The Vietnam War

By mmartel
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    The Vietnam War

  • Dien Bien Phu Begins

    Dien Bien Phu Begins
    The Viet Minh launches its first assault on French forces at Dien Bien Phu located in Northern Vietnam. The battle lasted over two months occurring between March and May of 1954. This battle became the final defining conflict of the first Indochinese War and led to the Geneva Accords which divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel into communist North Vietnam and pro-west South Vietnam. Battle of Dien Bien Phu
  • Eisenhower Debates Intervention

    President Eisenhower's administration revisits the question of direct intervention in the Franco-Vietnamese War. The U.S. took care of much of the financial birden of the failed French war effort in addition to making an effort to booster South Vietnam and convince its people to become an anti-communist state.
    Background On U.S. Involvement in Vietnam War
  • U.S. Supports Diem

    U.S. Supports Diem
    With the help of the U.S., Ngo Dinh Diem consolidates power in Saigon and rejects the Geneva Accords. America then becomes a primary ally with the very weak and highly corrupt regime of the South Vietnamese state. The U.S. remained committed to his regime, however, Diem feared that he would loose against Ho Chi Minh, he refused to hold elections nationwide.
    Background On U.S. Involvement in Vietnam War
  • US sends the first US military advisers to Vietnam

    US sends the first US military advisers to Vietnam
    US sends the first US military advisers to Vietnam on November 1st, 1955
    Ho Chi Minh Land Reforms
    Following the communist doctrine, Ho Chi Minh orders "land reforms" in North Vietnam. To be more specific, the land in its entirety was brutally swept. Thousands of individuals classified as either farmers or wealthy land owners were either imprisoned, tortured, or executed. Many Vietnamese families fled to South Vietnam.
  • Ngo Dinh Diem Visits Eisenhower

    Ngo Dinh Diem Visits Eisenhower
    Several months following th presidential election, Ngo Dinh Diem visits the U.S. and is welcomed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower and other top government officials.
  • Guerilla War

    Guerilla War
    After ex Viet Minh forces were organized in the south with the help of Ho Chi Minh, a campaign of guerilla warfare was alunched against Diem's administration.
  • First American Deaths

    First American Deaths
    In order to successfully fight off guerilla tacts imposed by Ho Chi Minh and the organization of ex Viet Minh forces, two U.S. military advisors were sent in to aid South Vietnamese government and its military to ensure the survival of the country. Unfortunately, Major Dale R. Buis and Master Sergeant Chester M. Ovnand became the first Americans to die in the Vietna, War during the Guerilla strike at Bien Hoa.
  • Kennedy Elected

    Kennedy Elected
    Election Of 1960
    Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated Republican candidate Richard M. Nixon in the election of 1960 becoming the 35th president of the United States.
  • Johnson Visits South Vietnam

    Johnson Visits South Vietnam
    Advisory Effort in Vietnam
    In the early stages of his presidential reign, JFK initiated the idea/plan to ship more U.S. advisors to South Vietnam in order to fight off the guerillas whose successes were advancing trememndously in the defeats against Diems regime. Around the time JFK introduced this initiative to the South Vietnamese government, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visited South Vietna, and offered military and economic aid to Diem.
  • Bold Political Statements

    Bold Political Statements
    Advisory Effort in Vietnam
    Both Diem and his brother were murdered and the regime was overthrown. President Kennedy was also assasinated and Lyndon B. Johnson took over the presidency. In addition, Buddhists monks calmly began setting themselves on fire in public places as a way of protesting against the Diem policy of removing Buddhists from key government positions and replacing them with Catholics.
  • Gulf Of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf Of Tonkin Incident
    Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionAlso known as the USS Maddox incident, on August 2nd, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked an American destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin. Johnson responded by sending in another destroyer, however, on August 4th, both destroyer reported that they were under attack. As a result, Johnson then authorized retaliatory air attacks against North Vietnam. He also asked Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, although this did not occur until August 7th.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling ThunderThere were four main objectives to the operation which aimed to boost sagging morale of the Saigon regime in the republic of Vietnam, to persuae North Vietnam to cease its support for the communist insurgency in South Vietnam without actually taking any ground forces into communist North Vietnam, to destroy North Vietnam's transportation system, industrial base, and air defenses, and to halt the flow of men and material into South Vietnam.
  • U.S. Troops

    U.S. Troops
    On March 8th, 1965, the first American troops arrive in Vietnam.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    Tet OffensiveThe North Vietnamese join forces with the Viet Cong to launch the Tet Offensive, attacking approximately one hundred South Vietnamese cities and towns. This was one of the largest military campaigns of the war that occurred on January 30th, also the timeo f the lunar new year, or Tet. This was not only a major turning point for the war, however, it severely damaged the hopes of winning the war for United States officials that combined forces of the United States and South Vietnam.
  • Mai Lai Massacre

    Mai Lai Massacre
    Tet OffensiveOn March 16th, 1968, U.S. soldiers killed hundreds of Vietnamese civilians in the town of Mai Lai, part of South Vietnam. As a result of the mass murder of innocent inhabitants, Lieutenant William Calley (the troops commander at the time) was court-martialed and sentenced to life imprisonment, but he only served a few years before parole. The massacre then eventually became a symbol for those opposed to the war in America.
  • Ho Chi Minh

    Ho Chi Minh
    Communist revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh dies at 79. In addiiton, the American public learns of the Mai Lai massacre while President Nixon orders the first of many U.S. troop withdrawls from Vietnam.
  • Broadcast from the President

    Broadcast from the President
    On April 30th, 1970, President Nixon announced that U.S. troops along with South Vietnamese units invaded enemy locations in Cambodia in order to destroy bases that had provided aid to the NLF. However, the nationally televised broadcast eventually sparked nationwide protests, especially on college campuses.
  • Kent State Killings

    Kent State Killings
    On May 4th, the Ohio National Guard attempted to disperse a growing corwd that was on its fourth day of anti-war protests at Kent State University. When demonstrators refused to follow orders, chaos ensued. Members of the Guard fired directly into the crows, killing four and woulding nine (one victim was paralyzed for life). Of the fur killed, two had been protesting while the other two had been walking to class. As a result of this event, college campuses across the country were shut down.
  • Pentagon Papers

    Pentagon Papers
    Pentagon PapersPrepared at the request of Secratary of Defense Robert McNamera in 1967, the Pentagon Papers were merely a nickname given to a secret Department of Defense study of the U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945-1967. However, portions of the Pentagon Papers were published in The New York Times in 1971 which to the public, revelaed "The Secret War" of the United States in Vietnam.
  • Congress Votes to Withdraw Troops

    Congress Votes to Withdraw Troops
    The House and Senate vote to withdraw all troops in Vietnam by years end. In addition, the 26th Ammendment is ratified, lowering the national voting age from 21 to 18.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Watergate ScandalFive men are caught buglarizing for the headquarters for the Democratic National Committee located at the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C. Their arrests will eventually set President Nixons resignation in motion. Although, Nixon was reelected by defeating candidate Senator George McGovern whom was running in the election on an antiwar platform that would grant amnesty to draft evaders who have left the country and would exchange American withdrawl from Vietname for the return of POWs.
  • Paris Peace Accords

    Paris Peace Accords
    Paris Peace AccordsThe Vietnam War officially ends for the United States. The last U.S. combat soldier leaves Vietnam, but military advisors and some Marines remain. Over 3 million Americans had served in the war, nearly 60,000 people were declared dead, about 150,--- are wounded, and at least 1,000 are missing in action.