Special Education Law Timeline

Timeline created by Eli1998
In History
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Oliver Brown filed a law suit against the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas. Brown claimed that all-black schools and all-white schools were not equal, and segregation violated the 14th amendment. The case eventually went to the Supreme Court, which ruled segregated schools were "inherently unequal," and the doctrine of "separate but equal" was found to be unconstitutional. This case laid the foundation for special education laws by declaring all people have the right to a public education.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the ESEA into law in 1965 to combat the effects of poverty on education. This act created a program to distribute funding for schools with a large percentage of students from low-income families. The ESEA also aided in promoting parental involvement in regard to student education, and it helped bring special education services to more isolated or rural areas. The ESEA received an amendment in 1968, which set the stage for the Education of the Handicapped Act.
  • PARC v. Pennsylvania & Mills v. Board of Education

    PARC v. Pennsylvania & Mills v. Board of Education
    Thomas Gilhool, who represented the PARC, filed a law suit after 14 children with disabilities were denied access to public education. The court ruled Pennsylvania was not allowed to deny anyone up to age 21 access to public school. The Mills law suit resulted from 7 students with disabilities being denied public education. The court ruled no child could be denied public education due to "handicaps or deficiencies," and insufficient funding was not an justifiable excuse.
  • Family Education Rights and Privacy Act

    Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
    FERPA gives parents rights regarding their children's education records, and these rights may be transferred to the students themselves when they turn 18. Parents have the right to "inspect and review the student's education records," or if this is impossible, parents may also request copies of the student's records. If the parents believe a student's education records to be wrong, they may request the school to correct them and have the right to a formal hearing should the school refuse.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142)
    This law helped ensure each child with a disability had a free and appropriate public education that included SPED services to fit their individual needs. The law also protects the rights of students with disabilities and their parents, and it helps states to provide education for these students as well. Additionally, the law helped improve the efforts for how children with disabilities were identified, and it assesses the effectiveness of these efforts. This law was changed to IDEA in 1997.
  • Handicapped Children's Protection Act

    Handicapped Children's Protection Act
    The HCPA was created to add onto the EAHCA after the Smith v. Robinson case revealed some of its flaws. The HCPA made it so parents are notified of any decisions made regarding their child's education, and parents are able to work with school faculty and other experts to ensure every child with a disability gets the help they need to succeed. Families with disabled newborns, infants, and toddlers are also offered an Individualized Family Service Plan and Early Intervention Programs as well.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    IDEA was created from the amendments to the Education of Handicapped Children Act. The focus of IDEA is to provide children with disabilities "free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment." IDEA ensures each child with an identified disability gets the services that fits their educational needs and is adequately prepared to work and live independently. IDEA also protects the rights of children with disabilities and helps agencies provide for their education as well.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act Title II

    Americans with Disabilities Act Title II
    Title II of the ADA mandates state and local governments provide an equal opportunity for people with disabilities to benefit from all available programs, services, and activities. Governments are also required to follow certain standards in constructing or altering buildings to fit the need of people with disabilities. Likewise, Title II also contains expectation for governments to relocate or provide access to programs for people with disabilities and communicate effectively with them as well.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    The NCLB was signed into law to serve as an update to the ESEA. The NCLB was created in an effort to help poor and minority students become as successful as their more privileged peers. This law required states to test students in Reading and Math, and then report the results of the whole student population and certain subgroups like those in SPED. Schools were expected to make yearly progress toward set goals, or they would face sanctions like being taken over or shut down by the state.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    The ESSA was signed into law to replace the NCLB. This act safeguarded the educational rights of "disadvantaged and high-need students" and required that each student receive the necessary education to enable them to have a successful future. The ESSA also measures student progress through yearly assessments and shares the results with the students and their families. In addition, the act promises action to ensure a positive change in the "lowest-performing schools."