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The Impact of Enlightenment

By kmartz
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John spent time traveling across France. He tutored and was a medical attendant to Caleb Banks. Banks was educated at Queens college and Cambridge. Locke did not return to England until 1679.
  • Antoine Watteau was born

    Antoine Watteau was born
    Antoine revitalized the waning Baroque style. He was an artist that used the rococo artistic style greatly. His paintings reveal an upper-class pleasure and joy but underneath, there is said to be an element of sadness. He painted the ceiling of The Residence for the prince-bishop of Wurzburg, along with many other masterpieces.
  • The Residence was built

    The Residence was built
    Balhasar Neumann began the construction of the first stage of The Residence. It was built for the prince-bishop in Wurzburg. Soon after, he was trusted with the construction of the entire structure. The palace was one of Nuemann's masterpieces.
  • Rococo

    Rococo
    By the 1730s, a new artistic style had emerged, Unlike Baroque style, which stressed grandeur and power, rococo emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action. Rococo made use of delicate designs colored in gold with graceful curves. Rococos lightness and charm spoke of the pursuit of pleasure, happiness, and love.
  • Fredrick Williams army doubles

    Fredrick Williams army doubles
    In the end of his rein Fredricks' army doubled in size. Although Prussia was tenth in physical size and thirteenth in population in Europe, it had the fourth largest army after France, Russia, and Austria. The Prussian army was one of the best in Europe. Williams made the size of his army a major concern because of the size of armies around him.
  • Maria Theresa

    Maria Theresa
    The Austrian empire had become one of the great European states by the start of the eighteenth century. It was hard to rule, however, because it was composed of many nationalities, languages, religions and cultures. Maria Theresa took the throne in 1740. She worked to centralize and strengthen the state. she was not open to philosophers' calls for reform, but she worked to improve the conditions of serfs.
  • The War of Austrian Succession

    The War of Austrian Succession
    The war of Austrian Succession was fought in three parts of the world. It lasted about 8 years. In Europe, Prussia seized Silesia while France occupied the Austrian Netherlands. In Asia, France took Madras in India from the British. In North America, the British captured the French fortress of Louisbourg at the entrance of the St. Laerence Rver.
  • Handel wrote Messiah

    Handel wrote Messiah
    Handel was best known for his religious music. His song Messiah is known as a rare work that appeals immediately to everyone and yet is a masterpiece of the highest order. It was first performed in Dublin on April 13, 1742. Nearly a year later, the song received its London premiere.
  • The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    After seven years of warfare, all parties agreed to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It guaranteed the return of all occupied territories except Silesia to their original owners. The refusal to return Silesia by Prussia started another war between Prussia and Austria.
  • Diplomatic Revolution

    Diplomatic Revolution
    The Diplomatic Revolution led to another worldwide war. It had three major areas of conflict: Europe, India, and North America. Two new rivalries replaced the old one. France abandoned Prussia and allied Austria. Russia joined with France and Austria.
  • British forces defeat the French

    British forces defeat the French
    General Wolfe defeated the French under General Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec. Both generals died in the battle. The British went on to seize Montreal, the Great Lakes area, and the Ohio River Valley. The French were forced to make peace.
  • Catherine the Great comes to power

    Catherine the Great comes to power
    Cathereine II ruled Russia from 1762-1796. She was an intelligent woman who was familiar with the works of the philosophers and seemed to favor enlightened reforms. Catherine invited Denis Diderot to Russia even though she was skeptical of his impractical theories.
  • European war ended

    European war ended
    Peter III withdrew Russian troops from the conflict and from the Prussian lands that the Russians had occupied. The withdrawal led to a stalemate and a desire for peace. All occupied territories were returned to their owners except Silesia. Austria finally recognized Prussia's permanent control of Silesia.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The struggle between Britain and France was fought in India and North America. The French had returned Madras to Britain after the War of Austrian Succession, but the struggle in India continued. Britain ultimately won out, not because of better forces, but because they were more persistent. With the Treaty of Paris, the French withdrew and left India to the British.
  • Britain becomes the world's greatest colonial power

    Britain becomes the world's greatest colonial power
    By the Treaty of Paris, the French transferred Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi to England. Spain transferred Spanish Florida to British control. In return, French gave their Louisiana territory to the Spanish. Great Britain had become the world's greatest colonial power.
  • Diderot traveled to St. Petersburg

    Diderot traveled to St. Petersburg
    Diderot was given money by Catherine II to serve as librarian for the rest of his life. He traveled to St. Petersburg thanks to his patron. He stayed at Catherine's court for five months. There he concluded that enlightened absolutism would not lead to liberty, as he had hoped.
  • American Revolution starts

    American Revolution starts
    It began as the war between Great Britain and the thirteenth colonies, but eventually grew. It became a war between Britain, the United States, France, Netherlands, and Spain. The war lasted for eight years. The main result was European recognition and the independence of the United States. The United States spent $37 million at the national level plus $114 million by the states in supplies.
  • Maria Theresa dies

    Maria Theresa dies
    Maria married at 18. She had 16 children, many becoming rulers or spouses of rulers. She showered them with practical advice, especially her youngest daughter Maria Antoinette. She was the only woman to rule during the 650-year Hapsburg dynasty. She never wavered from her belief in legitimate right of monarchs to rule.
  • Frederick II dies

    Frederick II dies
    Fredrick II cared more about the arts, music, and philosophy than about warfare. He was a flute player and composer who surrounded himself with French intellectuals. Under his 46-year reign, Prussia became a major military power that thwarted the expansion of the powerful Hapsburg Empire.
  • French Revolution starts

    French Revolution starts
    It was a period of political and social upheaval and radical changes in France's history. The French government, once an absolute monarchy, made the change based on the Enlightenment principles and rights. It led to violent turmoil that included the execution of the king, bloodshed during the Reign of Terror and warfare involving every other European power.
  • Magic Flute Premiered

    Magic Flute Premiered
    This opera was written my Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. It premiered in Vienna at Schikaneder's theater. Schikaneder was a good friend of Mozart and helped by performing as Papgeno. This opera was such a success and performed over one hundred times. The opera was the culmination of a period of increasing involvement by Mozart with Schikaneder's theatrical troupe.
  • Enlightenment influenced European politics

    Enlightenment influenced European politics
    The philosophers believed in natural rights for all people. They included equality before law, freedom of religious worship, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and the rights to assemble, hold property, and pursue happiness. To establish and preserve these natural rights, most philosophers believed that people needed to be governed by enlightened rulers. They must obey laws and enforce them fairly for all subjects