South Africa

Timeline created by amber.c
In History
  • 3 BCE

    South Africa before Europeans

    South Africa before Europeans
    Some of the oldest evidence of humankind has been found in South Africa, dating back 3.5 million years. Some evidence including prehistoric cave paintings indicating habitation by organised human societies.
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    The Great Trek

    Migration of over 12,000 Dutch Boers. They wanted to be free of English rule, who had abolished slavery in 1933. Slaves where something the Dutch heavily befitted from. Conflict was heavy between Boers and South African tribes along the way. This trek also became a vocal point for Afrikaner Nationalism in the 1930s.
  • Discovery of diamonds and gold.

    Discovery of diamonds and gold.
    Diamonds and gold were discovered in South Africa in the late 1860s. This dramatically altered the economic and political structure of South Africa.
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    Scramble for Africa

    European countries seized control of different parts of South Africa. The country was discovered to be full of raw materials that could be exploited.
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    Boer war

    A war between the British Empire and the Dutch Boers. The catalyst for this battle was the discovery of Diamonds and gold in Boer states, which dramatically altered the economic structure of South Africa. Early months of the war was triumphed by Boer victories. However, due to Britain's determination to win, they used dirty tactics like concentration camps to get there way. Even people back in Britain shaming their tricks. In the end, Britain won.
  • Treaty of Vereeniging

    Treaty of Vereeniging
    Signed after the Boer war. The Boers would lose their independence as they became subject to the authority of King Edward VII. Were promised self-government though.
  • ANCYL is formed

    ANCYL is formed
    Walter Sisulu forms in ACNYL
  • National Party wins the election

    National Party wins the election
    The National Partys triumph is due to many reasons, mainly poor opposition, nationlism, industrialisation and more.
  • Start of the Apartheid Legislation.

    Start of the Apartheid Legislation.
    When every aspect of South African life was determined by race. The legislation aimed not only to separate whites and blacks, but to also oppress South Africans.
  • ANCYL takes control of the ANC

    ANCYL takes control of the ANC
    After the 1949 ANC conference, ANCYL took control of the organisation. [Picture- Anton Lembede, founding president on ANCYL]
  • ACT- Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act

    ACT- Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act
    Mixed Marriages made illegal
  • ACT- Immorality Act

    ACT- Immorality Act
    Sexual relations between different ethnic groups was make illegal. Could be convicted for 5 years.
  • ACT- Group Areas Act

    ACT- Group Areas Act
    Each racial group designated to a particular area to live. Act responsible for the forced eviction of 3.5 million Africans. Lead to the destruction of many mixed towns like Sophiatown. The African population only resided a small, heavily overcrowded, percentage of South Africa
  • ACT- Popular Registration Act

    ACT- Popular Registration Act
    Residents within South Africa were classified on the basis of their perceived race, therefore community acceptability as apart of the Apartheid Legislation.
  • ACT- Native Laws Amendment Act

    ACT- Native Laws Amendment Act
    Apart of the Apartheid Legislation, it standardised the use of reference books all throughout South Africa, on men and women.
  • The Defiance Campaign

    The Defiance Campaign
    The first example of large scale direct action by the ANC. It was a non-violent protest in which supporters would break the law and invite themselves for arrest. It was hoped the sheer number would overwhelm authorities. In the 6 months of the campaign, 8500 supporters were arrested.
  • ACT- Bantu Education Act

    ACT- Bantu Education Act
    Verwoerd said, “What is the use of teaching a Bantu child mathematics when it cannot use it in practice?” regarding the Bantu Education act. This act made it so African children learnt limited vocational skills, that would simply enable them to become cheap labour. Many unofficial schools which actually taught these children were forcibly closed.
  • Woman's pass protest

    Woman's pass protest
    20,000 women of all races marched to the union buildings bearing 100,000 signatures in protest against the passes for women.
  • PAC is formed

    PAC is formed
    The PAC came about due to the frustration many faced with the ANCs lack of consensus (general agreement) on the Africanist debate. They also objected to the ANC's multiracial beliefs, instead of believing in black nationalism.
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    South Africa became a republic

    In January of 1960, Verwoerd announced a referendum that would determine whether South Africa became a republic or not. This is because the government desired to make the country a fully Apartheid state. However, they could not do this at the time due to Britain holding them back, sending critiques and discontent to the government about Apartheid. Thus, with a white-only vote, 52% voted for a republic. This was a scary time for Africans, as no one was there to restrain the Apartheid government.
  • Wind of change speech

    Wind of change speech
    "This growth of national conciseness it a political fact" was the words declared by Harold Macmillian to the South African government. Previously in January of the same year, Verwoerd announced there would be a referendum on whether South Africa should be a republic. Thus, this speech served the purpose to win over the white population to not vote in favour and to also gain moral high ground in a time of freedom and independence for many counties in Africa.
  • Sharpeville Massacre

    Sharpeville Massacre
    PAC organised a demonstration to abolish South Africa's pass laws. They gathered outside a police station when the police opened fire on the protestors. Killing or wounding 250 of them, most of the bullets in their backs as they tried to run away. This incident is seen as the catalyst for adopting violent protests.
  • ACT- General Laws Amendment Act.

    Enabled a person to be arrested for 90 days on the suspension of a political crime without access to a lawyer, this could be extended to a further 90 days.