Nelson mandela

Nelson Mandela's Life

  • Nelson Mandela's Birth

    Nelson Mandela is born Rolihlahla Mandela in Mvezo, Transkei.
  • Primary Schooling

    (The actual date is unknown) Mandela goes to primary school near the village of Qunu. It is here that he receives the name ‘Nelson’ from a school teacher.
  • Death of Mandela's Father

    (The actual date is unknown) Mandela’s father dies and Mandela is transferred to the guardianship of Thembu Regent Jongintaba Dalindyebo.
  • Manhood Initiation

    (The actual date is unknown) At age 16, Mandela undergoes the traditional initiation from boyhood to manhood. At the initiation, the chief talked about the bleak future that these young men had. Even though Mandela didn’t fully understand what was being said, he claimed that it was something that caused for what he did in his life to happen.
  • College Years (The actual date is unknown)

    Mandela enrolls at the University College of Fort Hare. He is later expelled in 1940 for 'insubordination'. Mandela had been elected to the college's Student Represenative Council (SRC). Many students are upset with the college's food and lack of involvement of the SRC with the school's dealings. Going off the beliefs of the students, Mandela resigns and is expelled for the rest of the year. The dean gives Mandela an ultimatum: Mandela joins again and is back in school. Mandela doesn't do this.
  • Arranged Marriage and Johannesburg

    Several weeks after Mandela arrives home, Regent Jongintaba tells Mandela of his plans of an arranged marriage for him. Mandela flees--fearing for his independence--to Johannesburg. Here, he works jobs such as a clerk or a guard. He works to complete his bachlor's degree through correspondence courses. Finally, he enrolls at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to study law.
  • The ANC

    (The actual date is unknown) Mandela officially joins the ANC, or African National Congress. This is an anti-Apartheid group with the main goal of eliminating segregation and pushing for a more equal government. The Apartheid was a period in South African history when an all-white government began enforcing segregation policies concerning people of color in 1948.
  • ANC Youth League

    (actual date is unknown) Mandela co-founds the youth league portion of the ANC (ANCYL). This branch of the ANC was based on the beliefs of African nationalism. Mandela and his other founders believed that Africa would be free only by the group's own efforts. The Youth League believed in involving the African people with more militant force toward the Apartheid.
  • Marriage

    Mandela marries his first wife, Evelyn Ntoko Mase. The couple have four children together.
  • ANCYL Position 1

    (actual date is unknown) Mandela is elected as national secretary for the ANCYL.
  • ANCYL Position 2

    (actual date is unknown) Mandela is elected president of the ANCYL.
  • First Black Law firm

    (the actual date is unknown) With Oliver Tambo, Mandela opens the first black law firm in South Africa. This law firm was for unrepresented blacks.
  • Defiance Campaign Begins

    This was a nonviolence resistance started by the ANC and the South African Indian Congress as a method to protest and eventually repeal the laws of the Nationalist Pary.
  • First Arrest

    (the actual date is unknown) Mandela and other activists are arrested for violating the Supression of Communism Act. This was an act enacted by the Nationalist Party banning any form of communism. He gets nine months in prison with intense labor.
  • Third Arrest

    Mandela is arrested after returning to South Africa after a trip abroad. He is arrested on counts of leaving the country illegally and incitement to strike. He is sentenced to five years in prison.
  • Second Arrest

    Mandela and 155 others are arrested on accounts of treason. This is because of a want for a a nonracial state of South Africa.
  • Killings in Sharpeville

    South African police fire on a demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, killing 69 and injuring 181. After this, the Nationalist government bans any organizations from meeting, including the ANC. The ANC goes underground and works on plans to overthrow the Apartheid government.
  • Acquittal

    Mandela and his co-defendents are aquitted from treason. Still fearing arrest for his political activism, Mandela decides to go underground.
  • Guerilla Army

    Mandela and other ANC leaders form a guerilla army called Spear of the Nation. Mandela becomes commander-in-chief and trains to fight. However, he never sees combat.
  • Government Raid in Rivonia

    Nationalist police raid a farmhouse in Rivonia where the ANC has set up its new headquarters. Here, the police find documents planning use of guerilla warfare to overthrow the current government. Using this as evidence, the government accuses Mandela and eight others of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. This becomes known as the Rivonia trial and marks Mandela's important role in eliminating the Apartheid.
  • Period: to

    "A Long Walk to Freedom"

    (the actual dates are unknown) Sometime during his prison sentence, Mandela begins secretly writing his autobiography, entitled "A Long Walk to Freedom." It was not published until 1995.
  • Life Sentence

    Mandela and seven others are sentenced to life in prison.
  • Protests of Africaans in Soweto

    Thousands of black students protest the language taught in schools: Africaans. They viewed this as the "language of the oppressor" and strived to have schools taught in English. The apartheid's goal was to isolate blacks by having them speak a language that was really only spoken in South Africa. This would disconnect them from the world in general. The police fired on the protestors, and this lead to 570+ deaths. This marked a turning point in the apartheid resistance.
  • Refusal of Pardon

    The president of South Africa, P. W. Botha, offers to grant Mandela a pardon and let him out of prison early. Mandela refuses, saying he will not leave until apatheid is abolished.
  • Second Meeting with P. W. Botha

    Mandela meets informally with P. W. Botha. The two have a diplomatic discussion about what has been going on in South Africa: the racism has reached an all-time high. This is the first public meeting between the two that is outside of a prison and this leads to belief that Mandela will soon be released.
  • New President

    F. W. de Klerk becomes the president of Africa after the former one suffers from a stroke. This new president vows to get rid of apartheid.
  • Prominent Political Prisoners are Released

    Political prisoners such as Walter Sisulu are released. This leads to speculation that Mandela will soon be released as well.
  • ANC is allowed again

    The ban is lifted from the ANC and Mandela's release is promised to come soon.
  • Mandela Freed

    After 27.5 years in prison, Mandela is finally free. F. W. de Klerk enlists Mandela in a negotiating position and this is a sign to the public that there is a new constitution coming with a plan to eliminate apatheid.
  • No More Guerilla Campaign

    The ANC announces its plans to drop its guerilla campaign tactics. This gives F. W. de Klerk ammunition in his fight against the right-wings and apartheid opposition to racism.
  • Nobel Peace Prize

    For the work that the two have done to help get rid of aparteid and the Nationalist party, Mandela and F. W. de Klerk receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • New Constitution is Almost Ready to Pass

    Working together with F. W. de Klerk, Mandela is one step closer to having a new constitution passed. However, Zulu-based and white supremacy groups threaten to boycott and do everything in their willpower to assure that the constitution will not pass.
  • ANC Wins Majority Vote

    An election is held in South Africa, and the ANC wins the majority in the election. Mandela becomes the first black president of South Africa.
  • Mandela is Sworn in as President

    Mandela is officially sworn in as the president of South Africa. He makes a speak of patriotism that sparks excitement throughout the whole country.
  • Succeeded in Presidency

    After five years of being president, a new election comes around and Thabo Mbeki becomes the new president of South Africa. He has the same morals as Mandela.
  • Retires from the Public Eye

    Mandela announces that he will go into a more private standard of living to spend his remaining years resting and writing. His health begins to fail.
  • Nelson Mandela dies at age 95

    After nearly a decade of being in and out of hospitals for various reasons, Mandela finally succombs and passes away on December 5. The whole world mourns his death.