Ahls 0001 0002 0 img0093

The Gilded Age

  • Period: to

    The Gilded Age

  • Knights of Labor organized

    Knights of Labor organized
    The Knights of Labor followed the National Labor Union seeking to include all workers including unskilled, women, and African Americans. Though never a political force the Knights of Labor campaigned for social and economic reform such as an eight hour workday. Under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly the Knights of Labor won several succesfull strikes including one against Jay Gould's Wabash Railroad in 1885.
  • Fisk and Gould Gold Market Scandal

    Instigated by Jim Fisk and Jay Gould the Gold Market Scandal was designed to corner the gold market by madly bidding the price of gold up. The conspiritor's had worked directly on President Ulysses S. Grant to refrain from releasing gold from the federl Treasury. However, when the two men began to bid the price of gold up President Grant released money from the Treasury anyway.
  • 15th Amendment Ratified

    15th Amendment Ratified
    Out of fear that new Southern governments would repeal former slaves' right to vote Radical Republicans created the fifteenth amendment granting full citizenship to former male slaves.
  • Standard Oil Company organized

    Standard Oil Company organized
    Created by Joghn D. Rockefeller in 1870 the Standard Oil Company capitalized on the growing oil industry in the post Civil War years. By 1877 Rockefeller controled 95 percent of all oil refineries in America. Though ruthless in taking over Rockefellr achieved great economic bounds with its large-scale production and distribution.
  • Tweed Scandal

    Tweed Scandal
    The Tweed Ring of New York City employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to steal as much as $200 million from the city. Then in 1871 the New York times sucured and published evidence of these scandals, after being offered $5 million not too.
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal Exposed

    The Union Pacific Railroad company created and then hired the Credit Mobilier company to build a railroad at inflated prices earning them dividens as high as 348 percent. To keep congress from exposing their plan the company paid out shares to keep congressmen. An investigation eventually led to the formal censure of two congressmen and the revelation of the vice president's role in the scandal. This scandal was one of several that tarnished Grant's presidency.
  • Ulysses S. Grant Re-elected President

    Ulysses S. Grant Re-elected President
    Despite his association with scandals Ulysses S. Grant was elected for a second term in 1872 by an electoral vote of 286 to 66. This victory came primarily as a result of the liberal Republican's candidate Horace Greeley who was also endorced by the Demcrats.Greeley was dogmatic, emotional, and made unsound political judgements.
  • Comstock Law passed

    This law in effect made it illegal to distrubut materials that could be used for contreception or aborthion. Headed by Anthony Comstock and the Woodhull sisters this law showed the battle going on in America between the new and old morals.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    A periodic crash that accompanied the age of unbridled capitalist growth groath panics such as the one in 1873 became a common occurance during the Gilded Age. Promoters had created to many railroads, mines, factories, and other places of business, but could not repay their debts to the banks thus leading to the economic crash. Fifteen thousand businesses were closed leading to some rioting. African Americans and debtors were escpecially hard hit during this time.
  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union Organized

    Woman's Christian Temperance Union Organized
    Symbolized by its pure white ribbon the WCTU opposed alchohol. Headed by Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation, the latter of these openly broke bottles and bars with a hatchet, which in turn brought disreprute to the prohibition movement.
  • Whiskey Ring Scandal

    The Whiskey Ring robbed the federal Treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues. President Grant promissed to let no guilty member get away, however, after his private secretary turned up as a culprit he prepared a written testimony that helped to evonerate the thief.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875 passed

    This act protected all Americans, regardless of race, in their access to public accommodations and facilities such as restaurants, theaters, trains and other public transportation, It also protected the right to serve on juries. However, it was not enforced, and the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1883.
  • Resumption Act of 1875 passed

    This act in effect withdrew the greenback paper money distributed during the Civil Waar in exchange for "hard money." Supported by creditors this act hit debtors hard who looked to another metal, silver, in order to repay their debt.
  • Hayes-Tilden election and standoff

    Hayes-Tilden election and standoff
    Hayes-Red
    Tilden-Blue
    During the election of 1876 between Rutheford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden, TIlden polled 247,448 more voted than Hayes. The disputed states of Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida both sent two different ballots one Democratic and one Republican. Unsure as to who should count these votes the political deadlock lasted until 1877 when a compromise was made that out Hayes into office.
  • Alexander Grahm Bell invents the telephone

    Alexander Grahm Bell invents the telephone
    Inventing the telephone in 1876 Bell's invention had a huge impact on American as the nation turned into "telephoniacs." A gigantic communications network was built based off of Bell's invention and gave women jobs as operators.
  • Nez Perce Indian War

    Nez Perce Indian War
    Nez Perce Indians led by Chief Joseph led American forces on a three month trek across the continental divide. The seven hundred indians were eventually captured and sent to a reservationin Kansas. This was a common relation between the federal government and Native Americans during the Gilded Age.
  • End of Reconstruction

    Brought about by the Compromise of 1877 after the Hayes-Tilden standoff. Republicans abandoned their commitment to racial equality.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    Democrats allowed Hayes to become President in return the Republicans promised to remove fedral troops from the South.
  • Thomas Edison invents the electrin light bulb

    Thomas Edison invents the electrin light bulb
    Although best known for inventing the light bulb Eddison also invented the phonograph, mimeograph, the dictaphone, and the moving picture. Eddison's light bulb had a huge social impact as people went fromsleeping an average of nine hours to just under seven. His invention also threatened the Standard Oil Company who controlled the lighting industry with kerosene.
  • First Church of Christ Scientisits established

    First Church of Christ Scientisits established
    Established by Mary Baker Eddy with her book Science and and Health with Key to the Scritures. Most converts came from America's urban population seeking health through prayer as tough by Christian Science.
  • James A. Garfield elected president

    James A. Garfield elected president
    Seeking a new presidential candidate after Rutheford B. Hayes the Republicans finally settled on James A. Garfield with Chester A. Arthur as his vice president. Garfield beat his Democratic opponent, Winfield Scott Hancock by 214 electoral votes to 144.
  • American Red Cross founded

    American Red Cross founded
    Launched with Clara Barton at the helm. Barton was a Civil War nurse known "angle" of the battlefield. The American Red Cross provided provisions and reliefe to contries devestated by war or natural disasters.
  • Helen Hunt publishes A Century of Dishonor

    A Century of Dishonor described the federal government's relation with the Native American tribes, which in turn gave popular support to the Native Americans.
  • Booker T. Washington becomes head of Tuskegee Institute

    Booker T. Washington becomes head of Tuskegee Institute
    Teacher at Tuskegee institute who tought the policy of accommodationism. This meant that African Americans should learn useful trades and work their way up in society to gain equality.
  • James A. Garfield dies of a gunshot wound. Chester Author assumes presidency

    James A. Garfield dies of a gunshot wound. Chester Author assumes presidency
    A mentally deranged office seeker Charles J. Guiteau shot President Garfield in the back at a Washinto train station. Garfield died eleven weeks later and CHester A. Arthur became president. This murder shocked poloticians into reforming the spoils system and led directly to the Pendleton Act.
  • Pendleton Act creates Civil Service Commission

    Pendleton Act creates Civil Service Commission
    Also known as the Magna Carta of civil-service this act made compulsory campaign contribution from federal employees illegal. The Civil Service Commission was designed to make appointments to federal jobs based off of competitive examinations thus ridding the federal government of the spoils system.
  • Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
    Being the namer of the Gilded Age Mark Twain wrote several American literary masterpieces, including The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Known as a journalist, humorist, satirist, and foe of social injustice, Twain worked primarily as a speeker and helped to recapture frontier realism.
  • Grover Cleveland defeats James G. Blain for presidency

    Grover Cleveland defeats James G. Blain for presidency
    The first Democrat elected in 28 years Grover Cleveland entered the office with doubt surronding him. An advocaate of hands office government Cleveland helped the growing monopolies and trusts of the age. His downfall came when he supported a tariff that would decrease the governments revenues.
  • Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper

    Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper
    The creation of the skyscraper allowed more businesses to be placed on smaller plots of land. These buildings were made possible by the electric elevator.
  • Haymarket Square bombing

    An anarchist attack in Chicago that became associated with the Knights of Labor. This attack plaid a large part in the downfall of the Knights of Labor.
  • American Federtion of Labor formed

    American Federtion of Labor formed
    Created by Samuel Gompers the AF of L was a federation of independent unions that were unified by a central staategy. The organization demanded a fairer share of labor with better working conditions. It also only allowed skilled male workers to join thus ridding it of a shorth coming that the Knights of Labor had. Eventually the organization made head way in politics and won Labor Day as a national holiday.
  • Statue of Liberty erected

    Statue of Liberty erected
    A gift from the people of France this statue came to symbolize the welcoming of future immigrants who helped shape America.
  • Interstate Commerce Act passed

    Interstate Commerce Act passed
    In affect this act prohibited rebates and pools and required railroads to publish their rates openly. It also outlawed dicrimination against shippers and charging more for a short haul than a long one. However this law helped the railroad business more so than it did the shippers as it allowed businesses to resolve conflicts peacefully.
  • American Protective Association formed

    An anti-immigration association the APA pursued nativist goals, urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates, and sposored the publication of lustful material. Organized labor supported the APA as a way to protect jobs from immigrants.
  • Hatch Act supplements Morrill Act

    This act gave federal funds, initially of $15,000 each, to state land-grant colleges in order to create a series of agricultural experiment stations, as well as pass along new information, especially in the areas of soil minerals and plant growth.
  • Benjiman Harrison elected president

    Benjiman Harrison elected president
    Barely beating out Grover Cleveland by an electoral count of 233 to 168 Benjimen Harrison reclaimed the White House for the Republicans after four years. Harrison prosided over the Billion-Dollar congress during his four years in office.
  • American all-star baseball team tours the world

    Alreadt popular before the Civil War baseball emerged as a national pastime. A major league was formed in the 1870s and an all-star team toured the world playin games in several countries.
  • Hull House founded

    Hull House founded
    Founded by Jane Addams, one of the first women to graduate college, the Hull House was the first American settlement house. The house provided lessons in English, child care, couseling, and cultural activities.
  • "Billion-Dollar" Congress

    "Billion-Dollar" Congress
    Dominated by "Czar" Thomas B. Reed the Billion-Dollar congress was the first to appropriate a sum of a billion dollars. This congress increased the governments purchase of silver and showered pensions on Civil War veterans. To keep their revenues steady, and protect local industries, the congress passed the McKinley Tariff Act which made rates as high as 48.4 percent on dutiable goods.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed

    Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed
    This act forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without a distinction between "good" or "bad" trusts. However this law proved to be inneffective as the fine for going against this act was minuscule.On the other hand, this law was a key step to limiting monopolies and would lead to future laws.
  • McKinley Tariff Act passed

    Raised tariff rate up to 48.4 percent, the highest of any peacetime rate. Passed by the billion-dollar congress to retain its revenues and protect local industires from foriegn businesses.
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act passed

    An act that allowed the government to buy silver in exchange for tender notes. However, this act led to a defeciet and was repealed three years later by Grover Cleveland.
  • Homestead steel strike

    Homestead steel strike
    A strike at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant over pay cuts, which resulted in ten people dead and sixty people wounded. Federal troops were eventually called in to restore order. Strikes such as this one gave rise to the Populist party.
  • Grover Cleveland defeats Benjiman Harrison and James B. Weaver for presidency

    Grover Cleveland defeats Benjiman Harrison and James B. Weaver for presidency
    Grover Cleveland became the first, and only, president to be elected one term skip another term and then be re-elected. The Populist party had huge support in this election winning 22 electoral votes.
  • Depression of 1893 begins

    Depression of 1893 begins
    Lasting for four years this depression was the worst in the 19th century. The main causes for this depression included overbuilding, labor disorder, and the agricultural depression. Silver had also hurt America's credit abroad right as Eurpoean banks began to call in their loans.
  • Anti-Saloon League formed

    Part of the prohibition movement that swept the nation in the post-Civil War era.
  • "Coxey's Army" marches on Washington Pullman Strike

    "Coxey's Army" marches on Washington Pullman Strike
    Part of the Populist movement "General" Jacob S. Coxey marched on Washington seeking better work rates. However, the invasion failed when Coxey and his followers were arrested for walking on the grass. The Pullman Strike, led by Eugene V. Debs, was a railway workers strike that stopped railway traffic from Chicago to the Pacific. Workers were angry about wages after being hit hard by the depression of 1893.
  • William-Gorman Tariff passed

    Also known as the Revenue Act this bill slightly reduced the tariff established by the McKinley Tariff and established a two percent income tax.
  • J.P. Morgan's syndicate loans $65 million in gold to federal government

    J.P. Morgan's syndicate loans $65 million in gold to federal government
    The leading baker of the age J.P. Morgan symnolized the power and arrogance of "finance capitalism. Morgan eventually bought out Andrew Carnegie's steel company.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Established the idea of seperate but equal spaces, thus supporting the Jim Crow laws and segreation in the South.
  • William McKinley defeats William Jennings Bryan for presidency

    William McKinley defeats William Jennings Bryan for presidency
    Winning with an electoral vote count of 271 to 176 William McKinley won the election by supporting the gold standard as apposed to William Jennigs Bryan's silver standard. McKinley would eventually lead the United States on the path to empire and out of the Gilded Age.
  • Works Cited

    All pictures retrieved from Wikimedia Commons
    Kennedy, Cohen, Thomas A. Bailey. The American Pageant. 12 ed. New York Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.Print