St. Michael the Archangelera: BYZANTINE
Saint michael the archangel. early sixth century . Ivory. lack of naturalistic setting, the archangel makes the architectural setting seem small. and the panel is assumed to have formed the right part of a diptych, with the lost left half possibly depicting Emperor Justinian, to whom the archangel would be offering the insignia of imperial power.
San VitaleERA: BYZANTINE
San Vitale,Ravenna, 526-547
The church has an octagonal plan. The building combines Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers; with Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, and narrow bricks. The church is most famous for its wealth of Byzantine mosaics, the largest and best preserved outside of Constantinople.
Hagia SophiaERA: Byzantine
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, Turkey
known for the quality of light that floods the interior,Famous in particular for its massive dome.its decorated interior with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings. The nave is covered by a central dome which at its maximum is 55.6 m (182 ft 5 in) from floor level and rests on an arcade of 40 arched windows.
Justinian and AttendantsERA: BYZANTINE
Justinian and Attendants [mosaic from San Vitale, 547],
figure divided the figures into three groups :the emperor and his staff; the clergy;and the imperial gurad. The emperor is holding the paten symbolized by place and gesture, the imperial and churchly powers are in balance.
Theodora and AttendantsERA:BYZANTINE
Theodora and Attendants [mosaic from San Vitale, 547]
Theodora is carrying the golden cup with the wine. The portraits in the theodora mosaic exhibit the same stylistic traits as those in the Justanian , but the woman are represented within a definite architecture, perhaps the atrium of San Vitale.
Jan 1, 600
Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Ship BurialERA: MEDIEVAL
Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Ship Burial [gold & enamels, 600-650]
About seven and a half inches long, this purse lid is decorated with beautiful gold ornament and garnet cloisonné, and was undoubtedly a symbol of great wealth and status.
Jan 1, 687
Dome of the RockERA: ISLAMIC
Dome of the Rock [Jerusalem, 687-691]
The interior of the dome is lavishly decorated with mosaic, faience and marble, much of which was added several centuries after its completion. It also contains Qur'anic inscriptions. a structure intended for the housing and veneration of saintly relics
Jan 1, 700
Great Mosque of CórdobaERA: ISLAMIC
Great Mosque of Córdoba [Córdoba, Spain, 8-10th cen.]
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, and granite. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple which had occupied the site previously, as well as other destroyed Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were a new introduction to architecture, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns.
Jan 1, 700
Book of LindisfarneERA: MIDIEVAL
Book of Lindisfarne 
The manuscript was produced on Lindisfarne in Northumbria in the late 7th century or early 8th century, and is generally regarded as the finest example of the kingdom's unique style of religious art, a style that combined Anglo-Saxon and Celtic themes, what is now called Hiberno-Saxon art, or Insular art. The manuscript is complete , and is astonishingly well-preserved considering its great age.
Jan 1, 700
Saint Matthew from the Book of LindisfarneERA: MIDIEVAL
Saint Matthew from the Book of Lindisfarne [tempera on vellum]
Matthew sits in his study composing his account of the life of christ. A curtain sets the scene indoors , as in classical art, and the Evangilist's seat is shown at an angle , which also suggests a Meditterranean model employing classical perspective .
Jan 1, 740
Umayyad Palace in MshattaERA: ISLAMIC
Umayyad Palace in Mshatta [frieze, Jordan, 740-750]
The ruins of Qasr Mushatta consist of an outer wall made up of 25 towers as well as a small central tract of rooms. These rooms included a throne room, courtyard and mosque.The rooms occupy a central tract within the walls. The southern side contains the entry hall and mosque which was situated to face Mecca. The southern side contains another small gate that leads to the courtyard.
Jan 1, 760
Lorsch GatehouseERA: MEDIEVAL
Lorsch Gatehouse [Lorsch, Germany, 760]
built as a freestanding structure in the atrium of the monastic church, follows more closely the design of roman city gates with its second story windows and flanking towers.
Jan 1, 792
Odo of Metz [Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany, 792-805]ERA: MIDIEVAL
Odo of Metz [Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany, 792-805]
polygonal plans and elaborate elevations of the buildings created are a reminiscence of the Basilica of San Vitale of Ravenna and religious buildings of the Near East.
Jan 1, 800
.Book of KellsERA: MEDIEVAL
Book of Kells  is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created by Celtic monks ca. 800 or slightly earlier. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate, although it also includes several passages drawn from the earlier versions of the Bible known as the Vetus Latina. It is a masterwork of Western calligraphy.
Jan 1, 800
Chi-Rho-Iota from “Book of Matthew” inside Book of Kells [ink on vellum], The page responds to the opening of Matthews gospel , the illuminator transformed the holy words into extraordinarly intricate abstract designs that recall celtic and anglo-saxon metal work. the cloisonne -like interlace is not purely abstract pattern.
Jan 1, 800
Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian RulerERA: MEDIEVAL
Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler [bronze, 9th cen.] the medieval sculptor potrayed the emperor like marcus aurelius overly large so that he not the horse is the center of attention. The carolingian monarch sits rigidly upright.
Jan 1, 820
Utrecht PsalterERA: MEDIEVAl
Utrecht Psalter [ink on vellum, Utrecht, Netherlands, 820-832] the text reproduces the psalms of david in three columns of Latin capital letters emulating the script and page organization of ancient books.
Jan 1, 820
Plan of St. GallERA: MEDIEVAL
Plan of St. Gall [ink on parchment, St. Gall, Switzerland, 820]
It is the only surviving major architectural drawing from the roughly 700-year period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 13th century. It is considered a national treasure of Switzerland and remains an object of intense interest among modern scholars, architects, artists and draftsmen for its uniqueness, its beauty, and the insights it provides into medieval culture.
Jan 1, 834
Animal Head Post from Oseberg Ship BurialERA: MEDIEVAL
Animal Head Post from Oseberg Ship Burial [wood, 834]
The gripping beast motif is what clearly distinguishes the early Viking art from the styles that preceded it. The chief features of the gripping beast are the paws that grip the borders around it, neighbouring beasts or parts of its own body. The style is also characterized by traditions from the Vendel era, and it is nowadays not generally accepted as an independent style
Jan 1, 900
Hosios LoukasERA: BYZANTINE
Hosios Loukas [Greece, 10-11 cen.]
Light stones framed by dark red bricks- the technique called cloisonne technique, a term borrowed from enamel work- make up the walls.arcuated windows ,projecting apses, and varying roof lines further enhances the surface dynamism. The plan shows the form of a domed cross in square with equal lenght, vaulted cross arms. The dome rests on pendentives.
Jan 1, 950
Harbaville Triptych [ivory, 950]
carved on the wings of the Harbaville Triptych, both inside and out, are four pairs of full-length figures and two pairs of medallions depicting saints. A cross dominates the central panel on the back of the triptych.On the inside is a scene of Deesis.Saint John the babtist and the Theotokos appear as intercessors, praying on behalf of the viewer to the enthroned savior and below them are five apostles.
Jan 1, 950
David Composing the PsalmsERA:BYZANTINE
David Composing the Psalms [from Paris Psalter, 950-970]
David,the psalmist , surrounded by sheep , goats, and his faithful dog, plays his harp in a rocky landscape with a town in the backgroud . Similar settings appeared frequently in Pompeian murals. Befitting an ancient depiction of Orpheus, the Greek hero who could charm even inanimate objects with his music .
Jan 1, 970
Gero CrucifixERA: MEDIEVAL
Gero Crucifix [wood, Cologne Cathedral, 970]dead Christ on the cross; in most earlier depictions Christ holds his head erect and looks straight ahead, or in some Carolingian examples looks down at the Virgin at the foot of the cross.The slumped head, and the twisted body, which arises as the hands are nailed to the cross at different heights,although the long hair spread over the shoulders is found in some Carolingian works.
Jan 1, 1001
Abbey Church of Saint Michael’sERA : MEDIEVAL
It is a double-choir basilica with two transepts and a square tower at each crossing. The west choir is emphasized by an ambulatory and a crypt. The ground plan of the building follows a geometrical conception, in which the square of the transept crossing in the ground plan constitutes the key measuring unit for the entire church.
Jan 1, 1015
Bishop Bernward DoorsERA: MEDIEVAL
Bishop Bernward Doors [bronze, A. C. of Saint Michael’s, 1015]
Each door has eight panels and is divided into two registers by an inscription. The left door's narrative runs from top to bottom and tells the Old Testament stories of Creation and the Fall of Man in the upper four panels and the Expulsion from the Garden to the Cursing of Cain in the lower four. The right door narrative runs from bottom to top. The lower four panels tell of the infancy of Christ from the Annunciation
Jan 1, 1050
Hildegard von Bingen’s VisionERA: ROMANESQUE
Hildegard von Bingen’s Vision [manuscript, 1050-1079
Hildegard's vision of the divine order of the cosmos and of humankind's place in it.The vision came to her as a fiery light that poured into her brain from the open vault of heaven.
Jan 1, 1063
Saint Mark’s CathedralERA: BYZANTINE
Saint Mark’s Cathedral [Venice, 1063]
exterior of the basilica is divided in three registers: lower, upper, and domes. In the lower register of the facade five round-arched portals, enveloped by polychrome marble columns, open into the narthex through bronze-fashioned doors.The external cycle frames a 19th century mosaic (Last Judgment). Mosaics about St Mark relics’ stories are in the lunettes of the lateral portals.
Jan 1, 1063
Pisa CathedralERA: ROMANESQUE
Pisa Cathedral [Pisa, Italy, begun 1063]
This is a five-naved cathedral with a three-naved transept. high on a column rising from the gable is a modern replica of the Pisa Griffin, the largest Islamic metal sculpture known.interior is faced with black and white marble and has a gilded ceiling and a frescoed dome.
Jan 1, 1067
Saint-Étienne [Caen, France, 1067]
Four large buttresses divide the facade into three bays that correspond to the nave and aisle. Above the buttresses, the tower also play a tripple division and a progresevely greater piercing of their walls from lower to upper stages .The caen nave has compoud piers with half-columns attached to pilasters. sexpartite vault , they rise high enough to provide room for an efficient clerestory.
Jan 1, 1070
Saint-Sernin [Toulouse, France, 1070-1120]ERA: ROMASQUE
Saint-Sernin [Toulouse, France, 1070-1120]
The building is in the form of a crucifix. The ceilings are vaulted, unlike many of the earlier churches. St. Sernin's contains radiating chapels which were used to display important relics. Another deviation from the earlier Christian churches is the addition of an ambulatory, a walkway that goes around the nave and side aisles to allow for viewing of the radiating chapels.
Jan 1, 1070
Bayeux TapestryERA: ROMANESQUE
Bayeux Tapestry [wool on linen embroidery, 1070-1080]
The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth—not an actual tapestry—nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings. The tapestry consists of some fifty scenes with Latin tituli (captions), embroidered on linen with coloured woollen yarns.
Jan 1, 1093
Durham Cathedral [Durham, England, begun 1093]ERA:ROMANESQUE
Durham Cathedral [Durham, England, begun 1093]
The building is notable for the ribbed vault of the nave roof, with pointed transverse arches supported on relatively slender composite piers alternated with massive drum columns, and flying buttresses or lateral abutments concealed within the triforium over the aisles.
Jan 1, 1110
Creation and Temptation of Adam and EveERA:ROMANESQUE
Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve, Wiligelmo [marble, Modena Cathedral, Italy, 1110] . Christ is one the far left , framed by a mandorla held up by angels a variation on the motif of the Saint sernin ambulatory relief. The creation of adam and eve , and the serpents temptation of Eve are on the right . the relief carving is high and some parts are almost entirely on the round.
Jan 1, 1120
Last Judgment, GislebertusERA:ROMANESQUE
Last Judgment, Gislebertus [marble, St. Lazare Church, Autun, France, 1120-1135] the Last Judgment is on display in the tympanum, and its centre Christ is enthroned in a gloriole held by angels. Each of the sides is split into two registers with the architrave underneath. The upper one shows the enthroned Virgin Mary and two apostles as observers of the judgment. In the lower register, to the right of Christ, eight apostles stand, facing the enthroned figure.
Jan 1, 1134
Chartres CathedralERA: GOTHIC
Chartres Cathedral [Chartres, France, b. 1134]
The building's exterior is dominated by heavy flying buttresses which allowed the architects to increase the window size significantly, while the west end is dominated by two contrasting spires.Equally notable are the three great façades, each adorned with hundreds of sculpted figures illustrating key theological themes and narratives.
Jan 1, 1140
Saint-Denis [Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144]
Innovative rib vaults resting on pointed arches cover the ambulatory and chapels. lightness of the vaults enable builders to eliminate the walls between the chapels and fill them stained glass windows. Lux Nova (new light) , multicolored rays coming through the windows shone on the walls and columns.
Jan 1, 1145
Royal Portals at Chartres CathedralERA:GOTHIC
Royal Portals at Chartres Cathedral [France, 1145-1155]
Statues of saints on the portal jambs are more independent from the architectural framework. represent Saints martin , jerome and gregory architectural setting does not determine their poses.
Jan 1, 1150
Notre DameERA: GOTHIC
Notre Dame [Paris, France, b. 1150s]
considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture in France and in Europe, and the naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass are in contrast with earlier Romanesque architecture.gabled portal to the north transept topped off by a spectacular rose window.transept portals were richly embellished with sculpture.
Jan 1, 1150
The Morgan Madonna, a.k.a. Virgin and Child in MajestyERA: ROMANESQUE
The Morgan Madonna, a.k.a. Virgin and Child in Majesty [wood, 1150-1200]. is a western European freestanding version of the byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics . Christ holds a Bible in his left hand and raises his right arm in blessing.His mother , seated on a woodenn chair is in turn the throne of wisdom because her lap is the Christ Child's throne.
Jan 1, 1180
Pantocrator [apse mosaic from Cathedral Monreale, Sicily, 1180-1190].The image of christ as pantokrator, as ruler and judge of heaven and earth looms menacingly in the vault. Below the pantokrater in rank and dignity, the enthroned Theotokos is flanked by archangels and the twelve apostles symmetrically arranged in balnced groups.
Jan 1, 1220
Amiens Cathedral [Amiens, France, b. 1220]ERA:GOTHIC
Amiens Cathedral [Amiens, France, b. 1220
Stone vaulted nave, Amiens Cathedral is renowned for the quality and quantity of early 13th century Gothic sculpture in the main west facade and the south transept portal, and a large quantity of polychrome sculpture from later periods inside the building.
Jan 1, 1220
Salisbury Cathedral [Salisbury, England, b. 1220]
The west front is composed of two stair turrets at each extremity, with two niched buttresses nearer the centre line supporting the large central triple window. The stair turrets are topped with spirelets and the central section is topped by a gable which contains four lancet windows topped by two round quatrefoil windows surmounted by a mandorla containing Christ in Majesty.
Jan 1, 1226
Blanche of Castile and Louis IXERA:GOTHIC
Blanche of Castile and Louis IX [manuscript, 1226-1234
Gold background and depicts Blanche and Louis enthroned beneath triple-lobed arches and miniature cityscapes. The latter can be compared to the architectural canopies above the heads of contemporaneous French portal statues. monk and scribe , older clergyman dictates a sacred text to his young apprentice.
Jan 1, 1230
Visitation at Reims CathedralERA:GOTHIC
Visitation at Reims Cathedral [France, 1230]
Appear to be completely detached from their architecturak back-ground.The two Reims jamb statues portray Saint Elizabeth visiting the virgin Mary before the birth of Jesus. They are two of a series of statues celebrating Mary's life and are further testimony to the Virgin's central role in Gothic iconography.
Jan 1, 1230
Death of the Virgin at Strasbourg CathedralERA:GOTHIC
Death of the Virgin at Strasbourg Cathedral [France, 1230]
The twelve apostles gather around the Virgin, forming an arc of mourners well suited to the semicircular frame. At the center Christ receives his mother's soul. Mary Magdalene wringing her hands in grief crouches beside the deathbed.
Jan 1, 1243
Saint-Chapelle [Paris, France, 1243-1248]
The royal chapel is a prime example of the phase of [Gothic architecture called "Rayonnant", marked by its sense of weightlessness and strong vertical emphasis. It stands squarely upon a lower chapel, which served as parish church for all the inhabitants of the palace, which was the seat of government.great stained glass windows, for whose benefit the stone wall surface is reduced to little more than a delicate framework
Jan 1, 1249
1.Ekkehard and Uta at Naumberg Cathedral [Germany, 1249-1255]ERA:GOTHIC
Ekkehard and Uta at Naumberg Cathedral [Germany, 1249-1255]
Statues are attached to columns and stand beneath architectural canopies , following the pattern of French Gothic portal statuary.uta draws the collar of her gown partly across her face while she gathers up a soft fold of drapery with a delicate hand.
Jan 1, 1300
Röttgen PietàERA: GOTHIC
Röttgen Pietà [wood, Germany, 1300-1325]
The artist forcibly confronts the devout with an appalling icon of agony, death , and sorrow that humanizes , almost to the point of heresy , the sacred personages.
Jan 1, 1300
Virgin of Paris at Notre DameERA:GOTHIC
Virgin of Paris at Notre Dame [Paris, France, early 14th c.]
The palyful interaction of an adult and an infant in the virgin of paris may be compared with the similarly composed statuary group of hermes and the infant Dionysis , gothic S curve was not organic nor rational , body is lost behind heavy drapery.
Jan 1, 1354
Hall of the Two Sister in the AlhambraERA: ISLAMIC
Hall of the Two Sister in the Alhambra [Granada, Spain, 1354-1391]
Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of numerous palaces are decorated with arabesques and calligraphy. The arabesques of the interior are ascribed to, among other sultans, Yusuf I, Mohammed V, and Ismail I, Sultan of Granada.The decoration consists, as a rule, of stiff, conventional foliage, Arabic inscriptions, and geometrical patterns wrought into arabesques.
Jan 1, 1410
Andrei Rublev, Old Testament TrinityERA:BYZANTINE
Andrei Rublev, Old Testament Trinity [tempera, Moscow, 1410
Trinity depicts the three angels who visited Abraham at the oak of Mamre , but the painting is full of symbolism and often interpreted as an icon of the Holy Trinity.
Jan 1, 1500
Saint-Maclou [Rouen, France, 1500-1514]ERA: GOTHIC
Saint-Maclou [Rouen, France, 1500-1514]
four radiating chapels around an octagonal choir. The transept is non-projecting complete with piers that support the above lantern tower. The choir is rather large in size for the structure and has two bays and four radiating chapels that branch off of the ambulatory. Overall, the plan places its emphasis on the transept which is midway between the choir and the nave three-story elevation of an arcade, triforium , and clerestory.
Jan 1, 1525
Shahnama [ink & gold, Iran, 1525-1535]
The Shahnameh recounts the history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law) to the Aryans and ends with the Arab conquest of Persia.
Jan 1, 1555
Saint Basil’s Cathedral [Moscow, 1555-1561ERA:BYZANTINE
Saint Basil’s Cathedral [Moscow, 1555-1561]
Built on the order of Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan, it marks the geometric centre of the city and the hub of its growth since the 14th century.The central core and the four larger churches placed on compass points are octagonal, the four diagonally placed smaller churches are cuboid.Inside the composite church is a labyrinth of narrow vaulted corridors and vertical cylinders of the churches
Jan 1, 1568
Sinan, Mosque of Selim IIERA: ISLAMIC
Sinan, Mosque of Selim II [Turkey, 1568-1575]
Sinan employed an octagonal supporting system that is created through eight pillars incised in a square shell of walls. The four semi domes at the corners of the square behind the arches that spring from the pillars, are intermediary sections between the huge encompassing dome and the walls. Surrounded by four tall minarets, the Mosque of Selim II has a grand dome atop it.