Gilded Age & Progressive Era

  • Bessemer Steel Production

    Bessemer Steel Production
    Was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
  • Tenement

    A room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments.
  • Labor Unions(Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, & Industrial Workers of the World

    Labor Unions(Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, & Industrial Workers of the World
    Knights of Labor: Founded in 1869, it originated as a secret organization meant to protect its members from employer retaliations American Federation of Labor :A federation of trade unions organized in 1886: united with the Congress of Industrial Organizations 1955. Industrial Workers of the World:An international industrial labor union, considered radical by many, that was organized in Chicago in 1905 and that disintegrated after 1920.
  • Social Gospel

    Social Gospel
    A movement in America, chiefly in the early part of the 20th century, stressing the social teachings of Jesus and their applicability to public life.
  • Andrew Carnegie

    Andrew Carnegie
    Was one of the first "captains of industry." Leader of the American steel industry from 1873 to 1901.
  • The Gilded Age

    The Gilded Age
    The period after Reconstruction, the last few decades of the nineteenth century, was known as the ” Gilded Age,” a term coined by Mark Twain in 1873. The Gilded Age was a period of transformation in the economy, technology, government, and social customs of America.
  • Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell
    he telephone which made contact easier between each person(s). 1900 he provided service to more than 800,000 "telephonics" across America
  • Labor Strikes (Great Railroad Strike 1877, Homestead Strike 1892)

    Labor Strikes (Great Railroad Strike 1877, Homestead Strike 1892)
    Great Railroad Strike 1877: Cutting wages of workers for the third time in a year. Striking workers would not allow any of the trains, mainly freight trains, to roll until this third wage cut was revoked. Homestead Strike 1892: Was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892.
  • Labor Strikes (Pullman Strike 1894)

    Labor Strikes (Pullman Strike 1894)
    Pullman Strike 1894: a national insurgency of the Populist Party which threatened the dominance of the two major parties, and a closely watched march of thousands of unemployed
  • Industrilization

    Had its roots in the Civil War, which spurred Congress and the northern states to build more railroads and increased demand for a variety of manufactured goods.
  • Susan B. Anthony

    Susan B. Anthony
    An American women's rights activist, devoted her life to racial, gender, and educational equality. One of the most famous women in American history, she played a prominent role in the women's suffrage movement
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
    A square in Chicago: scene of a riot (Haymarket Riot) in 1886 between police and labor unionists.
  • Samuel Gompers

    Samuel Gompers
    Was an early labor leader, first in his own union and later as president of the American Federation of Labor. As its president nearly continuously between 1886 and 1924, Gompers led the labor movement in achieving solid gains for workers.
  • Interstate Commerce Act 1887

    Interstate Commerce Act 1887
    Is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
  • Jacob Riis

    Jacob Riis
    Crusaded for the establishment of settlement houses, public parks and playgrounds, and other reforms to improve the lives of those in New York City's slums.
  • Jane Addams

    Jane Addams
    Hull House was a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. It was opened to recently arrived European immigrants. Settlement houses, especially in the United States and Canada, were especially important in serving immigrants who came to the cities in great numbers for work.
  • Settlement Houses

    Settlement Houses
    The Settlement Movement was a reformist social movement that began in the 1880s and peaked around the 1920s in England and the US. Its goal was to bring the rich and the poor of society together in both physical proximity and social interconnectedness.
  • Sherman AntiTrust Act

    Sherman AntiTrust Act
    An act of Congress (1890) prohibiting any contract, conspiracy, or combination of business interests in restraint of foreign or interstate trade.
  • Robber Barons (Captains of Industry)

    Robber Barons (Captains of Industry)
    is a derogatory term used for some powerful nineteenth-century American businessmen. By the 1890s, the term was typically applied to businessmen who were viewed as having used questionable practices to amass their wealth.
  • Ida B. Wells

    Ida B. Wells
    Was an African-American journalist, abolitionist and feminist who led an anti-lynching crusade in the United States in the 1890s. She went on to found and become integral in groups striving for African-American justice.
  • Klondike Gold Rush

    Klondike Gold Rush
    A rush of thousands of people in the 1890s toward the Klondike gold mining district in northwestern Canada after gold was discovered there.
  • Initiative, Referendum, Recall

    Initiative, Referendum, Recall
    These are three powers reserved to enable the voters, by petition, to propose or repeal legislation or to remove an elected official from office. Proponents of an initiative, referendum, or recall effort must apply for an official petition serial number from the Town Clerk.
  • Political Machines

    Political Machines
    A political machine is a political group in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt
    26th U.S. president; launched a collection of progressive domestic policies known as the Square Deal. The "Square Deal" domestic policy was adopted by the President in which he pledged not to favor any group of Americans but to be fair to all.
  • Populism & Progressivism

    Populism & Progressivism
    Populism, initiated back in late 19th century was a movement that was led by the farmers for the economic change, whereas Progressivism, commenced in the beginning of 20th century was the movement of urban middle class against the political system, which they believe was corrupt and the electable were chosen through unfair elections.
  • Eugene V. Debs

    Eugene V. Debs
    Was an American socialist, political activist, trade unionist, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    Was the first of a series of significant consumer protection laws which was enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration.
  • Muckraker

    To characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. They typically had large audiences in some popular magazines
  • Upton Sinclair

    Upton Sinclair
    The Jungle, his infamous 1906 book exposing the horrific conditions of the meatpacking industry, brought to light what was actually happening when the government didn't step into businesses.
  • Nativism

    Is the political position of preserving status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. It is characterized by opposition to immigration based on fears that the immigrants will distort or spoil existing cultural values.
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    Was a form of American foreign policy to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
  • 16th Amendment

    16th Amendment
    The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on income and without regard to any census or enumeration. There was an income tax before the 16th amendment, and it was in effect during the Civil War.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    A law passed during the era of the Progressive Movement that was designed to safeguard the US economy by establishing a regional Federal Reserve System operating under a supervisory board in Washington.
  • 17th Amendments

    17th Amendments
    The Constitution specified that senators were elected by state legislatures. ... Consequently, the Constitution was changed with the 17th Amendment so that 'the Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years...'
  • 18th Amendments

    18th Amendments
    Congress ratified the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the manufacturing, transportation and sale of alcohol within the United States; it would go into effect the following January.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    To the United States Constitution granted women the right to vote, prohibiting any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    Was a bribery scandal involving the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding from 1921–1923.
  • Clarence Darrow

    Clarence Darrow
    Clarence Seward Darrow was an American lawyer, a leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, and a prominent advocate for Georgist economic reform. Darrow defended John T. Scopes in the State of Tennessee v. Scopes trial. ... The trial, which was deliberately staged to bring publicity to the issue at hand, pitted Darrow against William Jennings Bryan in a court case that tested Tennessee's Butler Act.7
  • William Jennings Bryan

    William Jennings Bryan
    Democratic and Populist leader and a magnetic orator. His enemies regarded him as an ambitious "demagogue", but his supporters viewed him as a champion of liberal causes. He was influential in the eventual adoption of such reforms as popular election of senators, income tax, creation of a Department of Labor, Prohibition, and woman suffrage.