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The Impact of the Enlightenment

  • May 9, 1500

    Architecture and Art

    Architecture and Art
    The palace of Louis XIV at Versailles, in France, had made an enormous impact on Europe. The Austrian emperor, the Swedish king, and other European rulers also built grand residences. The palaces were modeled more on the Italian baroque style of the 1500s and 1600s.
  • Frederick the Great of Prussia

    Frederick the Great of Prussia
    Frederick the Great was born January 24, 1712 in Berlin and died August 17, 1786 in Potsdam. Frederick the Great was King in Prussia of the Hohenzollern dynasty. He is best known for his expertise in military campaigning and organization of the Prussian armies. Frederick the Great was a dedicated ruler. He enlarged the Prussian army by actively recruiting the nobility into civil service. He abolished the used of torture except in treason and murder cases.
  • Denis Diderot French Philosopher and Writer

    Denis Diderot French Philosopher and Writer
    Denis Diderot was born October 3 1713 in Langres and died July 31 1784 in Paris. Denis Diderot was a French Philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment. Denis is best known for serving as confounder of Encyclopédie.
  • Maria Theresa (Ruler of the Austrian Empire)

    Maria Theresa (Ruler of the Austrian Empire)
    Maria Theresa was born in Vienna and she died November 29, 1780. Maria Theresa married at age 18. She remained devoted to her husband, Francis Stephen, throughout their 29- year marriage. She had 16 children. Many of them would later become rulers of European nations of spouses of ruler. When her father, Charles VI of Austria, died in 1740, she became the only woman to rule during the 650-year Hapsburg dynasty.
  • Catherine II (Catherine the Great) Ruler of Russia

    Catherine II (Catherine the Great) Ruler of Russia
    Catherine II was born May 2, 1729 in Szczecin and died November 6, 1796 in Saint Petersburg. Catherine was an obscure German princess in 1744 when Elizabeth of Russia chose her to be the wife of Russia's future king, Peter III. Peter's foolish acts as king made him many enemies. Catherine was popular among her husband's opponents, who overthrew Peter in 1762 and proclaimed Catherine queen.
  • Rococo Artistic Style

    Rococo Artistic Style
    The baroque and neoclassical styles that had dominated seventeenth-century art continued into the eighteenth century. By the 1730s, however, a new artistic style, known as rococo, had spread all over Europe.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    The stage was set for the Seven Years' War, when, a major war broke out in connection with the succession to the Austrian Throne.
  • The War of Austrian Succession

    The War of Austrian Succession
    The War of Austrian Succession (1740 to 1748) was fought in three areas of the world. In Europe, Prussian seized Silesia while France occupied the Austrian Netherlands.
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    After seven years of warfare, all parties were exhausted and agreed to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. This treaty guaranteed the return of all occupied territories except Silesia to their original owners.
  • The War in North America

    The War in North America
    The greatest conflicts of the Seven Years' War took place in North America. On the North American continent, the French and British colonies were set is differently. The French government administered French North American (Canada and Louisiana) as a vast trading area. Unlike the French colonies, the French colonies were more populated, containing more than one million people by 1750.
  • Maria Theresa fifteenth child born

    Maria Theresa fifteenth child born
    Maria Theresa gives birth to her fifteenth child, Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna.
  • Seven Years' War Begins

    Seven Years' War Begins
    Seven Years’ War begins, with Austria and France as allies for the first time. The struggle focuses on the colonial rivalry between France and England. The fight in Germany was between the House of Austria and the rising Kingdom of Prussia.
  • Maria Theresa Refuses

    Maria Theresa Refuses
    Maria Theresa refused to accept the loss of Silesia. She rebuilt her army while working diplomatically to separate Prussia from its cheif ally, France. In 1756 her hopes were realized when a diplomatic revolution reversed two longstanding alliances.
  • The War in Europe

    The War in Europe
    This diplomatic revolution of 1756 led to another worldwide war. The war had three major areas of conflict: Europe, India, and North America. Europe witnessed the clash of the two major alliances: the British and Prussians against the Austrians, Russians, and French. Frederick the Great's superb army and military skill enabled his to defeat the Austrian, French, and Russian armies for a time.
  • The War in North America (cont.)

    The War in North America (cont.)
    A series of British victories soon followed. In 1759, British forces under General Wolfe defeated the French under General Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec. Both generals died in the battle. The French were forced to make peace.
  • Maria Antonia

    Maria Antonia
    Maria Antona lives a carefree life early childhood, and receives a typical education for a young lady. She received an education that focuses more on religion and moral principles than on the academic subjects in which their brothers were instructed.
  • Seven Years War ends

    Seven Years War ends
    Seven Years’ War ends. To preserve the alliance between France and Austria, it is arranged that France's Louis XV's grandson should marry Maria Antonia.
  • Th War in North America (cont.)

    Th War in North America (cont.)
    By the Treaty of Paris, the French transferred Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi to England. In return, the French gave their Louisiana territory to the Spanish. By 1763, Great Britain had become the world's greatest colonial power.
  • The War in India

    The War in India
    The struggle between Britain and France that took place in the rest of the world had more decisive results. Known as the Great War for Europe, it was fought in India and North America. The French has returned Madras to Britain after the War of the Austrian Succession, but the struggle in India continued. With the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French withdrew and left India to the Britain.
  • The War in Europe ends

    The War in Europe ends
    The European war ends. All occupied territories were returned to their original owners, except Silesia. Austria officially recognized Prussia's permanent control of Silesia.