History of Mali: From Pre-history to Independance

  • 400

    Jenne-Jeno expands (400 A.D.)

    Mali was dominated by three West Africa eompires: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. These empires controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and other precious commodities . As a result of increased trade between these groups, the city of Jenne-Jeno was able to expand.
  • Apr 17, 700

    Dominance of the Ghana Empire (700 A.D.)

    The Ghana Empire, located on the border of Mali and Mauritania was a powerful trading post
  • Apr 17, 1000

    Islam is introduced (1000 A.D.)

    Islam was introduced to the region by north African Arab and Berber traders. The rise of the kingdom of Mali was located on the northern tip of the Niger River
  • Apr 17, 1200

    Dominace of the muslim religion (1200 A.D.)

    The empire was dominated by the Soninké, a Mandé speaking people. The Soninké kings never fully adopted Islam, but the empire had good relations with Muslim traders. After the downfall of the Ghana Epire, the region became almost exclusivley muslim.
  • Apr 17, 1235

    Legacy of Sundiata Keïta (1235 A.D)

    During the reign of Sundiata Keïta, he was able to gain Mali recognition as a great economic strength.
  • Apr 17, 1312

    Timbuktu becomes a major center for islam (1312 A.D.)

    Under he reign of Mansa Musa, the city-state of Timbuktu became an important center for islam.He attempted to make islam the faith of the nobility, but didn't force it.
  • Apr 17, 1465

    The Songhai Empire (1465)

    The Songhai Empire became dominant over the region and created a base at Timbuktu. The city became important for the Islamic culture and an important trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route. At its peak the empire righned under the leadership of Askia Muhammad.
  • Destruction of Timbuktu

    Timbuktu was destroyed by a Moroccan invasion, leading to Timbuktu made the capitol once again.
  • Arrival of the French (1866

    beginning of the French conquest
  • Region colonized by the French

    The French appointed a civilian governor of the territory they called Soudan Français, but resistance to such regime was resisted. The French attempted to rule indirectly, but in many areas they disregarded traditional authorities and governed through appointed chiefs.
  • Ahmad was defeated by French forces (1893)

    Ahmad was detained by Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Simon Gallieni, French governor of upper Senegal and Soudan Français (French Sudan), who wanted a treaty recognizing a French protectorate over the region. Ahmad Tall was released, and managed to keep the peace with the French authorities. He began raiding around Segou. French troops, under the command of Lieutenant Archinard Louis, now Commandant-Superior of French Sudan, forced him from the area and he fled to Nigeria.
  • Change in Soudan Français

    Soudan Français (French Sudan) became part of Haut-Sénégal (Upper Senegal) and William Merlaud-Ponty was appointed as administrator.
  • Changes in administration

    Federation of Afrique Occidentale Française (French West Africa) formed and was administered from Dakar (Senegal). What had been Soudan Français (French Sudan) became Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Upper Senegal and Niger). Lieutenant-Governor William Merlaud-Ponty remained in post of administrator.
  • Africans rebell

    Africans were forced into the French army to help fight the First World War. French authorities in Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Upper Senegal and Niger) forcefully put down consequent rebellion.
  • opposition to French rule

    Colony of Upper Volta detached from Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Upper Senegal and Niger) to form a distinct colony within Afrique Occidentale Française (French West Africa). Union Soudanais (US) formed local nationalists to oppose French rule and it attracted support of pan-Arabist groups in the region.
  • Brazzaville Conference (1944)

    The conference held in the capital of the French Congo (now the Republic of Congo) and also the regional capital of Afrique Équatoriale Française (French Equatorial Africa), was called by General Charles de Gaulle of the Free French to discuss the future of France's African colonies. It was suggested that following the expected liberation of France and the end of World War II, a federal structure be set up for France's African possessions.
  • Brazzaville declaration.

    According to the declaration, Soudan Français (French Sudan) became a country within the Union Française (French Union), and was given a legislative council.
  • Parti Progressive Soudanais wins seats (1947)

    Parti Progressive Soudanais (PPS, Progressive Sudanese Party) wins two seats (out of three) to the French Assemblée Nationale (National Assembly) allotted to Soudan Français.
  • Loi Cadre

    France passed the Loi Cadre, which was a law passed by the French National Assembly that provided for universal adult suffrage for all African subjects in French colonies. The law ostensibly gave control over economic development, internal and international defense, and foreign policy to the French government, but allowed self-autonomy over other matters.
  • From French colony to French community (1958)

    French constitutional referendum held in Afrique Équatoriale Française (French Equatorial Africa) led to the Soudan Français becoming a member of La Communauté (the French Community) with semi-autonomous self-government.
  • Mali Federation

    Following a three day conference, Fily Dabo Sissoko announced that the Parti Progressive Soudanais (PPS, Progressive Sudanese Party) was to merge with the Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (US-RDA, Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally).
    The Federation of Mali formed by joining the Soudan Français with Senegal as part of the Communauté Française (French Community).
  • Finally independance (1960)

    Senegal leaves left thr (French Sudan) and continued onwards as the Republic of Mali.
    22 September 1960 Republic of Mali was proclaimed with Modibo Keïta as the first president with the Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (US-RDA, Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally) winning all 80 seats in the National Assembly. Keïta introduces a one-party state and withdraws form the Franc zone.Soudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community.