Sa mural

South Africa Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1400

    Zulu and Xhosa Kingdoms

  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    History of South Africa

  • Jan 8, 1488

    Bartolomeu Dias

    Dias explored the southern coast of Africa and found a new route to reach the wealthy East Indies. Discovered Cape of Good Hope in South Africa
  • Jan 9, 1488

    Portuguese Inhabit Cape of Good Hope

    The Portuguese were the first European inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope because of Dias' exploration and support from King John II of Portugal.
  • Dec 16, 1497

    Vasco De Gama

    On Vasco De Gama's voyage to India via sailing around the south African coast, he discovered and named Natal coast, home of the KwaZulu(Zulu Nation).
  • First Attempt to Settle in South Africa

    The first shipthat attempted to settle in South Africa wrecked on the shore. The people were rescued a yar later because they lost their materials to survive in the wreck
  • Dutch Settlement

    Instalation of Slave Trade
  • Brtish take Cape Colony

    defeat Dutch at the battle of Muizenberg
  • Zulu Empire Expands

  • Period: to

    Boers embark on "The Great Trek"

    They leave Cape Colony and found many settlements including the Natalia Republic, the Orange Free State Republic and the Transvaal
  • British Take Control of Capetown

  • First Angelo-Boer War Begins

    Boers rebel against British, ends 3/23/1881
  • Period: to

    First Boer War

  • Gold Discovered on the Witwatersrand

  • Period: to

    Second Boer War

    british win
  • Union of South Africa

  • Pixley Seme - Native Union

    Call to action; need for ANC. Common goal of progress. Nations (black ethnic) set aside differences in order to achieve progress. "Peace, prosperity, and development of this land" Voice for all black South Africans.
    Voice - "make their grievances properly known" Pixley Seme - Founder and president of the ANC. First black SA lawyer. Assume that he was active in the ANC.
  • Formation of African National Congress

  • "Appeal to the British Public about the Native Land Act"

    John Dube - writer and activist; Native National Congress There were only small portions of land that black South Africans could live on. 10% of land for 80% of the population. Paying for what they used to own. Not even asking for complete equality; asking to live without being disturbed. Audience - British public.
    TONE - APPEAL (versus demand)
    Peaceful freedom (versus violence) Tone/attitude
  • Natives Land Act

    First major piece of segregation legislation that separated blacks from whites; precursor of Apartheid
  • Foundation of National Party

    Ideologies included Apartheid, Afrikaner nationalism, conservatism, and republicanism
  • Mandela is born

    Born in Mvezo, originally named Rolihlahla Mandela
  • Formation of the Industrial and Commercial Workers Union of Africa (ICU).

  • White Workers Mine Strike

  • Civilized Labour Policy

  • Ruth First Birth

    -> Johanesburg, South Africa
    -> White female anti-apartheid activitst/journalist
    -> foiled to Steve Biko
    -> communist and jewish
  • Birth of Bishop Tutu

    -> religious leader and anti-apartheid activist
  • Period: to


  • JM Coetzee born

    Grew up and educated in Cape Town
    Afrikaans, but raised in an English speaking home
  • Alfred Xuma President of ANC

    -> dismissed the house of chiefs
    -> created the department of women
    -> significant fundraising
  • Bus Fair Reduction

    -> after an increase in 1 rand in bus fair the ANC decreased the fair back to the original 4 rand
  • ANC Youth League formed

    Founders: Ashley Peter Mda, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo
    Strategies involved civil disobedience, strikes, and protests
  • African Mine Workers Strike

  • Fagan Comission

    -> investigate laws relating to non-whites and their socio-economic circumstances
    -> fairness, equality
  • Birth of Steve Biko

    -> Eastern Cape
  • Letter Concerning Treatment of Indians in South Africa

    Discrimination towards Indians. Goal to keep a standing relationship.
    Indians - "coloured" "coolie" To SA government from Indian government. Via the UN - more exposure. International involvement versus lack thereof. Apartheid was not viewed internationallly from the Western hemisphere. However, the east was heavily involved. Pakistan was also involved.
  • National Party wins the General Election

    Introduction of Apartheid Policy
  • Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act

  • Immorality Amendment Act

  • Nelson Mandela - Defiance of Unjust Laws Campaign

    We Defy - 10,000 volunteers protest against unjust laws

    Open to all volunteers regardless of "color, race, or creed"

    White vs. white
    Gandhi and non-violence
    Opposing a system, not a government or group of people.
    Referenced Suppression of Communism Act (1950) Political Alliances
  • Henry Nxumalo "The Story of Defiance"

    Investigative journalist (killed on te job).
    Peaceful anti-Apartheid demonstrations.
    Identity, freedom, and disenfranchisement.
    South African ideal/culture.
    Opposition to government/white authority.
    People went to prison willingly and peacefully, but showed their independence through a cultural demonstration.
    MUSIC - unity and independence.
  • Freedom Charter

    "Declaration of Independence for SA" - peaceful friendship for everyone, regardless of color. Designed by al Alliance - ANC, SA Indian Conference, SA Congress of Democrats, CPO, SA Council of Trade Unions
  • Women introduced to all Apartheid Laws

    Consider the role of women in the economy and in the struggle against Apartheid. Link to Invisible Man - potential link to white MAN entitlement. Double oppression.
  • Treason Trial Photo

  • The role of the Communist Party

  • Period: to

    Switch from Civil Disobedience to armed struggle

    Link to US history SHIFT to armed struggle and resistance
  • Sharpeville Massacre

  • Rivonia Trials

    Mandela: "I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination"
  • Imprisonment of Ruth First

    -> 117 days in prison under the 90-day detention law
    -> first white woman under that law
  • Formation of SASO

    -> South African Students Organization(All black)
    -> Steve Biko was the first president of SASO
    -> Black consciousness
  • Steve Biko and the rise of Black Consciousness

    Biko died 1977 Black Consciousness - pride, no reliance on whites
  • Bishop Tutu advocated for boycotts against South African government

  • Bishop Tutu's Involvement in Soweto Protests

    -> protests against the apartheid
  • Soweto Uprising

    Student Protest against Bantu Education
  • Death of Steve Biko

    -> Murdered in prison
  • Bishop Tutu: Secretary General of South African Council of Churches

  • Death of Ruth First

    -> killed by a bomb in Mozambique while working at a university
  • Tricameral Legislature

    White, Indian, and Coloured branches of government
  • Silver and Gold by Bono

    Artists United Against the Aparheid Group
  • Period: to

    Toyi Toyi Dance

    The actual dance and the "freedom dance"
  • Referendum to end Apartheid

    Vote by whites
  • Dog Eat Dog

    Publication of the work by Niq Mhlongo
  • New SA Flag debate

  • Black vs. white radicals in SA

    Media coverage of tensions
  • Police salaries tripled

    Leading up to democratic elections
  • Debate: de Klerk vs Mandela

  • Bomb explosion surrounding elections

    Additional tension (white radicals)
  • Bomb explosion surrounding elections

    Unsuccessful attempts by white radicals to deter black/all voters
  • Mandela's Inaugural Address

  • Cry Freedom by Dave Matthews

    -> Dave born and raised in South Africa
    -> fled country in 1980's
    -> against the apartheid
  • TRC

    Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    • Dignity (versus state of disgrace)
  • Bomb explosion at a white mall

    New SA
  • Disgrace (published)

  • Oprah's Interview with Nelson Mandela

    -> worldwide broadcasted interview
    -> followed by 10-day homestay with Mandela in South Africa
  • Ms. Blunden meets Archbishop Desmond Tutu

    St. George's Cathedral: Friday morning eucharist w/retired Archbishop Desmond Tutu