The modern age: A complementary timeline

By Ikerx.x
  • Period: 1401 to

    Renaissance (XV - XVI)

    The Renaissance was one of the most vibrant eras of humanity in the fields of thought and art, the turning point between the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery. During these years of transformation, there was a strong break with medieval ideas, placing man at the center of everything and imposing individualism in the face of dogmatic rigidity. Furthermore, the arrival of Europeans to America began a new era for trade.
  • 1420

    Florence Cathedrals dome by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedrals dome by Brunelleschi
    Italy, Florence. The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore is one of the most prominent architectural icons of the city. Its construction began in 1296, as they wanted to replace the church of Santa Raparata, and was designed by the architect Arnolfo di Cambio.
    The dome of the Duomo was completed in 1436. The dome was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, notable for its innovative design and construction techniques. In general, the construction ended in the 19th century by Emilio De Fabris.
  • 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    Pietá, or the piety was made by the renaisance Michelangelo Buonarroti between the years 1498-1499 when he was only 24 years old, the monumental sculpture of marble of the Hail Mary holding up the body of Christ,The masterpiece is located in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican,Michelangelo's choice to work with marble has contributed to the durability and preservation of the work over the centuries.
  • 1509

    The School of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The School of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    The School of Athens, a fresco created by Raphael Sanzio between 1510-1511 in the Seal Room of the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican, is part of the "Raphael Rooms". Commissioned by Pope Julius II, the work highlights the value of scientific thought and natural truth, attributing its development to classical antiquity. The painting represents the cultural program of the Renaissance by including great thinkers and scientists from antiquity and the Renaissance era.
  • Period: Mar 14, 1516 to Jan 16, 1556

    The reign of Carlos I

    Charles of Hamburg entered the world in the midst of a grand ball at the «Prince's Palace» in Ghent, Flanders. Although the initial intention was to name him Juan in remembrance of his late brother, the final decision was made to name him Carlos, honoring the wishes of his father and great-grandfather.
    Despite his relatively short time, he left a lasting impact through significant reforms. His legacy includes the overhaul of the administration, active participation in the wars of the reconquest.
  • Jul 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    The Peace of Augsburg, signed on September 25, 1555, was a treaty between Ferdinand I of Austria, representative of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the German princes of the Schmalkaldic League. Its objective was to end the conflicts between the emperor, who sought to restore Catholic unity since his coronation, and the Protestant German princes. In the treaty, Charles V officially recognized the Lutheran churches and granted princes the right to choose their religion.
  • Jan 23, 1579

    The sigment of the union of Utrecht

    The sigment of the union of Utrecht
    The Union of Utrecht, signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, was a crucial agreement between the rebellious provinces of the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War against the Spanish Monarchy. The signing of the Union of Arras on January 5, 1579 by some southern provinces in support of the Spanish Crown provoked the reaction of the northern provinces led by William of Orange, culminating in the Union of Utrecht.
  • May 17, 1579

    The signment of the Union Of Arras

    The signment of the Union Of Arras
    On September 25, 1577, William of Orange triumphantly entered Brussels, marking a change in his position as non-royal leader of the Netherlands. Despite the efforts of Alexander Farnese, the «legal» governor, to maintain control, the majority of the Netherlands had revolted, led by Orange.
    In this secret treaty, the Catholic provinces returned to the protection and obedience of the Hispanic Monarchy, reversing the previous situation of independence led by William of Orange.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    The Spanish fleet known as the Invincible Armada suffered a defeat by England in the English Channel. This defeat is considered one of the greatest failures in Spanish history, with losses estimated at around 20,000 men, 40 million ducats and around 100 ships. The English were led by Sir Francis Drake.
  • Period: to

    Baroque art

    This artistic movement, which reached its splendor under the genius of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, not only left its mark on sculpture, but also on literature, marking a clear contrast to previous Renaissance trends. In baroque literature, sarcasm and irony emerge as fundamental tools to address feelings of disappointment. With its ornamental approach and striking visual effects, the baroque has left a lasting mark on history.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    Inspired by mythical literature, the work stands out for its theatricality and dynamism, features typical of an era in upheaval such as the Baroque period, which has left behind the classic and balanced look of the Renaissance. Made between the years 1622-1625.
  • Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini
    His most emblematic work, the colonnade in St. Peter's Square, not only functions as a portico for the Vatican Basilica, but as an extension of the church towards the city. The shape of the colonnade, which resembles an ellipse formed by two joined semicircles, reveals an iconography that suggests a compromise between the cosmological theories of the circle and the ellipse.
  • The Spinners, by Velázquez

    The Spinners, by Velázquez
    This painting, made in Spain and currently housed in the Museo Nacional del Prado, outstandingly exemplifies the mastery of Spanish baroque painting. The work, executed in oil on canvas, constitutes a call to attention to King Philip IV about the vices that a virtuous ruler must avoid during his government. With its distinctive style and rich iconography, the piece not only captures the painter's technical skill but also communicates a powerful lesson about responsibility and wisdom.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassical art

    Neoclassical art, originating in France around 1760, left a significant mark on painting and other visual arts, reaching its peak around 1785. This artistic movement reflected the ideas of enlightened intellectuals, who advocated the use of reason to the acquisition of knowledge. Based on Greco-Roman culture, known for its intellectual and refined character, Neoclassicism emerged as an opposite response to the Baroque style.
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David
    This work, notable for its neoclassical style, was created before the French Revolution and is currently in the Louvre Museum. Masterfully painted in oil on canvas, the piece exceptionally captures the gesture of the Roman greeting. Inspired by the history of Rome, in particular by Livy's story, the painting represents the oath of the three Horace brothers before their father, pledging to defend Rome.
  • Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    This portrait, belonging to the family of Philip IV and housed in the Museo Nacional del Prado, is a masterpiece by Francisco Goya. It was originally part of the collections of the Royal Palace of Madrid, but by order of King Ferdinand VII, it underwent modifications before being transferred to the Prado Museum.
    The technique used in the work is oil on canvas, allowing Goya to masterfully capture the details and expressions of the protagonists.