Industrial Revolution

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    Industrial Revolution

  • Bessemer Process

    Bessemer Process
    Prior to the Industrial Revoution, the metal Iron was used for everyday items. Henry Bessemer knew that this metal was not strong enough, and something sturdier would be beneficial. He invented the Bessemer Process in 1855. This was the first process to make Steel out of Iron at an Industrial level. This made many developments in American Society possible, such as railroads.
  • Edwin Drake

    Edwin Drake
    Edwin Drakw, also referred to as "Colonel Drake", was the first person to successfully drill oil in America. He invented the drive pipe while working for Seneca Oil Company. The company later fired him. Unfortunately for them, Drake struck oil in August of 1859 while using his invention. This well produced 20 to 40 barrels of oil per day, a huge accomplishment in comparison to the speed of obtaining whale oil. After this first well, he also dug two others prior to his retirement.
  • Christopher Sholes

    Christopher Sholes
    Alongside Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soules, Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter in 1868. This was used as the primary source for printing and writing in industry, as it was much faster and neater than writing by hand. Also, Sholes was later credited with the idea of a QWERTY keyboard, a method of which most computers still use today.
  • Transcontinental Railroad completed

    Transcontinental Railroad completed
    The Transcontinental Railroad marked a significant change in transportation in America. The railroad stretched across the whole country, making it so that a trip that would previously take weeks, or even months, would now take just a few days. In Industry, this made transportation of goods extremely faster, so making sales was much easier for businesses. Now, a business in New York could make sales in a state as far as California with few problems in transportation.
  • J.P. Morgan

    J.P. Morgan
    Morgan is most well known for his founding of the banking company J.P. Morgan & Co. in 1871. Over the course of a few years, this company became extremely powerful. He also formed the United States Steel Company, which the government was wary about. He was accused of monopoly on multiple occasions, especially in the growing steel industry. Morgan was yet another example of the unfair business that seemed to grow in the United States during the Industrial Revolution.
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal

    Credit Mobilier Scandal
    Credit Mobilier was a company that aimed to gain credit and make long contracts with minimal liability. The Union Pacific made a contract with Credit Mobilier while building railroads. Credit Mobilier overcharged the Union Pacific, and ended up giving stock to congressmen. This clear act of bribery shocked the nation, and made citizens question the ideals of its government during the Industrial revolution. The scandal rose issues revolving around fraud and unfairness in the world of business.
  • Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell
    Alexander Graham Bell is primarily known for his invention of the telephone. Prior to this, the primary source of communication was through letters. Once the telephone spread throughout America, Industries were able to communicate much faster. With this, factories were able to make sales in a more timely and effective manner.
  • Thomas Edison

    Thomas Edison
    Thomas Edison is a widely known inventor. Some of his most influential inventions are the phonograph, the lightbulb, and the telegraph (dated 1877). Each invention was widely used in American society, though the lightbulb is the most commonly known one. Less oil was needed in industry, and other inventions were discovered as a result of the electric lightbulb.
  • Munn v. Illinois

    Munn v. Illinois
    This case allowed states to regulate business within their boundaries. Protesters claimed that their right of property was being violated when states tried to regulate grain elevator rates. The Supreme Court decided that the 14th ammendment could not prevent Illinois from taking action within this business. This trial was an important event for state government, because it had previously been unable to interfere with business.
  • John D. Rockefeller

    John D. Rockefeller
    Rockefeller was the founder of the Standard Oil company, beginning in the early 1880's. To be able to make more money, he began to buy out other oil businesses. Eventually, he had monopolized nearly all oil companies. As one of the richest men of all time, he gave away a good amount of money to charity, but was also an example of the negative aspects of a monopoly. Laws were made to try and prohibit this from happening, mainly to protect consumers from unfair pricing.
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
    Workers engaged in a strike to support the proposition that the official workday should be 8 hours long. During this, the protest became violent. Someone, who is not known, threw a bomb into the crowd, killing and wounding many. Eight of the labor leaders were arrested, four of which were hanged, three were pardoned, and one commited suicide while in jail. This event depicts the determination of strikers during the revolution. Their requests were not being met, leading to similar violent strikes
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    In 1887, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act. This new law controlled the railroad system in order to prevent monopolies. The law led to the formation of the Interstate Commerce Commision, or the ICC. Railroads had to submit reports to the ICC to review in order to insure they were abiding by the law. This act was a major event for American government during the Industrial Revolution, as it was one of the first attempts for Congress to take part in private organizations.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    Sherman Antitrust Act
    The Sherman Antitrust Act was a Federal Law created in order to protect businesses. This law prohibited businesses from monopolizing interstate trade. Whether the offense was intentional or not, the offender would be charged, and the victimized business would receive 3 times the amount of profit they lost. This law was a first attempt at protecting businesses from being overrun, and to protect the consumers from unfair pricing due to monopolies.
  • Homestead Strike

    Homestead Strike
    On July 6th, 1892, workers from the Carnegie Steel company organized a strike to protest decreased wages. Henry Clay Flick was trying to cut wages while also dismantling the union within the company. A battle began, and after some injuries, the company's gaurds surrendered. Unfortunately, the National Gaurd took control of the company soon after. Now, unions would not be allowed in the steel industry for approximately 44 years.
  • Eugene Debs

    Eugene Debs
    One of Eugene Debs' most well known actions is his leadership of the Pullman Strike. Debs was always an extremely active supporter of Unions, though he did not completely support this one. After the strike, he was imprisoned due to his involvement. Debs also became part of the American Socialist Party, and ran for president as this party's candidate. He was an inspiration to workers across the nation during the industrial revolution, in politics and as a union leader.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    George Pullman was a very powerful man who ran the Pullman Palace Car Company, which made Sleeping Cars. His employees were hired under very specific conditions where they must live in Pullman City and never critisize their job or pay. When Pullman raised the price of rent, but did not raise the workers pay, his employees took a stand. This strike was the first that caused a need for federal interference. It acted as an example to America of the unfair treatment of Railroad workers.
  • Lochner v. NY Decision

    Lochner v. NY Decision
    In 1897, a state law was passed that restricted the working hours of bakers to be 10 hours a day, and 60 hours a week. Joseph Lochner ran a bakery, and was accused more than once of breaking the law. He took the case all the way to the supreme court, where it was decided that states did not have the authority to restrict working conditions. This trial caused a stir in the working class, leading to various unions and attempts to create fair labor laws during the Industrial Revolution.
  • Mother Jones

    Mother Jones
    Mary Harris "Mother" Jones was an active fighter for the working class during the industrial revolution. She had multiple major accomplishments through her work in various unions, but Mother Jones is most well known for helping to found the Social Democratic Party in 1898 and aided in the establishment of the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905. She served as an example to workers across the country, especially to women, who still struggled with their rights during this time period.
  • The Wright Brothers

    The Wright Brothers
    The Wright brothers, Wiblur and Orville, invented the first successful "flying machine." Through various research and experimentation, the brothers took flight in 1903. This invention changed the beliefs of Americans, it inspired them to think that anything was possible. The commercial industry benefitted from this invention and was eventually able to use the airplane to transport goods faster than ever before.
  • Henry Ford

    Henry Ford
    Henry Ford is credited for creating the first assembly line. In order to produce more of his popular automobile, the Model T. He used conveyor belts to aid in the process. This made production much easier and faster, also him able to lower the price of the Model T. Other Industries soon followed suit, changing the way factories everywhere made their products.