The Industrial Revolution
Bessemer ProcessDuring the Industrial Revolution, Henry Bessemer introduced the Bessemer Process. This process included produced steel from iron. During this process, air or steam would be blown over molten iron, making steel. This improved the railroad industry since iron was soft, and steel was a lot harder.
Industrial Revolution Timeline
Edwin DakeAt the start of the Industrial Revolution, the industry needed fuel for the industry to increase. In 1859, many discovered oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania. Edwin Drake, was originally in the Railroad industry, However, when oil was discovered,he quit his job. He traveled to Titusvile, Pennsylvania, and with a large crane, he built an oil well, and by August 29, oil was pouring out of the well.
Christopher Sholes invents typewriterDuring the Industrial Revolution, in 1868, Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This improved the communication industry. With help from 2 other friends, Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soul'e, he invented the typewriter. He spent his later years improving it, such as rearranging the keyboard.
Transcontinental Railroad completedAt the start of the Industrial Revolution, the railroad industry was one of the first industries that began to progress. This railroad was completed in 1869 and ran from Nebraska to California, over 2000 miles of track. The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific companies worked together to finish the railroad, which was completed on May 10, 1869.
John D RockefellerDuring the Industrial Revolution, the discovery of oil boosted the industry. When Rockefeller heard about Edwin Drakes's finding of the oil well, using trades, he bought small oil companies and made the Standard Oil Company in Ohio, a very large oil company that greatly improved the automotive industry.
Credit Mobiler ScandalThe Credit Mobiler helped the Railroad industry and helped the Credit Mobiler of America, created by Thomas Durant, get many profits. The Credit Mobiler Scandal began in 1872, when Ulysses S Grant became president. Congressman Oakes Ames and others overpayed the company's workers, when the money was needed for construction of railroads, and this resulted in the company's corruption.
Munn v. IllinoisDuring the Industrial Revolution, agriculture was increasing. In Illinois, Munn violated a state law by setting maximun charges for the storage of grain. This was a Granger case. The Supreme Court found this Munn case to be constitutional, and decided that private businesses, like railroads, could be publically regulated.
Alexander Graham BellAlexander Graham Bell recieved a patent for his invention for the firts modern telephone, which improved the communication industry After testing it, by speaking to Thomas Watson over is invention, on June 25, 1876, he introduced it to the society. The Bell Telephone Company was produced. He invented many other devices, such as the photophone and the watercraft.
Mother JonesDuring the Industrial Revolution, the lives of workers were tedious, the factories were dangerous, and there were many city slums. Mary Jones, known as Mother Jones, helped improve the lives of workers in Chicago during the Industrial Revolution. She also improved education for children. She became a labor organizer to improve the social factors of the Industrial Revolution.
Thomas EdisonOn August 12, 1877, Thomas Edison completed the first model of the phonograph, while trying to improve the telegraph, in the Menlo Park Lab, which was one of the first of his many inventions, which allowed communication between people over far distances, improving communication. Edison soon began the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company.
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Haymarket RiotDuring the Industrial Revolution, the economy was growing, yet working conditions were bad for many. In Chicago, labor workers only wanted an 8 hour workday, and the workers went on strike. Fighting occured between the police and the strikers, and anarchists and radicals also joined the riot against the police. On May 4, a bomb went off, killing 7 policemen and 7 strikers. The police then arrested many of the protestors on strike.
Interstate Commerce ActDuring the Industrial Revolution, this act made the Railroad industry subject to federal regulation. Railroads were getting monopolies, and this act helped control the railroad industry. This act controlled the railroad rates and created the Interstate Commerce Commission. This act went against laissez-faire and allowed for the government to interfere with the private company.
Sherman Antitrust ActThe Shernan Antitrust Act was passed by Congress to to eliminate trusts, by Senator John Sherman. This was passed because the Standard Oil trust allowed stockholders in oil companies to share trusts, ending competition and allowing a monopoly. Oil was a very important finding in the Industrial Revolution, and oil companies were gaining wealth by the trust. This act ended trusts.
Homestead StrikeDuring the late part of the Industrial Revolution, the economy was decreasing. Andrew Carnegie, with help from Henry Frick, had to cut his worker's wages and remove many workers in his steel mill plant in Homestead, PA. Many workers ordered a strike, and to stop this, Piinkerton detectives came in ships, and the strikers and detectives started firing shots, causing deaths.
Pullman StrikeWorkers in the Railroad industry were getiing low wages, and they appealed to the American Railway Union (ARU) for help, causing the Pullman Strike, beginning in Pullman, Illinois . Workers in the ARU refused to work trains, and they went on strike, The strike caused the railroad industry to decrease, and many workers were arrested. The federal government made soldiers work the trains again, without violence towards the workers on strike,
Eugene DebsDuring the Industrial Revolution, many workers were not getting enough wages, and business owners were getting wealthy, Eugene Debs, the father of American socialism, believed workers should get paid good wages. He started the American Railway Union (ARU) and led the Pullman Strike, and told members of the ARU not to use trains that used Pullman cars. During the Industrial Revolution, he started America's Socialist Party and improved the railroad industry.
J.P MorganJ.P Morgan brought finance into the Industrial Revolution. In 1893, when the Great Depression started he finaced and improved railroads which were failing, such as the Northern Pacific . He then bought Carnegie's steel company in 1901 for about $400 million, making America's first million dollar corporation. During the Industrial Revolution, he improved the financial state of America.
Wright BrothersDuring the Industrial Revolution, the Wright Brothers invented the first modern aircraft, improving the transportation industry. Both were bright students and built many models before making the first aircraft, which they tested and flew on December 17, 1903, in North Carolina.
Lochner v. NY DecisionDuring the Industrial Revolution, Joseph Lochner owned a bakery shop in New York. A law was passed in New York, to mantain one's health, which limited the number of hours bakers could work. Joseph Lochner went against this state law and was fined $50 and arrested. He appealed to the Supreme Court, which decided, according to the 14th amendment, that he had the liberty to choose his own amount of working hours.
Henry FordHenry Ford, during the Industrial Revolution, created and introduced the Model T in Highland Park, Michigan, the first automobile, which costed $950. He was the leader of the Ford Motor Company, which began in 1903, and he produced the Model T, which is considered to be the first affordable automobile, starting the automotive industry