Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE
SOCRATESSocrates was an Athenian Philosopher whose questions and opinions clashed with current course of Athenian politics and society. He was accused of corrupting the youth and disbelieving in the gods of the city and was sentenced to death by poison. One of Socrates' most important contributions to Western thought was his method of inquiry known as the 'Socratic Method'. The 'Socratic Method' was a series of questions and answers posed until you arrive at the truth or solution to a problem.
Period: 428 BCE to 348 BCE
PLATOPlato ranks among the greatest philosophers of the world, and is viewed by many scholars as the most important Philosopher of Western civilization.(Racelis, 2017)
Plato was a leading Greek philosopher and pupil of Socrates, who founded the Academy where Aristotle studied. Plato was convinced that ultimate reality lay in ideas and what he called Forms, perfect abstractions of things, which were knowable only through the trained mind.
Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE
ARISTOTLEIn Arabic Philosophy, he was known simply as " The First Teacher;" in the West, he was "The Philosopher". Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in Stagira in northern Greece. Both of his parents were members of traditional medical families.
Aristotle sets himself to discover what this good is and what science corresponding to it is. (Copleston, 1993).
Aristotle's " The Golden Mean Principle" states that to be happy, live a life of moderation.
MORAL POSITIVISMThomas Hobbes believes that human beings are basically selfish creatures who would do anything to improve their position.
According to Hobbes, people would act on their evil impulses if left alone for themselves; therefore, they should not be trusted to make decisions on their own. In addition, Hobbes felt that like people nations are selfishly motivated. For him, each country is in a constant battle for power and wealth
UTILITARIANISMThe word utilitarian is derived from the Latin words utile bonum or ulitis which means usefulness. The theory argues that what makes an act right is its consequences and not the motive of the action. The effects or consequences determine the goodness or badness of an action. An act is good if and when it gives good results, if it works, if it makes you successful, and if it makes you attain your purpose. Otherwise, it is bad.
The principle of Utilitarianism is used in Cost-Benefit Analysis.