Chapter 19 Timeline

  • The Navigation Acts

    The acts were originally created by Cromwell in 1651, but expanded on by Charles II. They required that goods imported into England had to be imported on British ships with a British crew. The act is significant because it was a form of economic warfare against the Dutch. It seriously damaged Dutch shipping and trading.
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    Famines in Europe

    Multiple famines hit Europe. Famine food such as grass, dandelions and bark are commonely consumed. This weakens immune systems and spreads disease. The famines are significant because they slowed population increase in Europe.
  • Plantations

    By this year, plantations in the Virginia lowlands were commonly using slaves as a source of cheap labor. This demonstrates the impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The war started after Louis XIV attempted to give his grandson both the French and Spanish crown. He was defeated by a coalition after twelve years of fighting.
  • The Peace of Utrecht

    Louis XIV was forced to cede Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Hudson Bay to Britain. The peace signified the failure of the French effort to join the French and Spanish crowns.
  • Last Outbreak of the Bubonic Plague

    The plague hit Southern France and killed tens of thousands of people, causing widespread fear across Europe. However, the plague soon disappeared and did not reappear again. This disappearance is most likely due to the Asiatic rat's elimenation of the black rat, whose fleas spread the plague.
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    The War of Austrian Succession

    Frederick the Great seized Silesia from Austria, which resulted in a world war that saw Anglo-French conflicts in India and North America. It resulted in no territory changes in North America.
  • Half of All British Nails Sold to the Colonies

    This demonstrates the fact that colonial markets were used to aid the British economy. It also demonstrates the diversity of British exports.
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    The Seven Years War

    Austria invaded Prussia to regain territory lost during the War of Austrian Succession. Prussia survived and there were no major changes in Europe. However, there were great changes in Europe because the British focused on taking over French claims.
  • Battle of Quebec

    A combined British and naval and land forced succeded in capturing the city after four months of battle. The battle ensured that Britsh forces would control Canada.
  • Common Lands are Enclosed

    THe Enclosure Act goes into effect and almost all of the Common Lands are enclosed by 1830. This allows independent farmers greater freedom to attempt new farming techniques because he would not need the consent of every villager. However, many farmers were unable to afford to fence their land, so it had to be sold off. This slightly increased the number of tenant farmers.
  • End of Guilds in France

    The special privileges of guilds were elimenated by the French government in response to the demands of the poor. TThe royal government believed that the free market was the best way to combat poverty. Governments in the Low COuntries followed suit and restricted the power of the guilds. As a result, industry started to develope.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    In the treaty, France lost all of its possesions in mainland North America and most of its holdings in India. Britain gained all French territory East of the Missisippe River and Canada. Spain lost Florida to Britian, so was given the Louisiana Territory from France as compensation. The event is significant because it allowed Britian to monopolize trade in North America.
  • An English Court Ruling Dooms Slavery

    This demonstrates that slavery was becoming increasingly unpopular in England and that it lacked a solid foundation of support.
  • Abolitionist Movement in England

    During this year, a broad campaign to outlaw slavery developed in England. British women played a large role in the mass movement. They believed that slavery was inhumane. The event is significant because it was the first political movement based on the mobilization of public opinion in British history.
  • Inquiry into the Nature an Causes of the Wealth of Nations

    The book was written by Adam SMith. he attacked mercantilism and argued against unfair advantages the British government gave to government favorites. He argued that the free market would lead to a net increase in wealth for everyone and that the invisible hand of the free market would increase the wealth of the poor. This is significant because it formed the foundation of economic liberalism.
  • 6.13 Million Slaves Shipped Oversea since 1700

    The event demonstrates the large exten of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
  • Spain Produces Half of the World's Silver

    The event is significant because American mining camps resulted in the birth of many Creoles, who were Spanish citizens born on American soil. Many mestizos, the offspring of Spanish men and Native American women, were also born.
  • Parliament Outlaws Slavery

    The event is significant because it demonstrates how unpopular slavery had become. However, slavery continued in British colonies and America.
  • Proletarianization

    By this year, a tiny minority of wealthy ENglish landowners controlled most of the land in England and aggresively pursued profits. This resulted in tenant farmers working on the land. In addition, landless laborers lost the independence previously provided by common rights.