Canadian Military History 1003-1945

  • 1003

    First Vinland Battle

  • 1006

    Skræling Skirmishes

  • 1010

    Second Vinland Battle

  • Period: Jul 20, 1577 to Aug 22, 1577

    Skirmishes of Martin Frobisher

    On 19 July, Frobisher and forty of his best men landed at Hall's Island and made their way to its highest point, which he dubbed Mount Warwick in honor of the Earl of Warwick. Several weeks were now spent in collecting ore, but very little was done in the way of discovery. There was much parleying and some skirmishing with the Inuit, and earnest but futile attempts were made to recover the five men captured. The expedition's return to England commenced on 23 August 1577.
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    Beaver Wars

    Were a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in North America throughout the Saint Lawrence River valley in Canada and the Great Lakes region which pitted the Iroquois against the Hurons Algonquians and French allies. As a result of this conflict, the Iroquois destroyed several confederacies and tribes through warfare. The wars and subsequent commercial trapping of beavers was devastating to the local beaver population, Hence, The name.
  • Beaver Wars; Battle of Sorel

    The Battle of Sorel occurred with Samuel de Champlain supported by the Kingdom of France and his allies, the Huron, Algonquins, and Montagnais that fought against the Mohawk people in New France at present-day Sorel-Tracy, Quebec. The forces of Champlain armed with the arquebus engaged and killed or captured nearly all of the Mohawks. The battle ended major hostilities with the Mohawks for twenty years.
  • First Battle of Port Royal

    Faced with a steady flow of English colonists, the governor of Virginia, Sir Thomas Dale, decided to gain control of the bountiful fisheries in the Bay of Fundy. He commissioned Captain Samuel Argall to achieve this goal. Argall set several small French fishing settlements on fire along the eastern shore. He encountered little resistance at Port Royal and razed the settlement to the ground.
  • Capture of Tadoussac

  • Beaver Wars; Action of 1628

    The English force led by the Kirke brothers succeeded in capturing a supply convoy bound for New France, severely impairing that colony ability to resist attack. The two forces sighted each other Roquement could not make a move to pass Kirke, and realized he had to fight. Kirke made better use of advantages and anchored at big range in order to batter the French into surrender. The French attempted to do the same. Kirke bombarded for 14 hours, while Roquement's efforts fell short and surrendered
  • St Lawrence River Action

    Basically a PT2 to the action of 1628, Another french defeat. The surrender of the French yielded a great deal of plunder for Kirke, and this alone made his expedition a tremendous success, despite the failure to capture Quebec. He was commissioned to make a return trip in order to fulfill that goal. When Kirke returned in the spring of 1629 surrender was the only option Champlain returned and saw the establishment of colonies before his death in 1635. Kirke became Governor of Newfoundland.
  • Surrender of Quebec

    The surrender of Quebec in 1629 was the taking of Quebec City, during the Anglo-French War. It was achieved without battle by English privateers led by David Kirke, who had intercepted the town's supplies.
  • Siege of Baleine

    Charles Daniel arrived with 53 men and numerous natives. He captured two boats manned by fishermen and imprisoned them. He approached the fort and assured he was coming in peace. The French attacked by bombarding with cannon fire from the ships. Daniel conducted a land assault. He ordered Ochiltree and his company to demolish the fort and force prisoners to Grand Cibou. Daniel Ochiltree and his men construct Fort Sainte Anne. Then he sailed the prisoners back, where Ochiltree was thrown in jail
  • Siege of Fort St Louis

    In 1629, Cape Sable was the only major French holding in North America. There was a battle between Charles and his father at Fort St. Louis, the latter supporting the Scottish. Claude was forced to withdraw humiliation to Port Royal. As a result, La Tour appealed to France for assistance and was appointed lieutenant-general in Acadia 1631. By 1641, La Tour lost Cape Sable Island to Governor of Acadia Charles d'Aulnay Charnisay. La Tour retired to Cap de Sable and died in 1666.
  • Skirmish of St John

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    Acadian Civil War

    Was fought between competing governors of the French province of Acadia. Governor Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour had been granted one area of territory by King Louis and Charles de Menou d'Aulnay had been granted another area. The divisions made by the king were geographically uninformed, and the two territories and their administrative centres overlapped. The conflict was intensified by personal animosity and came to an end when d'Aulnay successfully expelled la Tour from his holdings.
  • Acadian Civil War; Second Battle of Port Royal

    La Tour arrived from present-day Saint John and attacked Port Royal with two armed ships. D'Aulnay's captain was killed, while La Tour and his men were forced to surrender. In response to the attack, d'Aulnay sailed out of Port-Royal to establish a blockade of La Tour's fort at present-day Saint John.
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    French Iroquois War

    In the early 1640s, the war began in earnest with Iroquois attacks on frontier Huron villages along the St. Lawrence River in order to disrupt the trade with the French. In 1645, the French called the tribes together to negotiate a treaty to end the conflict, and Iroquois leaders Deganaweida and Koiseaton traveled to New France to take part in the negotiations.
  • Acadian Civil War; Blockade of St John

    For five months, the Governor of Acadia d'Aulnay, who was stationed at Port Royal, created a blockade of the river to defeat La Tour at his fort. On 14 July 1643, La Tour arrived from Boston with four ships and a complement of 270 men to repossess Fort Sainte-Marie. After this victory, La Tour went on to attack d'Aulnay at Port Royal, Nova Scotia. LaTour was unsuccessful in catching d'Aulnay and the rivalry continued for several more years.
  • Acadian Civil War; Third Battle of Port Royal

    La Tour tried to capture Port-Royal again. La Tour arrived at Saint John from Boston with a fleet of five armed vessels and 270 men and broke the blockade. La Tour then chased d'Aulnay's vessels back across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal. D'Aulnay resisted the attack, and seven of his men were wounded and three killed. La Tour did not attack the fort, which was defended by twenty soldiers. La Tour burned the mill, killed the livestock and seized furs, gunpowder and other supplies.
  • Acadian Civil War; Battle of Penobscot

    After the blockade of St. John, d'Aulney was pursued by la Tour to Penobscot Bay, where d'Aulney ran two of his ships and another smaller vessel aground in order to form an improvised blockade. A small engagement followed at a nearby mill, with both sides suffering three casualties. La Tour's company proceeded to Boston, with a small vessel containing an abundance of moose and beaver skins.
  • Acadian Civil War; Battle of Fort Sainte-Marie

    On 14 July 1643, La Tour arrived from Boston with four ships and a complement of 270 men to repossess Fort Sainte-Marie.
  • Beaver Wars; Action at Ville-Marie

    A band of 30 settlers went into the forest to face their foes. Once in the woods the French encountered 250 warriors in ambush. Retreating in the face of such uneven odds, Maisonneuve remained last so that the others could make it safely back to the fort, resulting in him being set upon by a Haudenosaunee chief. In this decisive moment, Maisonneuve fired twice on the chief, thus killing him with his bare hands as is sometimes quoted about the event, before returning to the fort amid much fanfare
  • French Iroquois War; Battle of Fort La Tour

    d'Aulnay retaliated by seizing all of La Tour's possessions and outposts, especially Fort La Tour at Saint John and Cap de Sable. In the Battle of Saint John, La Tour's wife defended the fort for three days. On the fourth day despite losing 33 men, d'Aulnay was able to breach the fort. Upon learning of his wife's death, and the loss of all his possessions, La Tour sought refuge at the Chateau Saint-Louis in Quebec City.
  • Acadian Civil War; Siege of St John

    While La Tour was in Boston, d'Aulnay sailed across the Bay of Fundy and arrived at La Tour's fort with a force of 200 men. La Tour's soldiers were led by his wife, Françoise-Marie Jacquelin, who became known as the Lioness of LaTour for her valiant defence. After a five-day battle, d'Aulnay offered quarter to all if Françoise-Marie would surrender the fort. On that basis she capitulated, and d'Aulnay had captured La Tour's Fort Sainte-Marie. D'Aulnay then was executed.
  • Beaver Wars; St Louis Raid

    Brébeuf was killed at St. Ignace in Huronia on 16 March 1649. He had been taken captive with Gabriel Lalemant when the Iroquois destroyed the Huron mission village at Saint-Louis. The Iroquois took the priests to the occupied village of Taenhatenteron (also known as St. Ignace), where they subjected the missionaries and native converts to ritual torture before killing them.
  • Fourth Battle of Port Royal

    Robert Sedgwick led a force made up of 300 soldiers to New England by Oliver Cromwell. Sedgwick captured and plundered present day Castine Maine and La Tour's fort at present day Saint John. Sedgwick also took La Tour prisoner. Port-Royal numbered only about 130.The outnumbered Acadians surrendered after negotiating terms that allowed French inhabitants who wished to remain to keep their property and religion. However Sedgwick's men rampaged through the Port-Royal monastery, destroying stuff.
  • Beaver Wars; Battle of Long Sault

    The Battle of Long Sault occurred over a five-day period in early May 1660 during the Beaver Wars. It was fought between French colonial militia, with their Huron and Algonquin allies, against the Iroquois Confederacy. Some historians theorize that the Iroquois called off an intended attack on French settlements because one of their chiefs was killed in this battle, while others claim that the battle provided enough trophies to temper Iroquois aims.
  • Failed Capture of St Johns

    De Ruyter first set sail to the Barbary coast to capture pirates until he got secret orders from the States-General to recapture forts in West Africa, and harm the English colonies in the Americas. After recapturing the colonies in West Africa, he set sail for Newfoundland. He divided his fleet in three, and sent one part to Bay Bulls, while he himself went to St. John's (where he first had to break a massive cable across The Narrows), and he sent the third part of his fleet to Petty Harbor.
  • Capture of St Johns

    Tried again a year later. Dutch captured 2 English ships completely filled with salt, oil, and wine, on the other hand captured one frigate. They stayed there for a bit capturing other numerous English ships and vessels, filled with food. After de Ruyter had captured all these ships, he had around 300 prisoners. He thought it was too dangerous because they would rebel, so he freed few on the island. He sailed around the coast and attacked numerous ports in the colony causing significant damage.
  • Battle of Port La Tour

    The Battle of Port La Tour occurred at Port La Tour as part of the Northeast Coast Campaign during the First Abenaki War in which the Mi'kmaq attacked New England fishermen. The New Englanders eventually overwhelmed them and many Mi'kmaq were enslaved.
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    Hudson Bay Expedition

    It was the first of several expeditions sent from New France against the trading outposts of the Hudson's Bay Company in the southern reaches of Hudson Bay. Although France and England were then at peace, war broke out between them in 1689, and the conflict over the Hudson Bay outposts continued. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, made further expeditions against holdings; these culminated in the French victory at the 1697 naval Battle of Hudson's Bay.
  • Battle of Fort Albany

    The Battle of Fort Albany was a successful recapture by English forces of the Hudson's Bay Company trading outpost at Fort Albany in the southern reaches of Hudson Bay. The fort, captured by a French expedition in 1686 and held by them in a battle the next year, was briefly defended by 5 Frenchmen, who then abandoned the fort and its stockpile of furs to a four-ship English fleet commanded by James Knight.
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    King William's War

    King William's War was the american theater of the Nine Years' War, also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg. It was the first of six colonial wars fought between New France and New England along with their respective Native allies before France ceded its remaining mainland territories in North America east of the Mississippi River in 1763.
  • Beaver Wars; Lachine Massacre

    Occurred when 1500 Mohawk warriors launched an attack against the small settlement of Lachine at 7AM. The attack was precipitated by the growing Iroquois frustration with the increased incursions into their territory and the ongoing concern about French Marquis de Denonville's attack, and it was encouraged by the settlers of England as a way to leverage power against France during conflict. The Mohawk warriors destroyed a substantial portion of the Lachine settlement by fire, killing around 240.
  • Beaver Wars; Battle of the Lake of Two Mountains

    The Battle of the Lake of Two Mountains took place during the Beaver Wars between the colony of New France and the Iroquois Confederacy. The Marquis de Denonville dispatched a scouting party of 28 soldiers, under the command of Daniel Greysolon to search for Iroquois warriors that posed a threat to residents on the Island of Montreal. The French came across 22 Iroquois at the Lake of Two Mountains. The French suffered no casualties, while the Iroquois suffered 18 deaths, 3 captured, and 1 fled.
  • King William's War; Battle of Port Royal

    A large force of New England provincial militia arrived before Port Royal. The Governor of Acadia Louis Menneval had only 70 soldiers; the unfinished enceinte remained open and its 18 cannon had not been brought into firing positions 42 young men of Port-Royal were absent. Any resistance therefore appeared useless. Meneval surrendered without resistance not long after the New Englanders arrived. The New Englanders plundered the town and the fort.
  • Beaver Wars; Coulée Grou

    Coulée Grou was the location of a battle of the Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars, given in honor of Jean Grou, a Canadian pioneer. Grou had sailed as a young boy from Rouen in France to New France in 1657 and established a land-holding at Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles, east of the modern city of Montreal. At a battle here on 2 July 1690, Jean Grou and three farm workers were captured and burned alive.
  • King William's War; Battle of Chedabucto

    Occurred against Fort St. Louis. New England sent an overwhelming force to conquer Acadia by capturing the capital Port Royal, Chedabucto, and attacking other villages. The aftermath of these battles was unlike any of the previous military campaigns against Acadia. The violence of the attacks alienated many of the Acadians from the New Englanders, broke their trust, and made it difficult for them to deal amicably with the English-speakers.
  • King William's War; Battle of Quebec

    The Battle of Québec was fought between the colonies of New France and Massachusetts Bay, then ruled by the kingdoms of France and England, respectively. It was the first time Québec's defences were tested. Following the capture of Port Royal in Acadia, during King William's War, the New Englanders hoped to seize Québec itself, the capital of New France.
  • Beaver Wars; Battle of La Prairie

    The Battle of La Prairie was an attack made on the French by an English force coming north, led by Major Pieter Schuyler, initially intended to attack Montreal, but was repulsed with significant casualties by the French and their Indian allies. The Anglo-Indian force might have remained intact but instead was intercepted by a French force of 160 men that had been detached to block the road to Chambly. 2 sides fought in combat for approximately an hour, before Schuyler's men broke through.
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    Beaver Wars; Mohawk Valley Raid

    Conducted against 3 Mohawk villages located in the Mohawk River valley by French and Indian warriors. The action resulted in the destruction of the villages, including critical stores of food. Many Mohawk were either killed or captured. The raiders, burdened with their prisoners, were followed by a rapidly deployed English-Iroquois force. The two forces engaged in skirmishing a few days after the raid. Because of the pursuit, the raiders were forced to release most of their prisoners.
  • French Iroquois War; Battle of Fort Vercheres

    Some settlers left the fort along with 8 soldiers. Suddenly, Iroquois descended on the settlers. They tried to flee to safety. However, the Iroquois were too quick for them and they were easily caught and carried off. One ran to the bastions, fired a musket, and encouraged the people to make as much noise as possible. They fired the cannon to warn other forts of an attack. The Iroquois had hoped a surprise attack would easily take over the fort, so for a moment, they retreated into the bushes.
  • King William's War; Battle of Fort Albany

    The Battle of Fort Albany was the successful recapture by English forces of the Hudson's Bay Company trading outpost at Fort Albany in the southern reaches of Hudson Bay. The fort, captured by a French expedition in 1686 and held by them in a battle the next year, was briefly defended by 5 Frenchmen, who then abandoned the fort and its stockpile of furs to a four-ship English fleet commanded by James Knight.
  • King William's War;

    Battle on Hudson Bay. In 1694 Governor Frontenac gave him the ships Salamandre and Poli. Iberville reached the Nelson River on 14 September. The fort was invested and on 14 October it surrendered. (The English garrison consisted mainly of traders, clerks and laborers and they had not brought in enough firewood to withstand a long siege).
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Raid on Conception Bay

    The villages on Conception Bay were the next targets. Holyrood (January 19) was first followed by Harbour Main (January 20) and Port de Grave (January 23).
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Battle of Carbonear

    Two hundred permanent residents of Carbonear withdrew to the Island and successfully fended off the French and Indian attack. D'Iberville had only 70 men, the rest were dispersed in local skirmishes, holding villages and prisoners. Leaving Carbonear d'Iberville then attacked multiple villages. In many cases the local fishermen had fled to Carbonear. Frustrated, d'Iberville then sacked Brigus. Carbonear continued to hold out but d'Iberville torched their evacuated settlement before leaving
  • King William's War; Naval battle off St. John

    The English ships were sent from Boston to interrupt the supplies being taken by French officer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville from Quebec to the capital of Acadia, Fort Nashwaak (Fredericton, New Brunswick) on the Saint John River. The French ships of war Envieux and Profond captured the English frigate Newport ( 24 guns), while the English frigate Sorlings (34 guns) and a provincial tender escaped.
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Siege of Ferryland

    On November 9, Sieur de Brouillan began the Siege of Ferryland. D'Iberville arrived on November 10, and the troops sacked Ferryland. Meanwhile, the 110 people of Ferryland fled to Bay Bulls and set about fortifying it.
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    King William's War; Avalon Peninsula campaign

    The Avalon Peninsula campaign occurred when forces of France led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Governor Jacques-François de Monbeton de Brouillan destroyed 23 English settlements. The campaign began with Ferryland and continued along the sea until they raided the village of Hearts Content. After, d'Iberville along with Jean Baudoin led a force of Canadians in the campaign. They destroyed almost every English settlement, over 100 English were killed, many captured, and 500 deported to Europe
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Raid on Cape Broyle

    D'Iberville set out against Bay Bulls using the small boats he had taken in Ferryland. On his way, Cape Broyle was captured.
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Siege of St. John's

    As d'Iberville marched into St. John's from Petty Harbor, English residents marched out the Waterford Valley to meet and repel the French. A pitched battle occurred on the Heights of Kilbride. Of the 88 English defenders, 34 died in the battle. The English retreated. On November 30, the English commander, Governor Miners, surrendered on condition that the English be allowed to leave St. John's. 230 men, women and children were sent off in a ship and duly arrived in Dartmouth, England.
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Raid on Bay Bulls

    He then captured Bay Bulls on November 24, including a 100-ton merchant ship.
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign;

    After a three-hour march from Bay Bulls, d'Iberville met up with his group of 20 scouts who had been sent to study the approaches to St. John's. Two days later, he encountered a detachment of 30 English soldiers posted on a hilltop near Petty Harbor. D'Iberville charged and the enemy surrendered immediately. D'Iberville and his men were in command of the small port just 8 km south of St. John's. However, some colonists from Petty Harbour escaped to St. John's, where they alerted its residents.
  • Avalon Peninsula campaign; Heart's content

    D'Iberville then headed to Heart's Content before walking in a small group across the Avalon Peninsula isthmus. He arrived March 4 at Plaisance. D'Iberville then picked up his spoils of war, his scattered troops and approximately 200 prisoners at Bay Boulle. French attacks by sea on the remnants of the settlements continued into the spring.
  • Kings William's War; Battle of Hudson's Bay

    The Battle of Hudson's Bay, also known as the Battle of York Factory, was a naval battle.. The battle took place on 5 September 1697 when a French warship commanded by Captain Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville defeated an English squadron commanded by Captain John Fletcher. As a result of this battle, the French took York Factory, a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company.
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    Queen Anne's War

    Queen Anne's War was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain. In the United States, it is regarded as a standalone conflict under this name. Elsewhere it is usually viewed as the American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession. It is also known as the Third Indian War. In France it was known as the Second Intercolonial War.
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    Queen Anne's War; Newfoundland expedition

    The Newfoundland expedition was a naval raiding expedition led by English Captain John Leake that targeted French colonial settlements on the North Atlantic island of Newfoundland and Saint Pierre. The expedition occurred in the early days of Queen Anne's War, as the North American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession is sometimes known.
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    Queen Anne's War; Raid on Grand Pré

    The Raid on Grand Pré was the major action of a raiding expedition conducted by the New England militia Colonel Benjamin Church against French Acadia during Queen Anne's War. The expedition was allegedly in retaliation for a French and Indian raid against the Massachusetts frontier community of Deerfield earlier that year.
  • Queen Anne's War; Raid on Chignecto

    Benjamin Church raided Chignecto. The Acadian settlers returned some gunfire but quickly sought shelter in the woods. Church burned 40 empty houses and killed more than 200 cattle and other livestock. On this campaign against Acadia, Church also raided Castine, Maine, Grand Pré, and Pisiguit.
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    Queen Anne's War; Siege of St. John's

    The siege of St. John's was a failed attempt by French forces led by Daniel d'Auger de Subercase to take the fort at St. John's, Newfoundland during the winter months of 1705. Leading a mixed force of regulars, militia, and Indians, Subercase burned much of the town and laid an ineffectual siege against the fort for five weeks between late January and early March 1705. Subercase lifted the siege after running out of provisions and gunpowder.
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    Queen Anne's War; Siege of Port Royal

    Attempt by English colonists from New England to conquer Acadia by capturing its capital Port Royal during Queen Anne's War. Both attempts were made by colonial militia, and were led by men inexperienced in siege warfare. Led by Acadian Governor Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, the French troops at Port Royal easily withstood both attempts, assisted by irregular Acadians and the Wabanaki Confederacy outside the fort.
  • Queen Anne's War; Battle of St. John's

    The Battle of St. John's was the French capture of St. John's, the capital of the British colony of Newfoundland, on 1 January 1709, during Queen Anne's War. A mixed and motley force of 164 men led by Joseph de Monbeton de Brouillan de Saint-Ovide, king's lieutenant to Philippe Pastour de Costebelle, the French governor of Plaisance, quickly overwhelmed the British garrison at St. John's, and took about 500 prisoners.
  • Queen Anne's War; Battle of Fort Albany

    Was an attack by French colonial volunteers and their native allies against the Canadian Hudson's Bay Company outpost of Fort Albany in the southern reaches of Hudson Bay. About 70 Frenchmen and 30 Indians attacked the fort, which was under the command of John Fullartine. Fullartine repulsed the attack, killing eighteen men including the leaders. He lost two men to ambush on their way back to the fort shortly after the attack.
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    Queen Anne's War; Siege of Port Royal

    Military siege conducted by British regular and provincial forces under the command of Francis Nicholson against a French Acadian garrison and the Wabanaki under the command of Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, at the Acadian capital, Port Royal. The successful British siege marked the beginning of permanent British control over the peninsular portion of Acadia, which they renamed Nova Scotia, and it was the first time the British took and held a French colonial possession.
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    Queen Anne's War; Battle of Bloody Creek

    An Abenaki militia successfully ambushed British soldiers at a place that became known as Bloody Creek after the battles fought there.The battle was part of an orchestrated attempt by the leaders of New France to weaken the British hold on Annapolis Royal. The battle, in which the entire British force was captured or killed, emboldened the French and their native allies to blockade Annapolis Royal.
  • Drummer's War; Battle of Winnepang

    The Battle of Winnepang occurred during Dummer's War when New England forces attacked Mi'kmaq at present day Jeddore Harbour, Nova Scotia. The naval battle was part of a campaign ordered by Governor Richard Philipps to retrieve over 82 New England prisoners taken by the Mi'kmaq in fishing vessels off the coast of Nova Scotia. The New England force was led by Ensign John Bradstreet and fishing Captain John Elliot.
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    Drummer's War

    Was a series of battles between the New England Colonies and the Wabanaki Confederacy who were allied with New France. The eastern theater of the war was located primarily along the border between New England and Acadia in Maine, as well as in Nova Scotia; the western theater was located in northern Massachusetts and Vermont at the border between Canada and New England. During this time, Maine and Vermont were part of Massachusetts.
  • Drummer's War; Battle of Canso

    On July 23, 1723, the village was raided by the Mi'kmaq and they killed three men, a woman and a child. In this same year, the New Englanders built a twelve-gun blockhouse to guard the village and fishery. In 1725, 60 Abenakis and Mi'kmaq launched another attack, destroying two houses and killing six people.
  • Drummer's War; Raid on Annapolis Royal

    A group of sixty Mi'kmaq and Maliseets raided Annapolis Royal. They killed a sergeant and a private, wounded four more soldiers, and terrorized the village. They also burned houses and took 2 prisoners. The British responded by executing one of the Mi'kmaq hostages on the same spot the sergeant was killed. They also burned three Acadian houses in retaliation. 3 blockhouses were built to protect the town. The Acadian church was moved closer to the fort so that it could be more easily monitored.
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    King George's War

    Military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession. It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars. It took place primarily in the British provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay (which included Maine as well as Massachusetts at the time), New Hampshire (which included Vermont at the time), and Nova Scotia.
  • King George's War; Raid on Canso

    An attack by French forces from Louisbourg on the British outpost Fort William Augustus at Canso. The French raid was intended to boost morale, secure Louisbourg's supply lines with the surrounding Acadian settlements, and deprive Britain of a base from which to attack Louisbourg. There were 50 English families in the settlement. While the settlement was utterly destroyed, the objective failed, since the British launched an attack on Louisbourg in 1745, using Canso as a staging area.
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    King George's War; Siege of Annapolis Royal

    Involved attempts by the French, along with their Acadian and native allies, to regain the capital of Nova Scotia, Annapolis Royal, during King George's War. The siege is noted for Governor of Nova Scotia Paul Mascarene successfully defending the last British outpost in the colony and for the first arrival of New England Ranger John Gorham to Nova Scotia. The French and Mi'kmaq land forces were thwarted on both attempts on the capital because of the failure of French naval support to arrive.
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    King George's War; Siege of Louisbourg

    The siege of Louisbourg took place in 1745 when a New England colonial force aided by a British fleet captured Louisbourg, the capital of the French province of Île-Royale during the War of the Austrian Succession, known as King George's War in the British colonies.
  • King George's War; Battle at Port-la-Joye

    The Battle at Port-la-Joye was a battle in King George's War that took place with British against French troops and Mi'kmaq militia on the banks of present-day Hillsborough River, Prince Edward Island in the summer of 1746. French officer Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay sent French and Mi'kmaq forces to Port-la-Joye where they surprised and defeated a force of 200 Massachusetts militia in two British naval vessels that were gathering provisions for recently captured Louisbourg.
  • King George's War; Battle of Grand Pré

    Was a battle that took place between New England forces and Canadian forces at present-day Grand-Pré. The New England forces were contained to Annapolis Royal and wanted to secure the head of the Bay of Fundy. Led by Nicolas Antoine II Coulon de Villiers and Louis de la Corne, Chevalier de la Corne under orders from Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay, the French forces surprised and defeated a force of British troops, Massachusetts militia and rangers that were quartered in the village.
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    Father Le Loutre's War

    Father Le Loutre's War, also known as the Indian War, the Mi'kmaq War and the Anglo-Mi'kmaq War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British officer Charles Lawrence and New England Ranger John Gorham. On the other side, Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadia militia in guerrilla warfare against settlers and British forces.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Battle on Dartmouth

    On September 30, 1749, about forty Mi'kmaq attacked six men who were in Dartmouth cutting trees. The Mi'kmaq killed four of them on the spot, took one prisoner and one escaped. Two of the men were scalped and the heads of the others were cut off. The attack was on the saw mill at Dartmouth Cove, which was under the command of Major Ezekiel Gilman. A detachment of rangers was sent after the raiding party and cut off the heads of two Mi'kmaq and scalped one.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Siege of Grand Pré

    The siege of Grand Pré happened during Father Le Loutre's War and was fought between the British and the Wabanaki Confederacy and Acadian militia. The siege happened at Fort Vieux Logis, Grand-Pré. The native and Acadia militia laid siege to Fort Vieux Logis for a week in November 1749. One historian states that the intent of the siege was to help facilitate the Acadian Exodus from the region.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; 1st Raid on Dartmouth

    In July 1750, the Mi'kmaq killed and scalped 7 men who were at work in Dartmouth.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Battle off Baie Verte

    In August 1750, there was a naval battle off Baie Verte between British Captain Le Cras, of the Trial and the French sloop, London, of 70 tons. The London was seized to discover that it had been employed to carry stores of all ammunition. The intendant of New France had given instructions to the French captain to follow the orders, the bills of lading endorsed by Le Loutre and other papers and letters were found on board of her with 4 deserters from Cornwallis' regiment, and a family of Acadians
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Port Joli

    The Mi'kmaq captured a New England fishing schooner off of Port Joli and tortured the crew members. To the west of St. Catherines River, the Mi'kmaq heated "Durham Rock" and forced each crew member to burn on the rock or jump to their death into the ocean. 4 people died.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Battle at St. Croix

    Seeing a group of Mi'kmaq hiding in the bushes on the opposite shore the Rangers opened fire. The skirmish deteriorated into a siege, with Gorham's men taking refuge in a mill and two of the houses. The Rangers suffered three wounded including Gorham, who sustained a bullet in the thigh. A request was sent back to Fort Sackville for reinforcements. Responding to the call for assistance, William Clapham's Rangers and Captain George St. Loe, equipped with two field guns, to join Gorham at Pisiguit
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Battle at Chignecto

    Charles Lawrence, John Gorham in command of the Rangers and Captain John Rous in command of the navy, fought against the French monarchists at Chignecto. This battle was the first attempt by the British to occupy the head of the Bay of Fundy since the disastrous Battle of Grand Pré three years earlier. They fought against a militia made up of Mi'kmaq and Acadians led by Jean-Louis Le Loutre and Joseph Broussard. The battle happened at Isthmus of Chignecto, Nova Scotia .
  • Father Le Loutre's War; 2nd Raid on Dartmouth

    In August 1750, 353 people arrived on the Alderney and began the town of Dartmouth. The town was laid out in the autumn of that year. On September 30, 1750, Dartmouth was attacked again by the Mi'kmaq and five more residents were killed. In October 1750 a group of about eight men went out to take their diversion; and as they were fowling, they were attacked by the Indians, who took the whole prisoners; scalped one with a large knife, which they wear for that purpose, and threw him into the sea.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Battle off Port La Tour

    British Captain John Rous in HMS Albany overtook the French vessels. Despite inferior armament, Vergor engaged the sloop, allowing Aimable Jeanne to reach Fort Boishebert. 7 men fit out of 50 and Saint-François unmasted and sinking. 3 of Rous' crew were killed. Cornwallis noted that this action was the 2nd time he had caught Canada sending a ship of military supplies to use against the British. Cornwallis estimated that there were no less than 8 to 10 vessels which unloaded war supplies
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Halifax Raid

    In 1751, there were two attacks on blockhouses surrounding Halifax. Mi'kmaq attacked the North Blockhouse and killed the men on guard. Mi'kmaq also attacked near the South Blockhouse, at a saw-mill on a stream flowing out of Chocolate Lake into the Northwest Arm. They killed two men
  • Father Le Loutre's War; 3rd Raid on Dartmouth

    The following spring, on March 26, 1751, the Mi'kmaq attacked again, killing fifteen settlers and wounding seven, three of which would later die of their wounds. They took six captives, and the regulars who pursued the Mi'kmaq fell into an ambush in which they lost a sergeant killed. Two days later, on March 28, 1751, Mi'kmaq kidnapped another three settlers.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Raid on Dartmouth

    Occurred when a Miꞌkmaq and Acadian militia from Chignecto under the command of Acadian Joseph Broussard raided Dartmouth, destroying the town and killing 20 British villagers and wounding British regulars. The town was protected by a blockhouse on Blockhouse Hill with William Clapham's Rangers and British regulars from the 45th Regiment of Foot. This raid was one of seven the Natives and Acadians would conduct against the town during the war
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Raid on Chignecto

    The British retaliated by sending several armed companies to Chignecto. A few French defenders were killed and the dams were breached. Hundreds of acres of crops were ruined which was disastrous for the Acadians and the French troops. In the summer of 1752 Father Le Loutre went to Quebec and then on to France to advocate for supplies to re-build the place. He returned in the spring of 1753.
  • Father Le Loutre's War; Lunenburg Rebellion

    The Lunenburg Rebellion was an insurrection in December 1753 by the new settlers at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, over poor living conditions as well as weariness of the Foreign Protestant settlers from repeated resettlement by the British. It was led by army captain John Hoffman within the first year of settlement, against the British, amidst the backdrop of Father Le Loutre's War (1749-1755) between Britain and France.
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    French Indian War

    The French and Indian War was a theater of the Seven Years' War, which pitted the North American colonies of the British Empire against those of the French, each side being supported by various Native American tribes. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on their native allies.
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    French Indian War; Battle of Fort Beauséjour

    Was fought on the Isthmus of Chignecto and marked the end of Father Le Loutre's War and the opening of a British offensive, which would eventually lead to the end of the French colonial empire in North America. Robert Monckton staged out of nearby Fort Lawrence, besieged the small French garrison with the goal of opening Chignecto to British control. After two weeks of siege, Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor, the fort's commander, capitulated on June 16.
  • French Indian War; Newfoundland Action

    HMS Dunkirk Defiance and Torbay encountered the Dauphin Royal. Lys was sailing en flûte, and had been reduced to 22 cannons because it was carrying soldiers. Alcide had 64 guns and these ships soon fell in with the British ships. "Are we at war?" to which the English replied, "At peace." Royal Navy ships opened fire on the French ships. Alcide returned fire and fought for 5 hours. However, after sustaining much damage they surrendered. Dauphin Royal escaped in the fog to tell the tale.
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    French Indian War; Bay of Fundy campaign

    Occurred during the French and Indian War when the British ordered the Expulsion of the Acadians from Acadia after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour. The campaign started at Chignecto and then quickly moved to Grand-Pré, Rivière-aux-Canards, Pisiguit, Cobequid, and finally Annapolis Royal. Approximately 7000 Acadians were deported to the New England colonies.
  • French Indian War; Battle of Petitcodiac

    Aas an engagement which occurred during the Bay of Fundy campaign of the French and Indian War. The battle was fought between the British colonial forces from Massachusetts and Acadian militiamen led by French officer Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot. It took place at the Acadian village of Village-des-Blanchard on the Petitcodiac River.
  • French Indian War; Raid on Lunenburg

    Occurred during the French and Indian War when Indigenous forces attacked a British settlement at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. The indigenous forces raided two islands on the northern outskirts of the fortified Township of Lunenburg. The raiding party killed 5 settlers and took 5 prisoners. This raid was the first of 9 that the Indigenous and Acadian forces conducted against the Lunenburg peninsula over the next three-years of the war.
  • French Indian War; Battle on Snowshoes

    Was a skirmish fought between Rogers' Rangers and Canadian troops. The battle was given this name because the British combatants wore snowshoes. Captain Robert Rogers and a band of his rangers were on a scouting expedition near Fort Carillon when they were ambushed by a mixed troop of French, Canadians, and warriors. The fighting ended when darkness set in, with significant casualties on both sides. The French in their reports claimed the British had a distinct advantage due to their snowshoes.
  • French Indian War; Battle of Bloody Creek

    An Acadian and Mi'kmaq militia defeated a detachment of British soldiers of the 43rd Regiment at Bloody Creek, which empties into the Annapolis River at present day Carleton Corner, Nova Scotia, Canada. A group of Mi'kmaq and Acadians attacked the British force. Marching on foot along the south shore of the Annapolis River, the British force was giving up their search for the prisoners. They were crossing a bridge on the River when the Mi'kmaq and Acadians attacked.
  • French Indian War; 2nd Battle on Snowshoes

    Rogers led a band of about 180 rangers and regulars out to scout French positions. The French commander at Fort Carillon had been alerted to their movement, and sent a force consisting mostly of Indians to meet them. The British were almost killed with more than 120 casualties. Rogers abandoned his regimental jacket which contained his commission papers during his escape. This battle gave rise to the tale that Rogers escaped capture by sliding 400ft down to frozen Lake George.
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    French Indian War; Siege of Louisbourg

    A pivotal operation of the War in 1758 that ended the French colonial era in Atlantic Canada and led to the subsequent British campaign to capture Quebec in 1759 and the remainder of French North America the following year
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    French Indian War; Petitcodiac River campaign

    Was a series of British military operations from June to November 1758 to deport the Acadians that either lived along the Petitcodiac River or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations. Under the command of George Scott, William Stark's company of Rogers Rangers, Benoni Danks and Gorham's Rangers carried out the operation. The level of Acadian suffering greatly increased in the late summer of 1758.
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    French Indian War; Battle of Fort Frontenac

    Colonel John Bradstreet led an army of over 3,000 men, of whom about 150 were regulars and the remainder were provincial militia. The army besieged the 110 people inside the fort and won their surrender 2 days later, cutting one of the two major communication and supply lines between the major eastern centres of Montreal and Quebec City and France's western territories. The British captured goods worth 800,000 from the trading post.
  • Gulf of St. Lawrence campaign; Raid on Gaspé Bay

    Wolfe arrived on HMS Royal William at Gaspé Bay. At the beginning of the war the township had 300 inhabitants. By the time of the raid there were only 60. Sir Charles Hardy took possession of the site. The villagers fled to the woods. The summary report of the raid states that 15 houses, a sawmill and a smith's forge were destroyed. Of the 60 settlers, 37 were taken on the British transports and returned to France, while six escaped. About eighteen were unaccounted for.
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    French Indian War; Gulf of St. Lawrence campaign

    Occurred when British forces raided villages along New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula coast of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Sir Charles Hardy and Brigadier-General James Wolfe were in command of the naval and military forces respectively. After the siege of Louisbourg, Wolfe and Hardy led a force of 1,500 troops in 9 vessels to the Gaspé Bay arriving there on September 5. Over the following weeks, Sir Charles Hardy took 4 sloops or schooners 200 fishing vessels and 200 prisoners
  • Gulf of St. Lawrence campaign; Raid on Grande-Rivière

    Captain Paulus Irving was detached with several small parties under convoy of Kennington to Grande-Rivière, Quebec. There were 60 houses and 80 fishing vessels. Upon the arrival of Captain Irving, All the houses and fishing vessels were burned. A man and his family along with 5 others were taken as prisoners. West of Grande-Riviere, was the fishing hamlet of Pabos. When Captain Irving arrived, the residents had already fled to the woods.
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    French Indian War; St. John River campaign

    Occurred during the French and Indian War when Colonel Robert Monckton led a force of 1150 British soldiers to destroy the Acadian settlements along the banks of the Saint John River until they reached the largest village of Sainte-Anne des Pays-Bas in February 1759. Monckton was accompanied by Captain George Scott as well as New England Rangers led by Joseph Goreham, Captain Benoni Danks, as well as William Stark and Moses Hazen, both of Rogers' Rangers.
  • Gulf of St. Lawrence campaign; Raid on Mont-Louis

    From Gaspe Bay, Wolfe sent Major John Dalling to march 130 miles (210 km) along the shore up the St. Lawrence. There he reached Mont-Louis, Quebec on September 23, after marching for eleven days. Along the way they took four prisoners. The seigneur was Michel Mahiet. When they arrived at the village they burned 16 buildings and 5 fishing vessels. Dalling managed to capture Monsieur Mahiet and his wife along with 22 men, 4 women and 14 children.
  • St. John River campaign; Raid on Grimross

    On October 1, Monckton left Fort Frederick with his boats, regulars, and rangers above the Reversing Falls. Two days later, they arrived at the village of Grimross. The village of 50 families that had migrated there in 1755 were forced to abandon their homes. Monckton's troops burned every building, torched the fields, and killed all the livestock
  • St. John River campaign; Raid on Jemseg

    Two days later, Monckton arrived at the village of Jemseg, New Brunswick, and burned it to the ground. Then he returned to Fort Frederick at the mouth of the Saint John River.
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    French Indian War; Ile Saint-Jean campaign

    Was a series of military operations to deport the Acadians who lived on Ile Saint-Jean. Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Rollo led a force of 500 British troops including James Rogers leading his company of Rogers Rangers to take possession of Ile Saint-Jean. The percentage of deported Acadians who died during this expulsion made it the deadliest of all the deportations. The total number of Acadians deported during this campaign was second only to that of the Bay of Fundy campaign.
  • St. John River campaign; Raid on Sainte-Anne des Pays-Bas

    Lieutenant Hazen and 22 men arrived at Sainte-Anne des Pays-Bas. They pillaged and burned the village of 147 buildings, including two Mass-houses and all of the barns and stables. They burned a large store-house, and with it a large quantity of hay, wheat, peas, oats, etc., killing 212 horses, about 5 head of cattle, a large number of hogs and so forth. They also burned the church. Only a handful of Acadians were found in the area, most had already fled north with their families.
  • French Indian War; Battle of Beauport

    A confrontation between the British and French armed forces during the French and Indian War of the French province of Canada. The attack conducted by the British against the French defense line of Beauport, some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Quebec was checked, and the British soldiers of General James Wolfe retreated with 443 casualties and losses.
  • French Indian War; Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    A battle in the French and Indian War. The battle was fought on a plateau by the British Army and Royal Navy against the French Army, just outside the walls of Quebec City on land that was originally owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin, hence the name of the battle. The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops in total, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada.
  • French Indian War; St. Francis Raid

    An attack by Robert Rogers on St. Francis. Rogers and about 140 men entered the village, which was reportedly occupied primarily by women, children, and the elderly, early that morning, killed many of the inhabitants where they lay, shot down many who attempted to flee, and then burned the village. Rogers reported killing as many as 200 people, while French reports placed the number closer to thirty, mainly women and children. One of Rogers' men was killed, and seven were wounded.
  • French Indian War; Battle of Sainte-Foy

    Aas fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the French and Indian War. It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de Lévis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, with 833 French casualties to 1,124 British casualties.
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    French Indian War; Siege of Quebec

    Was a French attempt to retake Quebec City which had been captured by Britain the previous year. The siege lasted until when British ships arrived to relieve the city and compelled the French commander, Francis de Gaston, Chevalier de Lévis, to break off the siege and to retreat. The British launched the Montreal Campaign a few months later, which resulted in the capture. French resistance ceased, and the British Conquest of Canada was complete, as was confirmed in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris.
  • French Indian War; Battle of Pointe-aux-Trembles

    Was a naval and land engagement that took place during the French and Indian War on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River. It was near the present-day village of Neuville, in New France. A relief force of the Royal Navy destroyed the French ships led by Jean Vauquelin that were assisting in the French siege of Quebec. The British victory forced the French under Chevalier de Lévis to raise the siege and to end their attempts to retake Quebec City.
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    French Indian War; Battle of Restigouche

    A naval battle fought on the Restigouche River between the British Royal Navy and the small flotilla of vessels of the French Navy, Acadian militia and Mi'kmaq militias. The loss of the French vessels marked the end of any serious attempt by France to keep hold of their colonies in North America. The battle was the last major engagement of the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias before the Burying of the Hatchet Ceremony between the Mi'kmaq and the British.
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    French Indian War; Montreal campaign

    Was a British three-pronged offensive against Montreal which took place from July 2 to 8 September 1760 during the French and Indian War. The campaign, pitted against an outnumbered and outsupplied French army, led to the capitulation and occupation of Montreal, the largest remaining city in French Canada.
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    French Indian War; Battle of the Thousand Islands

    The Battle of the Thousand Islands was an engagement fought on 16–24 August 1760, in the upper St. Lawrence River, among the Thousand Islands, along the present day Canada–United States border, by British and French forces during the closing phases of the war.
  • Gulf of St. Lawrence campaign; Raid on Miramichi Bay

    James Murray arrived with 800 troops at Miramichi Bay. Murray's vessels got caught in the falling tide and gave the Acadians time to escape. The Raid on Miramichi Bay started with an attack on Bay du Vin. 40 Acadian refugees that had fled. Murray's troops destroyed their provisions, livestock, wigwams, houses and burned the stone church, after which the community is named. Murray's troops were unable to travel up the river to the refugee camp. Murray returned to Louisbourg on September 24
  • French Indian War; Battle of Signal Hill

    The Battle of Signal Hill was fought on September 15, 1762, and was the last battle of the war. A British force under Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst recaptured St. John's, which the French had seized earlier that year in a surprise attack.
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    Pontiacs War

    The war began when Native Americans attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Nine forts were destroyed, and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. The Natives were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.
  • Pontiacs War; Battle of Point Pelee

    Pontiac's first nation warriors surrounded Fort Detroit, besieging the forces inside. A convoy commanded by Abraham Cuyler stopped on its way to Detroit. Cuyler and his men made camp without taking security precautions. The following morning 200 Natives attacked, killing or capturing 61 men of Cuyler's expedition. Those who escaped made to Sandusky but found it destroyed. The first nations took their captives to Detroit where they were killed off. The bodies were tossed into the river in Detroit
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    American Revolutionary War

    American Patriot forces, organized as the Continental Army and commanded by George Washington, defeated the British Army. This lead to the Treaty of Paris in 1783, in which Great Britain recognized the independence and sovereignty of the United States. In the war, American Patriot forces eventually gained the support of France and Spain. The British and Loyalist forces also included Hessian soldiers from Germany. The conflict was fought in North America, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic Ocean.
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    American Revolutionary War; Invasion of Quebec

    First major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. The objective of the campaign was to seize the Province of Quebec. One expedition left Fort Ticonderoga under Richard Montgomery, besieged and captured Fort St. Johns, and very nearly captured Guy Carleton when taking Montreal. The other expedition, under Benedict Arnold, left Cambridge, Massachusetts, and traveled with great difficulty through the wilderness of Maine to Quebec City
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    American Revolutionary War; Benedict Arnold's expedition

    In September 1775, early in the American Revolutionary War, Colonel Benedict Arnold led a force of 1,100 Continental Army troops on an expedition from Cambridge in the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the gates of Quebec City. The expedition was part of a two-pronged invasion of the British Province of Quebec, and passed through the wilderness of what is now Maine. The other expedition invaded Quebec from Lake Champlain, led by Richard Montgomery.
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    American Revolutionary War; Siege of Fort St. Jean

    The siege of Fort St. Jean was conducted by American Brigadier General Richard Montgomery on the town and fort of Saint-Jean, also called St. John, St. Johns, or St. John's, in the British province of Quebec during the American Revolutionary War. The siege lasted almost 2 months.
  • American Revolutionary War; Battle of Longue-Pointe

    Attempt by Ethan Allen, force of American and Quebec militia to capture Montreal from British forces. Allen had long had thoughts of taking the lightly defended city. When he reached the southern shore of the St. Lawrence River with about 110 men, he seized the opportunity to try. Major John Brown, whom Allen claimed was supposed to provide additional forces, did not appear as they had planned, isolating Allen and his men on the north side of the river.
  • American Revolutionary War; Battle of Quebec

    Was fought between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came with heavy losses. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a motley assortment of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties.
  • American Revolutionary War; Battle of Saint-Pierre

    Was a military confrontation near the Quebec village of Saint-Pierre, south of Quebec City. This confrontation, which occurred during the Continental Army's siege of Quebec following its defeat at the Battle of Quebec, was between forces that were both largely composed of Canadian militia, including individuals on both sides of the conflict that had been recruited in the same communities. The Patriot forces routed the Loyalist forces, killing at least 3 and capturing more than 30.
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    American Revolutionary War; Battle of the Cedars

    W as a series of military confrontations during the Continental Army's invasion of Canada that had begun in September 1775. The skirmishes, which involved limited combat, occurred in May 1776 at and around the Cedars, 45 km west of Montreal, British America. Continental Army units were opposed by a small force of British troops leading a larger force of Iroquois warriors and militia.
  • American Revolutionary War; Battle of Trois-Rivières

    The Battle of Trois-Rivières was fought on June 8, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War. A British army under Quebec Governor Guy Carleton defeated an attempt by units from the Continental Army under the command of Brigadier General William Thompson to stop a British advance up the Saint Lawrence River valley. The battle occurred as a part of the American colonists' invasion of Quebec, which had begun in September 1775 with the goal of removing the province from British rule
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    American Revolutionary War; Battle of Fort Cumberland

    The Battle of Fort Cumberland was an attempt by a small number of militia commanded by Jonathan Eddy to bring the American Revolutionary War to Nova Scotia in late 1776. With minimal logistical support from Massachusetts and four to five hundred volunteer militia and Natives, Eddy attempted to besiege and storm Fort Cumberland in central Nova Scotia in November 1776.
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    American Revolutionary War;

    The St. John River expedition was an attempt by a small number of militia commanded by John Allan to bring the American Revolutionary War to Nova Scotia in late 1777. With minimal logistical support from Massachusetts and approximately 100 volunteer militia and Natives, Allan's forces occupied the small settlement at the mouth of the Saint John River in June 1777. The settlement's defense was weakened by the war effort and that Americans quickly occupied it and took prisoner British sympathizers
  • American Revolutionary War; Naval battle off Cape Breton

    Naval battle off Cape Breton was a naval skirmish off the harbor of Spanish River, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia during the War of American Independence. Two light frigates of the French Navy, captained by La Pérouse and Latouche Tréville, engaged a convoy of 18 British ships and their Royal Navy escorts. The French captured two of the British escorts while the remainder of the British convoy escaped.
  • American Revolutionary War; Battle off Halifax

    The Battle off Halifax took place during the American Revolutionary War. It involved the American privateer Jack and the 14-gun Royal Naval brig HMS Observer off Halifax, Nova Scotia. Captain David Ropes commanded Jack, and Lieutenant John Crymes commanded Observer. The battle was "a long and severe engagement" in which Captain David Ropes was killed.
  • American Revolutionary War; Raid on Lunenburg

    The Raid on Lunenburg occurred during the American Revolution when the US privateer, Captain Noah Stoddard of Fairhaven, Massachusetts, and four other privateer vessels attacked the British settlement at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia on July 1, 1782. The raid was the last major privateer attack on a Nova Scotia community during the war.
  • American Revolutionary War; Hudson Bay expedition

    The Hudson Bay expedition was a series of military raids on the fur trading outposts and fortifications of the British Hudson's Bay Company on the shores of Hudson Bay by a French Royal Navy squadron under the command of the Comte de Lapérouse. Setting sail from Cap-Français, Saint-Domingue in 1782, the expedition was part of a series of globe-spanning naval conflicts between France and Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War.
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    Nootka Crisis

    An international incident and political dispute between the natives, Spain, Great Britain, and United States triggered by a series of events revolving around sovereignty claims. Took place at the Spanish outpost Santa Cruz de Nuca in Nootka Sound. The outpost seized some ships which had come for trade. Public outcry led to the mobilization of the Royal Navy. Dutch joined the side of Britain; Spain mobilize and key ally France also mobilized theirs but soon announced they would not go to war
  • Opitsaht Incident

    John Kendrick arrived and acquired land from Wickaninnish, in exchange for firearms. An Opitsaht village was nearby. Kendrick fortified a small island called it Fort Washington. Robert Gray arrived on the Columbia River. Kendrick sailed away. During the winter, Gray's crew had foiled an attack planned by a Sandwich Island crew member and the Tlaoquiaht people. Gray ordered the destruction of 200 homes in the local Opitsaht village. The ship's log noted that Gray had let his passions go too far.
  • Pine Island Fort Raid

    In 1793 a large group of Gros Ventres entered the post pretending to trade. When it became apparent that they intended to plunder the fort, a bold clerk took arms and drove them off. The Gros Ventres and Mandans, who were at war with the Cree and the Plains tribes, thought that the traders were selling guns to the Cree. In the same year Manchester House was plundered, and the traders escaped with only the clothes on their backs.
  • South Branch House

    In July, 150 Gros Ventres attacked the post. Only 2 company men were in the fort along with a handful of Indians. The company officers outside the fort died. All inside barred the gate and hid in cellar. The warriors broke in and killed everyone except for Van Dreil who managed to escape in a canoe. Jacques Finlay was out riding and saw the warriors coming. He raced to the fort and got the men under arms. A guy tried to lead a charge but was shot by Finlay. All men got on canoes and abandoned.
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    Newfoundland expedition

    Was a series of fleet manoeuvres and amphibious landings in the coasts of Newfoundland, Labrador and Saint Pierre and Miquelon carried out by the combined French and Spanish fleets during the French Revolutionary Wars. This expedition composed of seven ships of the line and three frigates under the orders of Admiral Richery sailed from Cadiz in August 1796 accompanied by a much stronger Spanish squadron, commanded by General Solano, which had the aim of escorting it to the coast of Newfoundland.
  • United Irish Uprising in Newfoundland

    Responding to these rumors, John Skerrett, the highest-ranking officer in the garrison, ordered the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles to be placed on parade.
    19 Irish soldiers consisting of 11 Fencibles and 12 artillerys gathered at the Fort Townshend gunpowder magazine, where they discovered that 30 mutineers from Fort William were unable to join them. Word of the attempted mutiny quickly spread, and the mutineers fled into the countryside. They were suppressed, Where 8 was executed and 5 sent back.
  • Tonquin Incident

    Tonquin was close to leaving the area, They proposed fur in return for a skin. Violence immediately as warriors attacked the crew on board, killing all but 4 men. 3 crew members escaped in a rowboat. James Lewis was left aboard the ship. Lewis sunk Tonquin lighting a fuse that detonated the powder magazine when the natives returned to loot, the explosion had killed more than 100. The crew members who escaped were captured and tortured to death. The only known survivor of the crew was Joseacha.
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    Pemmican War

    The Pemmican War was a series of armed confrontations during the North American fur trade between the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) and the North West Company (NWC) in the years following the establishment of the Red River Colony in 1812 by Lord Selkirk. It ended in 1821 when the NWC merged with the HBC.
  • War of 1812; Battle of York

    The Battle of York was a War of 1812 battle fought in York, Near Toronto on April 27, 1813. An American force, supported by a naval flotilla, landed on the western lakeshore and captured the provincial capital after defeating an outnumbered force of regulars, militia and Ojibwe natives under the command of Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.
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    War of 1812

    Was fought by the United States and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its own indigenous allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida. It began when the United States declared war on Britain on 18 June 1812. Although peace terms were agreed upon in the December 1814 Treaty of Ghent, the war did not officially end until the peace treaty was ratified by the United States Congress on 17 February 1815.
  • War of 1812; Battle of River Canard

    Battle of River Canard was the site of an engagement between British and American forces on July 16, 1812, during the War of 1812. Though it is called the "Battle" of River Canard, it should be thought of as a series of skirmishes.
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    War of 1812; Engagements on Lake Ontario

    The Engagements on Lake Ontario encompass the prolonged naval contest for control of the lake during the War. Few actions were fought, none of which had decisive results. The contest essentially became a naval building race.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Matilda

    On September 16, 1812, soldiers from the 1st Flank Company of the 1st Dundas Regiment under Capt. Michael Ault and Ens. Duncan Clark, as well as soldiers under Maj. Rowland Heathcote from the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, were escorting a shipment of supplies from Montreal to Kingston when they were attacked in the St. Lawrence River near Matilda by 500 American Militia, under the command of Capt. Griffin, who were hiding on Toussaint Island.
  • War of 1812; Raid on Gananoque

    Was an action conducted by the United States Army. The Americans sought to plunder ammunition and stores to resupply their own forces. Gananoque was a key point in the supply chain. Under the command of Benjamin Forsyth the Americans departed Ogdensburg and sailed to Gananoque, where they encountered resistance from the 2nd Regiment. The British militia was forced to retreat and the Americans successfully destroyed the storehouse and returned to the United States with captured supplies.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Queenston Heights

    Was the first major battle in the War of 1812. Resulting in a British victory, it took place near Queenston Ontario. The battle was fought between United States regulars with New York militiamen, led by Major General Stephen Van Rensselaer, and British regulars, York and Lincoln militiamen, and Mohawk warriors, led by Major General Isaac Brock and then Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe, who took command after Brock was killed.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Lacolle River

    A very small garrison of Canadian militia, with the assistance of Kahnawake Mohawk warriors, defended the Lacolle Mills Blockhouse on the Montreal road bridge over the Lacolle River at the village of Lacolle, Quebec against a disorganized American attack. Canadian regulars and militia were under the command of Charles de Salaberry who had positioned his severely outnumbered forces together with his native allies as best he could to attempt to block any advance toward Montreal.
  • War of 1812; Raid on Elizabethtown

    Major Benjamin Forsyth and 200 regulars and militia crossed the frozen St. Lawrence River to occupy Elizabethtown, Upper Canada, seize military and public stores, free American prisoners and capture British military prisoners. This was the second successful raid by Forsyth along the St. Lawrence River, having previously attacked Gananoque. The success of the two raids prompted a response by the British, which culminated in the Battle of Ogdensburg.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Fort George

    Was a battle fought during the War of 1812, in which the Americans defeated a British force and captured Fort George in Upper Canada. The troops of the United States Army and vessels of the Navy cooperated in a very successful amphibious attack, although most of the opposing British force escaped encirclement.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Stoney Creek

    Was a British victory over an American force fought on 6 June 1813, during the War of 1812 near present-day Stoney Creek, Ontario. British units made a night attack on the American encampment, and due in large part to the capture of the two senior officers of the American force, and an overestimation of British strength by the Americans, the battle resulted in a total victory for the British, and a turning point in the defense of Upper Canada.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Beaver Dams

    A column of troops from the United States Army marched from Fort George and attempted to surprise a British outpost at Beaver Dams. When the Americans resumed their march, they were ambushed by Kahnawake and other native warriors and eventually surrendered to a small British detachment led by Lieutenant James Fitz Gibbon. About 500 U.S. troops, including their wounded commander, were taken prisoner.
  • War of 1812; Battle of the Thames

    Was an American victory in the War of 1812 against Tecumseh's Confederacy and their British allies. It took place near Chatham. The British lost control of Southwestern Ontario as a result of the battle; Tecumseh was killed, and his confederacy largely fell apart.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Crysler's Farm

    Was fought on 11 November 1813, during the War of 1812. A British and Canadian force won a victory over a US force which greatly outnumbered them. The US defeat prompted them to abandon the St. Lawrence Campaign, their major strategic effort in the autumn of 1813.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Nanticoke Creek

    The Battle of Nanticoke Creek was a small skirmish fought on November 13, 1813, near Nanticoke, Ontario, Canada, during the War of 1812.
  • War of 1812; Skirmish at McCrae's House

    Occurred in Chatham Ontario. Early on the morning of December 15, 1813, a mixed group of men from the Loyal Kent Volunteers, Provincial Dragoons, and Norfolk Militia scaled the icy banks of the Thames River to advance on a group of soldiers from the 26th U.S. Infantry who had taken up a post in the house of Thomas McCrae, a Captain in the 1st Kent Militia. They surprised and attacked the Americans, firing through the windows and door of the house.
  • War of 1812; Skirmish of Odelltown

  • War of 1812; Battle of Lacolle Mills

    The Battle of Lacolle Mills was fought on 30 March 1814 during the War of 1812. The small garrison of a British outpost position, aided by reinforcements, fought off a large American attack. Despite being outnumbered the British pulled off the victory, due to their well-trained and high morale men defeating a non-experienced American group.
  • War of 1812;

    On 4 March 1814, a mounted American raiding party defeated an attempt by British regulars, volunteers from the Canadian militia and Native Americans to intercept them near Wardsville, Ontario.
  • War of 1812; Raid on Port Dover

    American troops crossed Lake Erie to capture or destroy stocks of grain and destroy mills which were used to provide flour for British troops stationed on the Niagara Peninsula. At the instigation of John B. Campbell and without sanction from his superiors or the government of the United States, also destroyed private houses and other property, prompting British commanders to demand reprisals in other theatres of the war.
  • War of 1812; Capture of Fort Erie

    The Capture of Fort Erie by American forces in 1814 was a battle in the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States. The British garrison was outnumbered but surrendered prematurely, in the view of British commanders. With only 137 British soldiers at Fort Erie, Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond hoped they could at least afford him the time to concentrate his own forces against the Americans.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Chippawa

    Was a victory for the United States Army in the War of 1812, during its invasion on July 5, 1814, of the British Empire's colony of Upper Canada along the Niagara River. This battle and the subsequent Battle of Lundy's Lane demonstrated that trained American troops could hold their own against British regulars. The battlefield is preserved as a National Historic Site of Canada.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Lundy's Lane

    The Battle of Lundy's Lane was fought on 25 July 1814, during the War of 1812, between an invading American army and a British and Canadian army near present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war, and one of the deadliest battles fought in Canada, with approximately 1,720 casualties including 258 killed.
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    War of 1812; Siege of Fort Erie

    It took place during the Niagara campaign, and the Americans successfully defended Fort Erie against a British army. During the siege, the British suffered high casualties in a failed storming attempt; they also suffered casualties from sickness and exposure in their rough encampments. Unaware that the British were about to abandon the siege, the American garrison launched a sortie to destroy the British siege batteries, during which both sides again suffered high losses.
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    War of 1812; Engagements on Lake Huron

    An American force which had failed to recapture the vital outpost at Fort Mackinac in August 1814 attempted to starve its garrison into surrender by destroying the boat Nancy which carried supplies to Mackinac from the Nottawasaga River and then blockading the island with two gunboats. A party of sailors of the Royal Navy and soldiers from the garrison of Mackinac captured both gunboats by surprise in the first week of September leaving the British in control of the lake until the end of the war
  • War of 1812; Battle of Cook's Mills

    The Battle of Cook's Mills was the last engagement between U.S. and British armies in the Niagara, and the penultimate engagement on Canadian soil during the War of 1812. After about a half-hour, American forces out-maneuvered the British column and destroyed all grain and flour.
  • War of 1812; Battle of the Chateauguay

    Was an engagement of the War of 1812. A combined British and Canadian force consisting of 1,530 regulars, volunteers, militia and Mohawk warriors from Lower Canada, commanded by Charles de Salaberry, repelled an American force of about 2,600 regulars which was attempting to invade Lower Canada and ultimately attack Montreal. The Battle of the Chateauguay caused the Americans to abandon the Saint Lawrence Campaign, their major strategic effort in the autumn of 1813.
  • War of 1812; Battle of Malcolm's Mills

    Last battle of the War of 1812. A force of American mounted troops overran and scattered a force of Canadian militia. Fought near the village of Oakland in Brant County and was part of a series of battles fought by American Brigadier General Duncan McArthur on an extended raid into Upper Canada, known variously as McArthur's Raid or Dudley's Raid. Marching over into Canada, the Americans returned to Detroit on November 17 after 11 days of raiding the Ontario Peninsula.
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    Shiners War

    The Shiners' Wars were violent outbreaks in Bytown between Irish-Catholic immigrants, led by Peter Aylen. The war began when Aylen organized a group of Irishmen to attack other timber operations, Known as the Shiners. Shiners attacked timber rafts and the town institutions as well as on the streets. The citizens created the Association of the Preservation of the Public Peace. The violence was brought under control after the government deployed troops to arrest the Shiners
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    Lower Canada Rebellion

    The Lower Canada Rebellion, commonly referred to as the Patriots' War in French, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between rebels and the colonial government of Lower Canada. Together with the simultaneous rebellion in the colony of Upper Canada, it formed the Rebellions of 1837–38. As a result of the rebellions, the Province of Canada was created from the former Lower Canada and Upper Canada.
  • Lower Canada Rebellion; Battle of St Denis

  • Lower Canada Rebellion; Battle of St Charles

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    Upper Canada Rebellion

  • Upper Canada Rebellion; Battle of Montgomery's Tavern

    The Battle of Montgomery's Tavern was an engagement which took place on December 7, 1837 during the Upper Canada Rebellion. The revolutionary insurrection, inspired by William Lyon Mackenzie, was crushed by British authorities and Canadian volunteer units near John Montgomery's tavern on Yonge Street at Eglinton, north of Toronto. The site of Montgomery's Tavern was designated a National Historic Site and a historical marker sits at the south-west corner of Yonge Street and Broadway Avenue.
  • Lower Canada Rebellion; Battle of St Eustache

    Browne's force intercepted the Hunter Patriots on the ice off the south western shore of the island and defeated them in a sharp fight. The British and Canadian casualties were 5 killed 4 from the 32nd Regiment and 1 cavalryman. 25 wounded. Hoadley his second-in-command, Captain Van Rensselaer, and 12 rank and file were killed by enemy fire, in addition to 1 man who drowned when he fell through the ice. 18 Patriots were wounded and a further 11 were captured, some of whom were also badly wounded
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    Aroostook War

    The Aroostook War was a military and civilian-involved confrontation in 1838–1839 between the United States and the United Kingdom over the international boundary between the British colony of New Brunswick and the U.S. state of Maine. The term "war" was rhetorical; local militia units were called out but never engaged in actual combat. The event is best described as an international incident.
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    Patriot War

    The Patriot War was a conflict along the Canada–United States border in which bands of raiders attacked the British colony of Upper Canada more than a dozen times between December 1837 and December 1838. This so-called war was not a conflict between nations; it was a war of ideas fought by like-minded people against British forces, with the British eventually allying with the US government against the Patriots.
  • Upper Canada Rebellion; Battle of Pelee Island

    On March 3, 1838, Browne's force intercepted the Hunter Patriots on the ice off the south western shore of the island and defeated them in a sharp fight. The British and Canadian casualties were 5 killed and 25 wounded. On the Patriot side, Hoadley, his second-in-command, Captain Van Rensselaer, and 12 rank and file were killed by enemy fire, in addition to 1 man who drowned when he fell through the ice. 18 Patriots were wounded and a further 11 were captured, some of whom were also badly hurt.
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    Upper Canada Rebellion; Short Hills Raid

    Was an incursion and attack by the Hunter Patriots on the Niagara Peninsula during the Upper Canada Rebellion.
    On June 11, 1838, Irish American James Morreau led a rebel raiding party of 26 Hunter Patriots across the Niagara River into Upper Canada. Morreau was aided by Samuel Chandler, a wagon maker from the village of St Johns in Thorold Township, Upper Canada. The party soon reached Pelham Township where they camped in the woods. Their intention was to get the locals to rise up in rebellion.
  • Lower Canada Rebellion; Battle of Lacolle

    The Battle of Lacolle was fought on November 7, 1838, between Loyal Lower Canada volunteer forces under Major John Scriver and Patriote rebels under Colonel Ferdinand-Alphonse Oklowski. On November 6, on their way to Lacolle, the Patriote rebels had won a first skirmish, but they lost in the final confrontation the next day. The battle lasted half an hour, And 10 died on both sides combined.
  • Lower Canada Rebellion; Battle of Odelltown

    The Battle of Odelltown was fought on 9 November 1838, between Loyal volunteer forces under Lewis Odell and Charles McAllister and Patriote rebels under Robert Nelson, Médard Hébert and Charles Hindelang. The rebels were defeated in this battle, one of the last of the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1838.
  • Lower Canada Rebellion; Battle of Beauharnois

    After 500 armed men had converged on Beauharnois on November 3–4 Edward Ellice, private secretary to John Lambton had then been in residence for several months. He and his family were taken prisoner, along with others. The town rose up, following a series of raids by rebel leaders who escaped into the US. The British were victorious, and all rebels were captured. The rebels were deported to Australia, Government forces burned several buildings in the area in reprisal for the rebels’ actions.
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    Battle of The Windmill

    Was a battle fought in the aftermath of the Upper Canada Rebellion. Loyalist forces of the Upper Canadian government and American troops aided by the Royal Navy and U.S. Navy defeated an invasion attempt by a unit based in the United States, which had the intention of using the beachhead as a launchpad for further offensives into Canada. Canadian British and American troops thwarted the invasion, successfully defending Canadian soil and forced the invaders to surrender.
  • Battle of Windsor

    Was a short-lived campaign in the eastern Michigan area of the United States and the Windsor area of Upper Canada. A group of men on both sides of the border formed small militias in 1837 with the intention of seizing the Southern Ontario peninsula between the Detroit and Niagara Rivers and extending American-style government to Canada. They based groups in Michigan at Fort Gratiot, Mount Clemens, Detroit, and Gibraltar. The Patriots were both defeated by British and American government forces.
  • Montreal Riots

  • Stony Monday Riot

    In 1849 the peregrinating Canadian Parliament was located at Montreal. The Rebellion Losses Bill passed in the House of Assembly by 47 to 18; there was a majority not only amongst the British members of Lower Canada but also in Upper Canada. In spite of all protests, Lord Elgin, then Governor-General had signed the bill. The bill was unpopular with Loyalists, known as Tories because it compensated those who had participated in the rebellion unless they had been convicted of treason.
  • Fraser Canyon Skirmishes

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    Fraser Canyon War

    Was an incident between miners and the indigenous people in 1858. Largely ignored by Canadian historians it was one of the seminal events of the founding of the colony. Although it ended relatively peacefully, it was a major test of the new administration's control over the goldfields, which were distant and difficult to access from the center of colonial authority at Victoria in the Colony of Vancouver Island.
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    Pig War

    The Pig War was a confrontation in 1859 between the United States and the United Kingdom over the British–U.S. border in the San Juan Islands, between Vancouver Island and the Washington Territory. The Pig War, so called because it was triggered by the shooting of a pig.
    Before The Pig
    The Pig
    Military Escalation
  • Lamalcha War

    A shelling of their village on Kuper Island by the Royal Navy's HMS Forward led to a series of events known as the Lamalcha War. The reason for the shelling was the colonial authorities of the Colony of Vancouver Island believed the village was home to three men who had killed settlers. The Lamalcha wound up seizing the ship and sold it, leading to the protracted conflict. During the war the Lamalcha evaded capture by various other Royal Navy warships, including HMS Satellite.
  • Chilcotin War

    A ferryman named Timothy Smith, stationed 30 miles up the river, was killed after refusing a demand from Chief Klattasine for food. His food stores and supplies were looted and provisions were taken. The following day the tribes attacked the workers' camp at daylight. Three men, Peter A. Petersen, Edward Moseley and Philip Buckley, though injured, escaped. The remaining crew were killed and their bodies thrown into the river.
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    Fenian Raids

    The Fenian raids were a series of incursions carried out by the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish republican organization based in the United States, on military fortifications, customs posts and other targets in Canada. A number of separate incursions by the Fenian Brotherhood into Canada were undertaken to bring pressure on the British government to withdraw from Ireland, although none of these raids achieved their aims.
  • Fenian Raids; Battle of Fort Erie

    The Battle of Fort Erie was a surrounding and forcing of the Fenian armies surrender following a skirmish near Fort Erie and the farther away Battle of Ridgeway on June 2, 1866. The Fenian force, withdrawing from Ridgeway, met a small force of Canadian militia at Fort Erie, then known as the village of Waterloo.
  • Fenian Raids; Battle of Ridgeway

    Was fought in the vicinity of the town of Fort Erie across the Niagara River from Buffalo, New York, between Canadian troops and an irregular army of Irish-American invaders, the Fenians. It was the largest engagement of the Fenian Raids, the first modern industrial-era battle to be fought by Canadians and the first to be fought only by Canadian troops and led exclusively by Canadian officers
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    Red River Rebellion

    The Red River Rebellion was the sequence of events that led up to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in the early stages of establishing today's Canadian province of Manitoba. It had earlier been a territory called Rupert's Land and been under control of the Hudson's Bay Company before it was sold.
  • Fenian Raids; Battle of Eccles Hill

    In 1870, the Fenians crossed the Canadian border and proceeded to the top of Eccles Hill where they were confronted by members of the Canadian home guard and volunteers. The Fenians were overwhelmed by local militia units and armed citizens on May 25, 1870, and were compelled to abandon what was anticipated to have been a "glorious victory".
  • Fenian Raids; Battle of Trout River

    Occurred on 27 May 1870. It was a part of the Fenian raids. This battle occurred outside of Huntingdon, Quebec near the international border about 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Malone, New York. The location of this battle should not be confused with Trout River in the Northwest Territories.
  • Wolseley Expedition

    The Wolseley expedition was a military force authorized by Canadian Prime Minister John A. Macdonald to confront Louis Riel and the Métis in 1870, during the Red River Rebellion, at the Red River Colony. The expedition was also intended to counter American expansionist sentiments in northern border states. Leaving Toronto in May, the expedition arrived, after a three-month journey in arduous conditions, at Fort Garry on August 24.
  • Battle of Belly River

    The battle took place within the present limits of the city of Lethbridge on the banks of the Oldman River, which at the time of the battle, was called the Belly River. A devastating outbreak of smallpox had reduced the strength of the Blackfoot, and a Cree war party had come south in late October 1870 to take advantage of that weakness. An advance party of Crees had stumbled upon a Peigan camp and decided to attack instead of informing the main Cree body of their find.
  • Cypress Hills Massacre

    The Cypress Hills Massacre occurred near Battle Creek in the Cypress Hills region of Canada's North-West Territories. It involved a group of American bison hunters, American wolf hunters, American and Canadian whisky traders, Métis cargo haulers or "freighters", and a camp of Assiniboine people. Thirteen Assiniboine warriors and one wolf died in the conflict. The Cypress Hills Massacre prompted the Canadian government to accelerate the recruitment and deployment of the North-West Mounted Police.
  • First Jubilee Riot

    The riot occurred on September 26, during a pilgrims' march to the bishop's palace at St. Michael's Cathedral. The parade had been advertised in the Irish Canadian newspaper, which led a group of opponents to petition Mayor Francis Henry Medcalf to have the event banned. It proceeded, however, with a pledge from the Catholic clergy that is would remain "quiet, peaceful, and Christian".
  • Second Jubilee Riot

    A second riot broke out on October 3. Stone throwing began at McGill Square and was soon accompanied by pistol fire. This led to a full-pitched battle between pilgrims and anti-processionists, which spilled out into multiple locations. Many were hurt, with rioters being beaten back by police. Cavalry, under the command of the mayor himself, was brought up to defend the pilgrims.
  • North-West Rebellion; Battle of Duck Lake

    Was an infantry skirmish outside Duck Lake between North-West Canadian Mounted Police forces and the Metis Militia. The skirmish lasted approximately 30 minutes, after which Superintendent Leif Newry Fitzroy Crozier of the NWMP, his forces having endured fierce fire with 12 killed and 11 wounded called for a general retreat. Although Louis Riel proved to be victorious at Duck Lake, the general agreement among historians is that the battle was strategically a disappointment to his cause.
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    North-West Rebellion

    The North-West Rebellion was an armed resistance movement by the Métis under Louis Riel and an associated uprising by First Nations Cree and Assiniboine of the District of Saskatchewan against the Canadian government. Many Métis felt that Canada was not protecting their rights, their land, and their survival as a distinct people.
  • Vancouver Winter Riots

    The Vancouver, sometimes called the Winter Riots, were prompted by the engagement of cheap labour by the Canadian Pacific Railway to clear Vancouver's West End of large Douglas fir trees and stumps, passing over the thousands of unemployed men from the rest of Canada who had arrived looking for work.
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    Low Rebellion

    Residents of Brennan’s Hill refused to pay taxes for some years and on 13 November 1895, ran the local police out of town, along with a bailiff and the county treasurer, who were sent to enforce the taxes. 82 soldiers from the Ottawa Field Battery and Princess Louise Dragoon Guards were deployed against the rebels. Later they departed for Ottawa, having convinced the residents that they could not avoid paying their taxes. One of the rebellion leaders, Edward McSheffrey, later became the mayor.
  • Toronto Streetcar Strike riot

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    Vancouver Riots

    Occurred September 7–9, 1907, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. At about the same time there were similar riots in Bellingham, Washington, San Francisco, and other West Coast cities. They were not coordinated but instead reflected common underlying anti-immigration attitudes. Agitation for direct action was led by labour unions and small business. No one was killed but the damage to property was extensive.
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    Vancouver Island Strike

    The coal miners in the Vancouver Islands refused to go to work, in protest of unsafe working conditions and unfair treatment. They began as peaceful protests, until built up anger caused by strike-breakers ruined the effectiveness of the strike and incited aggressive behavior. The militia was forced to step in and shut down the strike.
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    WWI Conscription Crisis

  • Vancouver General Strike

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    Winnipeg General Strike

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    New Waterford Rebellion

  • Estevan Riot

    The Estevan riot, also known as the Black Tuesday Riot, was a confrontation between the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and striking coal miners from nearby Bienfait, Saskatchewan, which took place in Estevan, Saskatchewan, on September 29, 1931. The miners had been on strike since September 7, 1931, hoping to improve their wages and working conditions.
  • Christie Pits Riot

  • Battle of Ballantyne Pier

    About 1000 protesters, consisting of striking longshoremen and their supporters, marched towards the Heatley Street entrance to Ballantyne Pier, where strikebreakers were unloading ships in the harbor. That continued for three hours and spread throughout the nearby residential district. Several people, both police and protesters, were hospitalized as a result of the riot, and one bystander was shot in the back of his legs by a police shotgun.
  • Regina Riot

  • Bloody Sunday

    On morning of 19 June 1938, presumably timed to surprise the strikers and to minimize the number of onlookers, Foster enlisted the services of Harold Winch of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, who had acted as a liaison between the unemployed and the police during the 1935 relief camp strike. His task now was to ensure that the treasures of the gallery went unscathed during the eviction. Along with police tear gas canisters, Which successfully negotiated the withdrawal of the unemployed.
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    WWII; Battle of The Atlantic

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    WWII; Battle of St. Lawrence

  • WWII; St. Martins Landing Incident

  • WWII; Estevan Point Lighthouse Incident

  • WWII; New Carlisle Landing Incident

  • WWII; Weather Station Kurt Incident

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    WWII; Terrace Munity

  • WWII; Halifax Riots