    Operation Linebacker
    Was initiated because peace talks were stalling .Largest bombing campaign in the war. Gave the U.S. airforce full authority to bomb whatever they desrie. They targeted fuel depots, rail lines, power plants, industrial centers, bridges and other areas sending North Vietnam into dissarray.
  • Operation Linebacker halted

    The operation is halted as peace talks resume.
  • Linebacker II

    After peace talks failed Nixon was outraged and wanted anything to be done to bring them back. So he initiated the most agressive bombing campaign. 36,000 tonnes of bombs were dropped in 11 days exceeding the previous two years combined. These were known as the Christmas bombings and had finally brought North Vietnam to the negotiating table.
    This campaign clearly demonstrated U.S. arirpower as being extremley formidable if it is unchained.
  • Cease fire

    Cease fire
    Cease fire signed in Paris the last U.S troops leave Vietnam.
    All troops would withdraw
    The 17th parallel would for now remain a seperation point
    No troops in Laos or Cambodia
    No millitary movemnt from the North across the DMZ.
  • Fall of Saigon

    Fall of Saigon
    Fell to North Vietnam and marked the end of the Vietnam war. When the U.S. forces left the Northern advance could not be stopped. The southern army started to fall apart. The American embassy was evacuated and Saigon fell.
    The city was renamed Ho Chi Minh city in honor of their leader.