Overthrow of Vietnam

  • Jul 8, 1497

    Portugal Exploration

    Portugal Exploration
    Portugal sets off to find trade route into the Indies. Vasco Da Gama to lead expedition. Painting of Vasco Da Gama
  • Period: Jul 8, 1497 to

    Western Influences in Vietnam

    Historical overview of events that took place in Vietnam
  • Britain East India Company

    Britain East India Company
    Queen Elizabeth I grants a 15 year monopoly on all trades in the East Indies. In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe reached the court of the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir, and granted the right to build a factory at Surat. England takes power over Asia trade. Painting of Sir Thomas Roe.
  • Dutch VOC (East India Company)

    Dutch VOC (East India Company)
    Dutch VOC (Dutch East India Company established). Begins operations in East Indies establishes a port city of Batavia in 1619. Dutch VOC to control power in East Indies until the French revolution of 1789 which would later occupy Amsterdam 1795. Map of Dutch VOC controlled ports.
  • Britain Claims East Indies

    Britain Claims East Indies
    December 31, 1799. Most of the VOC’s Asian possessions were ceded to the British after the Napoleonic Wars were finished, and the English East India Company took over the VOC’s infrastructure. Map of Colonies owned by European Nations.
  • French Indochina

    French Indochina
    French gun ships led by Admiral Pierre-Louis-Charles Rigault De Genouilly take Saigon on 18, Feb 1859. The Vietnamese government forced to cede 3 provinces to France. France colonizes Vietnam in 1887. Begin integrating Western thinking, education, religion and ideology. In return export tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee. Picture of Admiral Pierre-Louis-Charles Rigault De Genouilly.
  • France Signs Armistice

    France Signs Armistice
    France signs armistice with Germany and axis allies. An axis influenced government was created to control non-occupied French colonies. They were called the Vichy France (pro-Nazi group) This was suppose to be a neutral zone in France for Axis allies. Map of Axis occupied France.
  • Imperial Japanese Army

    Imperial Japanese Army
    Imperial Japanese Army defeat opposition in Vietnam and take control outside of Hanoi. Vietnam gave Japanese forces a strong foothold into Indochina. March 1945, Japan removes Vichy French power from Vietnam and take direct control over Vietnam. Picture of Japanese soldiers enjoying leave in Saigon.
  • Japan Surrenders/ Ho Chi Minh's Rise

    Japan Surrenders/ Ho Chi Minh's Rise
    The defeat of the Axis armies led to Japan surrendering to the Allied forced in 1945. Ho Chi Minh of the Viet Mihn declared independence in Hanoi. Ho Chi Minh's speech was very similar to early American sentiments. "All men are created equal. They are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Ho Chi Minh seeks protection from France. Picture of Ho Chi Minh
  • Geneva Conference of 1954

    Geneva Conference of 1954
    The decision of what to do with Vietnam in attendance were the Vietminh, France, China, USA, USSR and Britain. In support of U.S. John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State to handle negotiations. Dulles deeply dislikes Communist Chinese delegate Zhou Enlai. Dulles calls Zhou Enlai Demonic and someone he would only talk to if their cars were to collide. Dulles prevents agreement instead a national election to take place in two years time. Picture of John Foster Dulles.
  • Ngo Dinh Diem appointed Prime Minister of S. Vietnam

    Ngo Dinh Diem appointed Prime Minister of S. Vietnam
    U.S. fears that Ho Chi Minh would side with communism decided to establish their own man in the South. Ngo Dinh Diem, a devote catholic, who studied at the Maryknoll Seminaries in Lakewood NJ and Ossining NY, anti-communist and gained confidence with American politicians while in the U.S. Even had relationship with Senator John F. Kennedy.
  • Chief of CIA Colonel Edward Lansdale

    Chief of CIA Colonel Edward Lansdale
    Colonel Edward Lansdale, Chief of CIA sent to aid Diem in disruption of Ho Chi Minh's power. Lansdale begins covert operations in N. Vietnam such as city bus bombing, paying sooth sayers to predict N. Vietnams doom and the distribution of leaflets about Christ and Virgin Mary leaving N. Vietnam to S. Vietnam. The Tactics had very little effect on Ho Chi Minh's power. Picture of Lansdale speaking with Diem.
  • Double 7 day

    Double 7 day
    Diem establishes a new government order as Prime Minister to Emperor Bao Dai and takes residence in former French Governors House. Diem begins anti-communist campaign in hopes of lowering Ho Chi Minh power in Vietnam. Two coups are attempted on Diems life but were stopped by CIA money. $12 million dollars paid to prevent the coup of Diem. Picture of Emperor Bao Dai.
  • Division at the 17th Parallel

    Division at the 17th Parallel
    Vietnam is divided at the 17th parallel until national elections to take place. Northern territory would be supported by China and capital established in Hanoi. South Vietnam would be supported by former French allies and the capital was established in Saigon. During the separation no external nations were to supply weapons or soldiers to those Vietnam. Map of divided Vietnam.
  • France surrenders

    France surrenders
    France officially defeated by Ho Chi Minh, ceremony took place at Mangin Athletic Stadium in Hanoi. War in Vietnam would cost France the lives of 44,967 soldiers and another 79,560 wounded. The ceremony was not highly publicized. Picture of Viet Minh General Vo Nguyen Giap who led N. Vietnam to defeat the French army at Dien Bien Phu, a French stronghold besieged by the Vietnamese communists for 57 days until their surrender.
  • Diem ousts Bao Dai

    Diem ousts Bao Dai
    Diem ousts Emperor Bao Dai and takes over as president of S. Vietnam with the aid of US CIA. Diem establish new government giving power to his siblings. #1 Oldest Brother Ngo Dinh Can "Warlord of central Vietnam. #2 Ngo Dinh Thur "Catholic appointed Archbishop/ wealthy entrepreneur. #3 Ngo Dinh Luyen "Ambassador to Britain". #4 Ngo Dinh Nhu & Wife "Vietnamese Rasputin" Advisor to Diem. Picture of Diem delivering address to South Vietnam.
  • National Election declined

    National Election declined
    Diem refused to hold a national election with support from Dulles. Diem concluded that South Vietnam was not bound by the Geneva conventional agreement and that Vietnam would remain separated. Eisenhower was later quoted saying that he believed that Ho Chi Minh would have won the election with 80% of the popularity if there would have been a national election. Picture of Eisenhower and Diem shaking hands.
  • Dulles dies

    Dulles dies
    1958, Dulles became sick and steps down from department of state. The following year Dulles dies and with his passing President Eisenhower's attention turns away from Vietnam. Picture of Dulles death in the LA times.
  • Northern Liberation Front Established (NLF)

    Northern Liberation Front Established (NLF)
    Northern Liberation Front established in Hanoi as its Communist political organization for the Viet Cong guerrillas in South Vietnam. U.S. believed that NLF was a communist tactic and did not take the NLF threat serious. The NLF were not part of the communist North Vietnam, instead they were an organized urban middle class, taught in eastern education. Picture of NLF war flag.
  • Eisenhower warns JFK

    Eisenhower warns JFK
    The day before JFK to take office Eisenhower warns president to be JFK of world hotspots to keep an eye on. They were Cuba, Berlin, Algeria, Laos, and the Congo. JFK later stated that he was never informed by Eisenhower about Vietnam. JFK raises troops "advisors" in Vietnam from 865 to 16,500. This begins to create questions of Diems rise to power. Picture of JFK and Eisenhower talking.
  • LBJ visits Saigon

    LBJ visits Saigon
    LBJ visits Saigon and warns White House of "Domino Effect" the idea that if S. Vietnam would fall all of Asia would fall into communist hands all the way to the beaches of Waikiki Hawaii. From 1961-1963 the U.S. continue to fight the Viet Cong, 108 American soldiers are killed and 23 aircraft are destroyed. U.S. wish to establish base in S. Vietnam, however Diem refuses and advisor Nhu suggest an allegiance with the communist party. Diem wants to stop the blood shed. Picture of LBJ and Diem.
  • Hue Phat Dan Shootings

    Hue Phat Dan Shootings
    Buddhist gather to celebrate Buddha's 2,527th birthday in city of Hue. Ngo Dinh Can sends police to stop celebration. Riots break out and a women and 8 children are shot down in public. S. Vietnam said the celebrations was in violation of law because of rule imposed on flying flags. However, Catholic celebration flags from an earlier celebration of Thuc's 25 years as an Archbishop still remained flying over the streets. Buddhists demand equality from Diem's government. Picture of Buddhist Flag.
  • Thích Quang Duc Self Immolation

    Thích Quang Duc Self Immolation
    Buddhist monks ask Diem to show respect and perform charity for the mistreatment of Buddhist. If Diem does not apologize Buddhist would protest. Fight was seen as poor buddhist being repressed by wealthy Catholics. Nhu advises to take no action. Buddhist monk Thich Quang Duc self immolation for a call of justice. U.S. Concern grows as the news is spread throughout the world. U.S. politicians begin losing faith in Diem's power.
  • Madame Nhu "Barbecue"

    Madame Nhu "Barbecue"
    Madame Nhu, wife to advisor Nhu, called the buddhist monk burning a barbecue. And said "let them burn we shall clap our hands." This statement created increased backlash and would be the turning point for Diem's power. The Spring/ Summer of 1963 VietCong guerrillas control 20% of S. Vietnam. As Diem power begin to decrease he increased police brutality. Picture of Madame Nhu
  • Buddhist continue self Immolation

    Buddhist continue self Immolation
    Four more Buddhist commit self Immolation in protest to Diem's power. Diem losing power over S. Vietnam his advisor Nhu uses secret police to disappear hundreds of Buddhist Monks, vandalize religious temples and even kidnapped the 8 year old buddhist patriarch in order to silent the Buddhist protest. U.S. deeply concerned by Nhu's actions that may lead to unified communist Vietnam. Picture of U.S. protesting the war in Vietnam.
  • Cable for Diem to separate from Nhu

    Cable for Diem to separate from Nhu
    On August 24th, Under Secretary George Ball was approached by Assistant Secretary of State Hilsman and States Harriman about the situation in Vietnam and had a cable ready to be sent to Vietnam. Ball approved the cable and had it forward on to Lodge in Saigon. The cable was informing Diem that if he would separate from Nhu the U.S. would be willing to continue to support him. If not then the U.S. would not be able to further protect him if a coup took place. A book about US betrayal of Diem.
  • Nolting out & Lodge in

    Nolting out & Lodge in
    Saigon Ambassador Frederick E. Nolting Jr. is replaced by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. because of Nolting close ties to Diem. U.S. believe Lodge is the man for the job since he was instrumental in defeating Arbenz in Guatemala and able to speak French. The hope was that he could bring back stability in S. Vietnam. Picture of Daily Record Newspaper talking about Lodge in Vietnam.
  • Lodge's warning

    Lodge's warning
    Lodge warns U.S. to take swift action as things begin to quickly fall apart in S. Vietnam. France tries to open secret relations with communist north and the southern VietCong under the watchful eyes of CIA. U.S. is forced to make a decision. #1 Support corrupt political family Diem, #2 Support overthrow of Diem, #3 Do nothing and let the situation resolve itself. Robert F. Kennedy suggests third option but doesn't push hard enough and eventually option #2 is put into play. Picture of RFK.
  • Black Luigi

    Black Luigi
    Black Luigi code name for CIA operative Lucien Connie brought in to perform the task of removing Diem from power and establishing a new power. Duong Van Minh would lead the coup if CIA shows support. CIA transfer $14 million dollars to a holding account. Picture of Lucien Conein Aka Black Luigi.
  • White House meeting

    White House meeting
    White house delegates meet at 4:20pm to discus the coup of South Vietnamese leader Diem and establish Duong Von Minh as new leader in S. Vietnam. Diem is to be exiled from S. Vietnam and not to be injured in coup. Picture of Duong Van Minh
  • Captain Ho Tan Quyen

    Captain Ho Tan Quyen
    Captain Ho Tan Quyen backed Diem power and was approached by fellow officers to support coup against Diem, Quyen refused. Quyen was shot three times in the head and officially the coup of Diem began. Vietnam CIA agents send code 9,9,9,9,9 to let White House know coup has begun. Picture of Captain Ho Tan Quyen was elevated to the ranks of Captain after shooting down two airforce aircraft trying to overthrow Diem.
  • Diem surrenders

    Diem surrenders
    7:00 am Diem Calls Lodge about the coup that took place and asks for asylum. 8:00 am Minh soldiers arrive at Gia Long Palace in hopes of arresting Diem. Diem and Nhu flee through secret tunnel. The brothers took refuge in Cholon and were later arrested at 10:00 am while being transported back by Minh the brothers were assassinated. Lodge did not insist on seeing the bodies as he did not want any involvement in the coup. JFK was deeply troubled by the murdering of Diem.
  • Tet Offensieve

    Tet Offensieve
    N. Vietnamese and VietCong begin to move on South Vietnam bases slowly pushing back U.S. and S. Vietnamese troops. War would continue with both taking heavy loses and would eventually lead to a stand still until a peace accord in Paris was reached. Picture of Tet Offensive attacks on South Vietnam.
  • US Withdrawal

    US Withdrawal
    US Withdrawals from Vietnam. On January 1973, representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, this was to create a ceasefire between both the North and South Vietnamese and the return of prisoners of war. However, with the withdrawal of U.S. forces communist Vietnam mobilized its forces against S. Vietnam. Picture of Newspaper cease-fire in Vietnam.
  • South Vietnam Surrenders

    South Vietnam Surrenders
    The S. Vietnamese army the 18th Division east of Saigon fought a valiant battle at Xuan Loc. They were able to defeat three squadron of N. Vietnamese forces until they no longer could hold out. N. Vietnamese then moved quickly to take Saigon. Vietnamese Col. Bui Tin accepted the surrender from Gen. Duong Van Minh on April 30th, 1975.