The Vietnam War

By Shaq_H
  • Formation of the Viet Minh

    Formation of the Viet Minh
    Britannica - Viet Minh (Vietnamese revolutionary organization)
    The Viet Minh coalition formed in Pac Bo.
  • Period: to

    First Indochina War

  • Formation of Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)

    Formation of Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)
    President Harry Truman, in September of 1950, established the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) to aid the French during the First Indochina War in Saigon. The US spent over $10 million worth of military equipment so that the French can fight against an ideology the US government did not agree with.
  • Viet Cong Formed

    Viet Cong Formed
    Called Viet Cong, by Diem, meaning Communist Vietnamese, is established by Ho Chi Minh to infiltrate South Vietnam while guerilla's blend into the countryside. They would eventually become successful after the war.
  • Battle of Dien Bien Phu

    Battle of Dien Bien Phu
    Britannica
    The Battle of Dien Bien Phu consisted of French troops and the Viet Minh during the Indochina War near Laos. It ultimately ended the eight-year long war, and the Viet Minh were able to set up a small mountain outpost. In this battle, the U.S. government aided the French, however, after the defeat, they became concerned of communism in Vietnam.
  • Geneva Accords

    Geneva Accords
    Britannica
    The Geneva Conference took place on April 26 and lasted until July 21, 1954. In the conference, representatives from Cambodia, China, France, Laos, United Kingdom, United States of America, Soviet Russia, the Viet Minh and the State of Vietnam all attended. A total of ten documents were drafted - three of which were military agreements. The US government stated they would not be bound by them.
  • Ngo Dinh Diem Elected President

    Ngo Dinh Diem Elected President
    Britannica
    In an election held to determine what government style South Vietnam would have, Ngo Dinh Diem would win 98.2% of the vote and claimed the Republic of Vietnam. He would later gather the support of the American government for his "anti-communism views".
  • The United States Take Over

    The United States Take Over
    After the defeat at Diem Bien Phu in 1954, the United States took over the advisory role from the French who were leaving Vietnam as a result of the Accords. The United States would later become heavily involved in what would be known as the Vietnam War.
  • Ho Chi Minh Steps Down

    Ho Chi Minh Steps Down
    Ho Chi Minh, known for the foundation of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Viet Cong, steps down as leader but plays an active role in the Presidency of North Vietnam. Due to his Viet Minh independence movement during the 1940's, Minh is seen as leaving a legacy in North Vietnam.
  • Period: to

    Vietnam War Timespan

  • Ho Chi Minh Trail

    Ho Chi Minh Trail
    The Ho Chi Minh Trail was an series of trails used by the North Vietnamese to send their troops along a route into South Vietnam. The trail was about 1,000 kilometers in length and stretched from Cambodia to Vietnamese borders. The Vietnamese also used it for supply routes that could carry food, weapons, and equipment. Americans would later use Agent Orange to destroy the environment and give off enemy positions.
    “...enemy troops could seek refuge and build up.” (M Maclear)
  • National Liberation Front Established

    National Liberation Front Established
    Read More
    In 1960, South Vietnamese Communists established the National Liberation Front (NLF) to allow non-communists into the organization.
  • US Aircraft Carrier "Core" Arrives

    US Aircraft Carrier "Core" Arrives
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    In Saigon, USNS Core arrived with 33 helicopters and 400 air and ground crewmen ordered to aid the South Vietnamese Army. US pilots begin working with the South Vietnamese Air Force. This is seen as America's first large scale participation of advisors.
  • Agent Orange First Used

    Agent Orange First Used
    The first use of herbicides during the Vietnam War can be traced back to January 9, 1962. It was unloaded at Tan Son Nhut Air Base in South Vietnam. From the Vietnam War alone, there is an estimate of 400,000 deaths and 500,000 children born with birth defects as a result of Agent Orange. The chemicals would also lead to increased rate of cancer, as well as nerve, skin, digestive, and respiratory disorders.
  • Foreign Assistance Act of 1962

    Foreign Assistance Act of 1962
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    In August, President Kennedy signed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1962 which would provide, "military assistance to countries which are on the rim of the Communist world and under direct attack."
  • Ngo Dinh Diem Assassinated

    Ngo Dinh Diem Assassinated
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    South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, known for his "anti-communism" political views that the United States supported, was assassinated. As a result, South Vietname was unable to maintain a stable government afterwards and the US began to withdraw support.
  • JFK Assassinated

    JFK Assassinated
    Kennedy Letter to Diem
    John F. Kennedy, supporter of South Vietnam, is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. In 1961, Kennedy wrote in a letter to Ngo Dinh Diem, "The United States, like the Republic of Vietnam, remains devoted to the cause of peace and our primary purpose is to help your people maintain their independence." As a result of his death, Lyndon Johnson takes over and vows to fight on.
  • Gulf of Tomkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tomkin Resolution
    On August 4, 1964, US naval destroyer USS Maddox was attacked by North Vietnamese gun boats. As a result, President Lyndon Johnson passed a resolution that would allow Americans to use deadly forces to repulse any aggression. This is significant because to this day, Presidents are now allowed to declare war on another nation without Congress permitting beforehand.
  • Khrushchev Ousted

    Khrushchev Ousted
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    Communist leader Nikita Khrushchev is ousted from Soviet Russia after ten years in power.
  • China Tests First Atomic Bomb

    China Tests First Atomic Bomb
    Two days after Khrushchev is ousted, China tests it's first atomic bomb, becoming the fifth nuclear power in the world. They then move troops to the border of Vietnam after US escalation.
  • Viet Cong Attacks US Troops

    Viet Cong Attacks US Troops
    The first attack by Viet Cong against America takes place at Bien Hoa Air Base, killing five Americans, two South Vietnamese and wounding a hundred other troops. President Johnson refuses a retallion air strike.
  • President Johnson Re-elected

    President Johnson Re-elected
    Winning in an election against Republican Barry Goldwater, Lyndon Johnson surpasses the amount of votes of Goldwater by nearly 16 million and 61 percent of the vote.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was the name given to a military plan that was to be conducted over the span of three years. The Americans spent nearly a billion dollars for aerial weaponry to be dropped onto North Vietnam to destroy transporation, supply, and trade routes. However, due to North Vietnam's allies Soviet Russia and China, they were limited to the damage they could do.
  • US Combat Troops Arrive

    US Combat Troops Arrive
    3500 Marines land at China Beach to defend the American Air Base at Da Nang. 23,000 American military advisors had already been there before.
  • Pentagon Papers

    Pentagon Papers
    In the summer of 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara had started to chronicle the events of the Vietnam War. The documents were kept secret from President Lyndon Johnson until it's publication and reveal in the New York Times in 1971. The papers went on to describe, in detail, how "the Johnson Administration had systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress, about a subject of transcendent national interest and significance".
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
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    The Tet Offensive was launched in January of 1968 by the People's Army of Vietname (North Vietnam) against the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States. A previous arangement had been made to cease fire on Tet celebrations (Lunar New Year), however, North Vietnam decided to surprise the South by attacking civillian and military command and control centers. Over 100 towns had been attacked.
  • The My Lai Massacre

    The My Lai Massacre
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    The My Lai Massacre was a mass murder that took place on March 16, 1968 in South Vietnam. United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company had done the killing. Twenty six soldiers were charged for the killing of many women, infants, and elderly who were killed in the small village. After the incident became public, there were global outrage.
  • Nixon Elected

    Nixon Elected
    On January 20, 1969, Richard Nixon was elected President, taking over Lydon Johnson's position in the White House. He would later become the only President to resign. Nixon's involvement with the Vietnam War was highly controversial, as 300 men would die in the war each week on average while he was in office. Afterwards, the war became very unpopular in the United States, with many violent protests occuring. Nixon would later withdraw American troops in Vietnam and ended conscription in 1973.
  • Death of Ho Chi Minh

    Death of Ho Chi Minh
    Biography - Ho Chi-Minh
    Ho Chi-Minh was a Vietnamese Marxist-Leninist leader of the Viet Cong during the Vietnamese War. He later died on September 2nd, 1969 in Hanoi as a result of a fatal heart attack.
  • Vietnamization

    Vietnamization
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    Vietnamization was a policy given out by Richard Nixon to slowly reduce the amount of Americans involved with the war. It was to also strengthen South Vietnamese Forces, and withdraw from the nation, focusing attention on fighting other communist nations such as Soviet Russia or China. He felt that South Vietnam should learn to fight independently.
  • Cambodian Campaign

    Cambodian Campaign
    In a televised event, President Richard Nixon announced the Cambodian Campaign, which would be a series of military operations conducted in Cambodia. It's objective was to defeat the 40,000 People's Army of Vietnam troops, as well as the Viet Cong. As a result, many Americans began to protest the attack as it had a negative effect in which they believed the invasion was not justified. On May 4, a group of protestors in Kent State University were killed, creating a negative image of the US gov.
  • Operation Linebacker

    Operation Linebacker
    Operation Linebacker was an aerial offense attack that started May 9, 1972 against North Vietnam. The purpose of the attack was to slow the transportation of supplies needed by the North for an Offensive attack. President Johnson had previously put a halt on bombing efforts in November of 1968, however, this was the first continuous since. The devestation in North Vietnam later caused both groups to settle on an agreement over Peace talks in Hanoi in August.
  • Operation Linebacker II

    Operation Linebacker II
    Operation Linebacker II was a second aerial attack led by Americans to bomb North Vietnam. It had been the largest heavy bomber strike by the US Air Force since World War II. Over 1,600 North Vietnamese had been killed as a result. After, on December 22, the American government offered a second meeting to discuss the proposition given out in Hanoi in October. The US claimed the mission had been successful as the Paris Peace Agreement was signed shortly after.
  • The Fall of Saigon

    The Fall of Saigon
    The Fall of Saigon was the final event that took place on April 30, 1975 to conclude the Vietnam War. It was to be the capture of Saigon, South Vietnam's capital, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front. As a result, both North and South Vietnam were unified and a communist state had emerged. Americans formed Operation Frequent Wind, with an objective to evacuate American personnel from Vietnam. A decline in population occured and the city was named Ho Chi Minh City.