The modern age: a complementary timeline

  • Period: 1300 to


    It is a period of art that occurred between the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age. Its approximate start date is 1300 and it was finished at the end of the 16th century. The Renaissance is a cultural phenomenon that takes the principles of classical antiquity and updates them through humanism.
  • 1420

    Florence Cathedral´s dome, by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral´s dome, by Brunelleschi
    It is in Florence, Italy. Its inauguration was on March 25, 1436, but its different parts were built in different years, from 1420 to 1579, which was the last integration they made to the dome. It was designed and built by Filippo Brunelleschi. It was the largest dome in the world after the fall of the Roman Empire, it is still considered the largest ever made in masonry and one of the most important constructions in Europe since Roman times.
  • 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    Pietà Michelangelo Buonarroti is made of marble and made by Michelangelo between 1498 and 1499. It is located in the Vatican City, in St. Peter's Basilica. It represents the Virgin Mary, mother holding the dead body of Jesus Christ. Its dimensions are 1.74 by 1.95 meters.
  • 1509

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    This painting is one of the most outstanding by the artist Rafael Sanzio, it was made between the year 1509-1511. Represents all the greatest mathematicians, philosophers and scientists from classical antiquity gathered together sharing their ideas and learning from each other, all these figures doesn´t lived at the same time but here they are gathered together under one roof. Its size is five by seven point seven meters.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    The reign of Carlos I

    Charles was king of Spain from 1516 to 1556, lasting 42 years, and emperor of Germany from 1519 to 1556. He was found guilty of abuse of unlimited power to exercise power at will, and because of that, he was executed at the age of 28. During his reign the crown of Castile expanded its territories over much of America.
  • Period: 1520 to Apr 23, 1521

    The revolt of the Comuneros in Castilla

    It occurred during the reign of Charles I. It was an armed uprising led by community members from the cities of the Castilian interior. The commoners wanted to change the history of Spain. In the end, they were defeated in the Villalar countryside on April 23, 1521 by royalist troops commanded by the Admiral of Castile Fadrique Enríquez.
  • Period: Jan 15, 1556 to

    The reign of Felipe II

    He was king of Spain from January 15, 1556 until his death, on September 13, 1598 in San Lorenzo del Escorial, Naples and Sicily from 1554, of Portugal and the Algarves from 1580, achieving a dynastic union that lasted sixty years. The event that stands out the most about Philip II is the victory of Lepanto and the annexation of Portugal.
  • Period: 1568 to 1571

    The rebellion of the Alpujarras

    It was a conflict in Spain between 1568 and 1571 during the reign of Philip II. The Moorish population of the Kingdom of Granada (which at that time was quite large) took up arms in protest against the Pragmatic Sanction of 1567, which limited their cultural freedoms. It ended with the victory of the Crown and was pacified by King Fernando.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years War

    The cause was that the States General demanded that the crown negotiate with William of Orange and that the Spanish troops, especially the "old tercios" abandon the territory. It was a Dutch fight for independence from Spain and the Netherlands won. Peace of Münster signed on October 24, 1648, ending the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and Holland.
  • Jan 23, 1579

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht
    It was an agreement signed in Utrecht, a city located in the Netherlands on January 23, 1579. At that time, the Netherlands was facing the Hispanic monarchy that took place during the Eighty Years' War. This was signed to end the War of the Spanish Succession
  • Mar 2, 1579

    The signment of the union of Arras

    The signment of the union of Arras
    It was an engagement from the Eighty Years' War preserved on March 2, 1579. It took place in Borgerhout, Flanders, present-day Antwerp, Belgium. The Spanish Flanders army, led by Alejandro Farnese, attacked a camp in the town of Borgerhout. The battle took place during the reconquest by the armies of Philip II of Spain. It all ended with the Spanish victory.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    On August 8, 1588, the Great Armada that was sent by King Philip II of Spain to conquer England was defeated in the English Channel. This defeat on the part of Spain began the colonial policy of the United Kingdom under the leadership of Queen Elizabeth I. It is said that its failure was due to the strong wind at that time, which made navigation of the fleet impossible.
  • Period: to

    Baroque art

    It was a period of history in Western culture originated by a new way of conceiving art. Baroque is characterized by realism, bright and intense colors, and strong lights and shadows, in opposition to Renaissance art. It emerged in Italy and has 4 stages, the early, middle, late baroque and the transition to Cassicism.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    Apollo and Daphne is a sculpture made by the Italian Gian Lorenzo Bernini between 1622 and 1625. It is in the Borghese Museum, Rome, Italy. It is made of marble and measures 243cm high. They represent the story of heartbreak caused by Eros, who shot an arrow of gold (of love) at him and of lead (of heartbreak) at her. In this scene you can see how Daphne escapes from Apollo, transforming him into a laurel tree. It is said that she was so afraid that she was forced to sacrifice her body forever.
  • Saint Peter's square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter's square project by Bernini
    This square is located in front of Saint Peter's Basilica, in Vatican City. This square is one of the largest and most beautiful in the world. It measures 320 meters long and 240 meters wide. Pope Alexander XII oversaw the project, with Gian Lorenzo Bernini assisting in the design and construction from 1656 to 1667.
  • The Spinners, by Velázquez

    The Spinners, by Velázquez
    It is located in the National Prado Museum. The artist is Diego Velázquez and was created in the year 1657, it measures 1.67 meters by 2.52 meters. It represents an allegory to the art of painting and the supremacy of the painter himself. It also represents the myth of "the abduction of Europe", which in conclusion tells that the goddess Athena condemned Arachne to become a spider and weave for the rest of her life for having offended the gods.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassical art

    It is this art, serene and balanced in the face of the exhaustion of the Rococo forms, with its empty and repetitive language. It is characterized by the predominance of academic drawing over color. The colors red, purple and gold were usually used.It emerged in France in 1760 and ended in 1900
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Luois David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Luois David
    It is a work by Jacques-Louis David made in 1784, before the French revolution. Its measurements are 330 by 425 cm and it is preserved in the Louvre Museum. The theme of this painting is civic virtue and heroism, which takes precedence over sentiment and pain.
  • Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    It is a collective portrait painted in the year 1800 by Francisco Goya. It is preserved in the Padro Museum in Madrid. It measures 2.8 by 3.36 m. This painting essentially represents an epiphany where royalty reveals itself to its faithful subjects in its human aspect. For the Spanish court of the 18th century, the paradigm is the family of Philip V, of Van Loo (Prado).