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The Modern Age

  • Period: 1300 to


    Was a period with cultural, artistic, and intellectual movement that emerged in Europe. Beginning in Italy, it marked a revival of interest in classical learning, literature, and art. Characterized by a renewed focus on humanism,
    and scientific inquiry, adn has witnessed significant advancements in painting, sculpture, architecture, and literature.Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo,and Raphael contributed to the era's rich cultural legacy,fostering a spirit of creativity, curiosity, and innovation.
  • Aug 7, 1420

    Florence Cathedral's dome, by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral's dome, by Brunelleschi
    Was buil between 1420 and 1436 being the largest dome of the world. It was created without reinforcements in wood that was a great innovation. Also it was built because of a public competition announced by Opera del Duomo which the prize was 200 gold florins. The dome has an octagonal shape inspired by that of the Baptistry.
  • 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    Is a Renaissance sculpture placed in Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. The French Cardinal Jean de Bilhères ordered to built the statue in Carrara marble when he die. The sculpture represents the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Mary after the Crucifixion and it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism. Last but not least the piece is the only work that Michelangelo have signed.
  • 1509

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    Was painted between 1509 and 1511, the fresco painting of Raphael has come to symbolize the union of phylosophy, art and science that was a hallmark of the Italian Renaissance. It is located in Stanza della Segnatura, the first of the four rooms that Raphael has designed in Pope Julius II's private apartments in the Vatican City. The fresco shows Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers, past and present, in a beautiful architectural setting.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    The reign of Carlos I

    The Holy Roman Empire's Charles I,governed from 1519 until his abdication in 1556.He consolidated the Spanish empire under his rule, which covered a sizable portion of both Europe and America. He had to deal with difficulties including the Protestant Reformation, battles with the Ottomans, and disagreements with France. His abdication signalled the end of an era and the start of the Spanish monarchy's global expansion by dividing his territories between his brother Ferdinand I and son Philip II.
  • Period: 1520 to 1521

    The revolt of the Comuneros in Castilla

    In Castile, the Communard Revolt (1520–1521) was a revolt against Charles I. They ruled important cities at their height, but following the Villalar Battle in 1521, their leaders were put to death. Tensions with the Castilian elite and instability following Isabel I's death were the causes behind it. Toledo didn't give up until October of 1521.
  • Sep 5, 1555

    Peace of AugsBurg

    Peace of AugsBurg
    Was an agreement between the Holy Roman Empire and the Schmalkaldic League of German Lutheran princes that become the first permanent legal basis to coexist Lutheranism and Catholicism in Germany. It was born from the Protestant Reformation, emerged from Martin Luther's critique of the Catholic Church in 1517.
  • Period: 1556 to

    The reign of Felipe II

    From 1556 until 1598, Felipe II, who was born in 1527, ruled Spain. Africa, Asia, Europe, and America comprised the huge empire that he inherited from his father, Carlos V. Philip II was a wise and forward-thinking ruler, despite the "black legend" criticising his rule. Throughout his reign, his kingdom expanded over the globe, solidifying its position as the dominant European force and the first global empire ever.
  • Period: 1568 to 1571

    The rebellion of the Alpujarras

    During Felipe II's rule, the Alpujarras Rebellion (1568–1571) fought the Moorish inhabitants of Granada against the 1567 Pragmatic Sanction. Following the insurgents' defeat, Philip II exiled the Moorish survivors, bringing their numbers back up to 100,000. The uprising, which came to be known as the War of the Alpujarras, led to the murder of priests and the slavery of thousands of Moriscos in Spain. There were about 1,500 Moorish slaves in Córdoba in 1573.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years War

    The United Provinces of the Netherlands were established after the Dutch gained their independence from Spain during the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648). The Geuzen began with invasions and attacks, taking control of important provinces. The uprising grew in 1576. The Dutch erased the gains of the Spanish, despite setbacks. French conquests resulted from the Franco-Dutch alliance in 1635, and Dutch independence was acknowledged by a different peace in 1648.
  • 1579

    The signment of the Union of Arras

    The signment of the Union of Arras
    Was an agreement between the County of Hainut, the County of Artois and the City of Douai in the Habsburg Netherlands in early 1579 during the Eighty Years' War. They were dissatisfied with the religious policies of the Prince of Orange and the States General of the Netherlands, so they signed a declaration on 6 of January with the intention to offer a defense of the Roman catholic religion against the what they consider Calvinists invansions in other provinces.
  • Jan 23, 1579

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht
    The Union of Utrecht was a treaty wich formed a "closer union" within the Low Countries under the direction of the States General, who was seated in Brussels. The Union of Utrecht declares that everyone should be allowed to practice their religion freely and that no one should face persecution or inquiry because to their religious beliefs.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    The Spanish fleet was wounded and scattered by English incendiary ships during the Battle of the Invincible Armada. Ammo shortage compelled the British to withdraw. Unable to meet Parma, the Spanish Armada took a detour around Scotland to return to Spain. About 15,000 men lost their lives, and just 60 ships made it out of the war—many of them irretrievable. The English suffered mostly from illness, with very few casualties in battle.
  • Period: to

    Baroque Art

    The 17th century saw the creation of baroque art in Europe, which is renowned for its majesty, drama, and sensual richness. The style blends elements of painting, sculpture, and architecture, exhibiting movement, tension, and emotional excitement.
    The domes of the baroque cathedrals, which stand for the unification of heaven and earth, make them distinctive. Some of the best known baroque artists are : Bernini, Caravaggio, Velázquez.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    Gian Lorenzo Bernini was who create the Apollo and Daphne marble sculpture.This work represents the culmination of the history of Apollo and Daphne (Phoebe and Daphne) in Ovid’s Metamorphosis. After Borghese gave Cardinal Ludovisi ownership of Bernini's Pluto and Persephone, the previous piece under his patronage, the sculpture of Apollo and Daphne was ordered. The majority of the work was completed in 1622–1623; however, there was a break in the work,prevented him from finishing it until 1625.
  • Saint Peter's square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter's square project by Bernini
    Situated in the Vatican City it's a symbol of the city and was constructed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini between 1656 and 1667 under Pope Alexander VII. It is composed of two parts: a first trapezoidal space and a second elliptical-shaped space According to Bernini, the church of San Pietro had to have a portico that clearly demonstrated that it welcomed Catholics with open arms to confirm their beliefs, the Heretics to reunite them in the Church, and the Infidels to enlighten them about true faith.
  • The Spinners, by Velazquez

    The Spinners, by Velazquez
    The Spinners was painted by Diego Velazquez who made it not for the king but for a private patron.
    This painting is the result of two acts carried out in different periods Velázquez started by painting the area that the figures and the backdrop tapestry were on. Later, in the 18th century, thinner strips were added to the left, right, and bottom, while a large strip was added to the top. The painting is an example of one his amazing mythological works.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassical art

    The 1760s saw the start of neoclassical art, which flourished in the 1780s and 1790s and continued into the 1840s and 1850s. It was influenced by the classical principles of ancient Greece and Rome and is distinguished by its simplicity, symmetry, and harmony. Classical motifs and austere linear design were prioritised in art. It emerged in part as a response to the Rococo style and was influenced by the finding of ancient sites like Pompeii and Herculaneum.
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David
    Oath of the Horatii is a painting of the Neoclassical art painted by Jacques-Louis David a French Neoclassical artist.
    · The painting was ordered by Charles-Claude de Flahaut de la Billarderie, who worked for King Charles Louis XVI. · In the painting the place, which has been characterised as maybe an atrium, is indoors. This type of building is Roman in style and is distinguished by its skylight in place of a roof.
  • Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    Francisco de Goya used the oil on canvas technique to paint the painting in Aranjuez and Madrid in the spring and summer of 1800, shortly after Goya was named First Chamber Painter.
    Although the painting aims to present the Crown as a powerful familial core, the perception is otherwise. The natural family roles of children, grandkids, siblings, and sons-in-law obscure the hierarchy inherent in their ranks, despite their best efforts to project warmth and security.