The Industrial Revolution

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    The Industrial Revolution

  • Bessemer Process

    Bessemer Process
    The Bessemer process was invented in the ninteenth century by Henry Bessemer. This process was essentially used to convert abundant molten iron into steel through purification. Steel allowed for the construction of taller/bigger buildings which is why it is preferred over iron. The Bessemer process was one of the most important processes of the Industrial Revolution as steel was used in many areas such as, the construction of buildings, bridges, railroads, cars, and many others.
  • Edwin Drake

    Edwin Drake
    Edwin Drake was an all American oil driller and was the first person to strike oil in America. In the mid 1800s, Drake was offered a job by the Senaca oil company, through which he was able to observe the oil that was being deposited into Titusville, Pennsylvania. As time went on, oil became more necessary to the lives of Americans because it was used as a major power source during the Industrial Revolution. On August 27, 1859, Edwin Drake successfully struck oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
  • Christopher Sholes

    Christopher Sholes
    Christopher Sholes was an American inventor who invented the first typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard layout. In the 19th century, with the help of Glidden and Soules, Sholes was able to patent his first model of the typewriter on November 13, 1866. This not only had a great impact on American business during the Industrial Revolution as it allowed information to be recorded, but it also allowed more women to get jobs as clerks or secretaries in various businesses.
  • Transcontinental Railroad completed

    Transcontinental Railroad completed
    On May 10, 1869, America's first transcontinental railroad was completed. This railroad connected the east and west coast by means of land transportation. This was very beneficial to the U.S. as goods and raw materials were able to be passed throughout the country and people were able to travel more quickly and efficiently. This also opened job opportunities to people living in various cities as they were given a cheap means of transportation to get to work.
  • J.P. Morgan

    J.P. Morgan
    J.P. Morgan was an American financier, banker, and philanthropist during the Industrial revolution. Morgan used his wealth to help other business grow. He reorganized the railroad systems, funded mergers between companies, and he became involved with finance to support the American economy. He would use his wealth to support the American economy during times of depression. Morgan's impact on business and the American economy was immense. He held our country together in times of depression.
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal

    Credit Mobilier Scandal
    Credit Mobilier was an American company that was involved in the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad. Over time, Credit Mobilier was awarded contracts by Union Pacific to build railroads. These jobs were given at a cost that was between 2 and 3 times the actual price and this extra money was pocketed. When the scandal was discovered, no arrests were made. This scandal is important to the Industrial Revolution because it prevented future corruption of the railroad industry.
  • Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell
    Alexander Graham Bell was an American inventor who was interested in the education of deaf people. This interest led him to invent the first telephone in 1876 which was known as the first electrical speaking machine. The telephone was the only method of long distance communication during the Industrial revolution. This is what made it so essential. By the first two years that the telephone was invented, calls were already being made between Massachusetts and New York.
  • Munn v. Illinois

    Munn v. Illinois
    Munn v. Illinois was a case in which was taken to Court. It dealt with whether or not Illinois had the authority to interfere with grain elevators and the prices they charged. Elevator owners felt that this would interfere with their business and deprive them of their fourteenth amendment rights. The court ruled in favor of the federal government. This was a significant decision during the Industrial revolution as it gave federal governments the right to regulate businesses within the state.
  • Thomas Edison

    Thomas Edison
    Thomas Edison was an inventor in the 19th century who brought new technology and inventions to American industry. Edison's most beneficial contributions to the Industrial Revolution were the incandescent lamp and the electric power station. The incandescent lamp and electrical power station go hand in hand. These provided an alternative power source during the Industrial Revolution that could be used in factories. This benefitted factory work and allowed for more goods to be produced.
  • John D. Rockefeller

    John D. Rockefeller
    John D. Rockefeller was the founder of the Standard Oil Company in 1882. In 1865, Rockefeller bought all of the companies involved in oil production. Once he became the only oil producing company in America, he started inflating oil prices and soon became one of the richest men in the country. Rockefeller's tactic of horizontal integration was significant to the Industrial period as it gave the government an example of what to avoid in American business to avoid price inflation.
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
    On May 4, 1886 in Chicago, Illinois, a bomb exploded amongst a group of policemen in Haymarket square. Seven policement were killed and seventy people were injured. This bomb shed a bad light on the labor movement which was now seen as a group of political people as opposed to people who were securing their rights as workers. This was important to the Industrial revolution as this riot further stripped employees during the Industrial revolution of their rights as they had an awful reputaton.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    The Interstate Commerce Act was passed in 1887 in order to give the government control over the growing railroad industry in the U.S. This was significant in U.S. history because the railroad industry became the first industry to be regulated by the government. This was an outcome of the corruption of the railroad industry as there were inflated prices. The Interstate Commerce Act made it so the ICC (interstate commerce commision) or the federal government could set railroad rates.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    Sherman Antitrust Act
    The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed in 1890 in order to eliminate monopolies by regulating big businesses and trusts. This act outlawed any contract, combination, or conspiracy that monopolized any market. This act was extremely important to the Industrial revolution as it eliminated monopolizies and encouraged competition amongst businesses. This helped keep prices at a decent range and provide the best quality goods for the average consumer. Thus, helping the American economy thrive.
  • Homestead Strike

    Homestead Strike
    On June 19, 1892 in Homestead, Pennsylvania, employees of the Carnegie steel manufacturing plant (founded by Andrew Carnegie) went on strike because they were scared of losing their jobs, angry over pay cuts, and did not want to surrender their labor union. Within a few weeks the strikes was over. This strike revealed the flaws in American labor during the Industrial revolution. Organized labor was limited and therefore, working conditions could not be improved for laborers.
  • Eugene Debs

    Eugene Debs
    Eugene V. Debs was a presidential candidate who formed the first ever labor union. In the 1890s, America fell into a severe depression and Debs noticed the government's use of power against laborers. He then formed the American Railway Union (ARU) the nation's first labor union through which Debs was able to negotiate various labor disputes. This was important to the Industrial period as it presented the idea of labor unions to workers which maintained equality between workers and employers.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    The Pullman company, founded by George Pullman, was a company that manufactured sleeping cars and sold them to various railroad companies. The Pullman strike occured becuase of the way Pullman treated his employers. Pullman made it so that his workers were completely dependent on him. This set off many of his employees who decided to initiate a strike. It was important to the Industrial Revolution as it gave employees a voice and employeres the hint to not exploit their employees or power.
  • Wright Brothers

    Wright Brothers
    Wilbur and Orville Wright were brothers who invented the first working airplane. Their first flight was on December 17, 1903. Working airplanes had an obvious impact on the Industrial period as raw materials were now able to be shipped over from other countries. Also, potential markets were opened throughout the world, this way America was able to sell manufactured goods all over the world which greatly improved its economy. Airplanes also provided a new method of transportation for people.
  • Lochner v. NY Decision

    Lochner v. NY Decision
    In 1897, New York state legislature passed a Labor Law which stated that workers in the baking business could not work more than 60 hours a week/10 hours a day. Joseph Lochner, a New York bakery owner, was twice convicted for breaking this law and his case was sent to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Lochner which was important to the Industrial revolution as laissez faire ideas were supported. The government supported the employer as opposed to the employees.
  • Mother Jones

    Mother Jones
    Mary Harris Jones, otherwise known as Mother Jones, was an organizer who contributed to the labor movement of the 19th century. She helped coordinate major labor strikes and in 1898 she founded the Social Democratic party and in 1905 she co-founded the Industrial Workers of the World. Mother Jones' efforts had a great impact on the Industrial revolution. The government favored the employees so, Jones gave laborers a voice, and thus more rights and better working conditions.
  • Henry Ford

    Henry Ford
    Henry Ford, the founder of the Ford motor company, revolutionized American manufacturing with his assembly line method. Through this method of manufacturing, Ford was able to sell cars to his customers at prices that were affordable to the average person. The assembly line method was extremely important to the Industrial revolution as it allowed goods to be manufactured quickly and efficiently, it also opened jobs for many unspecialized laborers who could work one section of the assembly line.