The race for African American Equality

By elayman
  • Eastern Theatre

    Eastern Theatre in 1861 and 1862, the confederact stopped union attempts to capture its capital in Richmond, Virginia.
  • Emancipation Proclomation

    Emancipation Proclomation
    Document that legally freed slaves
  • Massachusetts Regiment

    First Northern black unit, the fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, was organized.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment, outlawing slavery, and establishes the Freedmen's Bureau to assist former slaves. This is the beginning of the Reconstruction era.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    All-white legislatures in the former Confederate states pass the so-called "Black Codes," sharply curtailing African Americans' freedom and virtually re-enslaving them.
  • Hiram Revels

    Hiram Revels
    Revels was elected by a vote of 81 to 15 in the Mississippi State Senate to finish the term of one of the state's two seats in the US Senate left vacant since the Civil War.
  • Colfax Massacre

    Colfax Massacre
    Armed Blacks surround the county seat in Colfax, Louisiana, fearing whites will illegally overthrow the Republican government. About 150 African Americans are killed in the so-called Colfax Massacre.
  • Poll Tax

    Poll Tax
    Texas, Alabama, Virginia, Missisippi, all passed poll tax to stop black from voing
  • National Afro- American League

    National Afro- American League
    Preceding the foundation of the NAACP, the organization dedicated itself to racial solidarity and self-help created by Thomas Timothy Fortune.
  • First Open Heart Sugery

    The First successful open heart surgery was done by african american Dr. Daniel Hale Williams. The patient recovered 51 dats later and lived for another 50 years.
  • Atlanta Compromise

    African American Booker T. Washington gives his "Atlanta Compromise" speech at the Cotton Exposition in Georgia, saying that African Americans should focus on economic advancement rather than political change.
  • Carver Accepts Appointment

    World-famous African American agricultural researcher George Washington Carver accepts an appointment at the Tuskegee Institute. Carver's research in farming techniques helps to revolutionize farming in America.
  • Plessy V. Ferguson

    Plessy V. Ferguson
    The U.S. Supreme Court rules that segregated, or "separate but equal," public facilities for whites and blackAfrican-AmericanAfrican Americans are legal. The ruling stands until 1954. These are also known as the "Jim Crow" laws.
  • A Trip to Coon Town

    Robert "Bob" Cole produces "A Trip to Coontown," the first full-length musical written, directed, performed, and produced by African Americans, on Broadway.
  • Grandfather Clause

    Louisiana tries to disenfranchise its African Americans by passing a "grandfather clause" limiting the right to vote to anyone whose fathers and grandfathers were qualified on January 1, 1867. (No African Americans had the right to vote at that time.)
  • First Self-Made Millionaire

    Sarah Breedlove MacWilliams, better known as Madam C. J. Walker, starts an African American hair-care business in Denver and eventually becomes America's first self-made woman millionaire
  • The Chicago Defender

    Robert S. Abbott begins publishing The Chicago Defender, Chicago's first African American newspaper. Within a decade, it is one of the country's most influential African American weekly papers.

    Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination
  • North Pole

    Black explorer Matthew Henson reaches the North Pole along with Admiral Robert Peary. They are the first men known to have reached the North Pole.
  • National Urban League

    The National Urban League is founded to help the many African Americans who are migrating to the cities find jobs and housing.
  • James Robert Craig

    My Great Granpa was born. (Layman)
  • Harriet Marie Mikkelsen Craig

    My Great Grandma was born. (Layman)
  • Fifth Avenue March

    Organized by the NAACP, thousands of African Americans march down New York City's Fifth Avenue to protest racial violence and discrimination.
  • Red Summer

    Red Summer
    Race riots across the country leave at least 100 people dead. These are again sparked by white resentment of African Americans working in industry, and their large-scale migration from South to North.
  • Lillian Agnes Picard Burnett

    My Great Granma was born. (Layman)
  • Frank E. Burnett Sr.

    My Great Grandpa Frank was born. (Layman)
  • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

    Phillip Randolph organizes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first successful African American trade union.
  • Scottsboro Boys

    Scottsboro Boys
    Nine African American youths are accused of raping two white women, and tried for their lives and quickly convicted in Scottsboro, Alabama. The "Scottsboro Boys" case attracts national attention and will help fuel the civil rights movement.
  • 1936 Summer Olympics

    Track-and-field athlete Jesse Owens wins four gold medals in the Berlin Olympics, thwarting Adolf Hitler's plan to use the games to demonstrate "Aryan supremacy."
  • Tuskegee Airmen

    Tuskegee Airmen
    Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., becomes the first African American general in the U.S. Army.
  • WWII

    The first training program for African American pilots is established at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. The Tuskegee Airmen serve heroically in World War II.
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    The interracial Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is formed in Chicago. It will become famous for organizing the Freedom Rides of 1961.
  • Lonnie Ray Burnett

    My Grandpa was born. (Layman)
  • Gail Elaine Craig Burnett

    My Grandma was born. (Layman)
  • Brown v. B.O.E

    Brown v. B.O.E
    In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court rules unanimously against school segregation, overturning its 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus to a white person, triggering a successful, year-long African American boycott of the bus system.
  • Bus Segregation Unconstitutional

    The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the segregation of Montgomery, Ala., buses is unconstitutional.
  • SCLC

    Martin Luther King, Jr., helps found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to work for full equality for African Americans.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    For the first time since Reconstruction, the federal government uses the military to uphold African Americans' civil rights, as soldiers escort nine African American students to desegregate a school in Little Rock, Arkansas. Daisy Bates, an NAACP leader, advised and assisted the students and eventually had a state holiday dedicated to her
  • I have a Dream Speech

    I have a Dream Speech
    More than 200,000 people march on Washington, D.C., in the largest civil rights demonstration ever; Martin Luther King, Jr., gives his "I Have a Dream" speech.
  • Birmingham Church Bombing

    Four African American girls are killed in the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama.

    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), CORE and the NAACP and other civil-rights groups organize a massive African American voter registration drive in Mississippi known as "Freedom Summer." Three CORE civil rights workers are murdered. In the five years following Freedom Summer, black voter registration in Mississippi will rise from a mere 7 percent to 67 percent.
  • Noble Peace Prize Winner

    Martin Luther King, Jr. is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • Voting Rights Act

    In the wake of the Selma-Montgomery March, the Voting Rights Act is passed, outlawing the practices used in the South to disenfranchise African American voters
  • Edward Brooke

    Edward W. Brooke becomes the first African American U.S. Senator since Reconstruction. He serves two terms as a Republican from Massachusetts.
  • King Assassinated

    Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. His murder sparks a week of rioting across the country.
  • Equal Opportunity Employment Act

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Act is passed, prohibiting job discrimination on the basis of, among other things, race, and laying the groundwork for affirmative action.
  • Shirley Chisholm

    Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African American woman to be elected to Congress.
  • The Equal Employment Opportunity Act

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Act is passed, prohibiting job discrimination on the basis of, among other things, race, and laying the groundwork for affirmative action.
  • California v. Bakke

    California v. Bakke
    In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court rules against universities using fixed racial quotas in making admissions decisions, a challenge to affirmative action.
  • Michael Jackson

    Singer Michael Jackson's album Thriller becomes one of the best-selling albums of all time.
  • General Colin Powell

    General Colin L. Powell is the first African American to be named chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the U.S. military.
  • Oprah Winfrey

    Oprah Winfrey, the first African American woman to host a nationally syndicated (and wildly popular) talk show, founds Harpo Productions to produce her own movies and TV shows. In 2000, Forbes magazine will estimate Winfrey's earnings at $150 million.
  • Oj Simpson

    Former football player O.J. Simpson is charged with the murder of his ex-wife Nicole and her friend Ronald Goldman. He will be acquitted in 1995 after a hugely controversial trial.