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Nelson Mandela

  • Nelson Mandela was born

    Nelson Mandela was born
    Nelson Mandela was born in Mvezo, which is a tiny village in the Transkei.
  • Forms the A.N.C Youth League

    Forms the A.N.C Youth League
    In 1944, he formed the A.N.C Youth League. Nelson Mandela and some other activists formed the African National Congress (A.N.C) Youth League after becoming disappointed with the meticulous access of the older members of the A.N.C.
  • National Party Takes Power, Laying Foundation for Apartheid

    National Party Takes Power, Laying Foundation for Apartheid
    South African government (resident of South Africa)-ruled National Party) limits the freedom of black Africans even more when the racism-related policy of (separating people based on race) is introduced across the country.
  • Nelson Mandela starts law practice

    Nelson Mandela starts law practice
    Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo, who was South African politician opened South Africa's first black law practice in 1952 and left in 1962.
  • Nelson Mandela arrested on Treason Charges

    Nelson Mandela arrested on Treason Charges
    In 1956, Nelson Mandela was arrested for 27 years, split between Pollsmoor prison, Victor Verster prison and Robben Island.
  • Killings in Sharpeville

    Killings in Sharpeville
    In 1960, the police shot at a demonstration in Sharpeville Massacre, killed 69 people and wounded 181 people. After the shooting, the South African government banned the black political groups and captured thousands of people. A.N.C is one of the banned organisations.
  • Acquitted of Treason

    Acquitted of Treason
    Nelson Mandela and his co -defendants were released of the Treason Charges, and he was nervous and fearing that he will get arrested again, so Nelson Mandela goes underground.
  • Nelson Mandela helps form Guerrilla Army

    Nelson Mandela and other A.N.C leaders form a military wing called Umkhonto we Sizwe (Also called as Spear of the Nation). Nelson Mandela becomes the first commander in chief of the Guerrilla Army. He trained to fight, and his name will be known as the Black Pimpernel but he will never see the fight.
  • Nelson Mandela arrested again

    Nelson Mandela arrested again
    Nelson Mandela was captured right after he returned to South Africa from a trip abroad. At the time when Nelson Mandela gets arrested, he had been living underground for 17 months. He was convicted for leaving the country illegally and is sentences to 5 years in prison.
  • Sentence to life in prison

    Sentence to life in prison
    Nelson Mandela and 7 others were convicted, and he was sent to Robben Island prison, it is 7miles away from the Cape town;he will spend the next 18 years in there.
  • Thousands of Students Protest Afrikaans Language in Soweto

    Thousands of Students Protest Afrikaans Language in Soweto
    Tens of thousands of students take to the streets of Soweto to argue (against) the use of (language of South Africa) as the language of instruction in black schools. The police fire on the protesters, setting off months of violence that will leave more than 570 people dead. The violent effort by a group of people is carefully thought about/believed a time where a big change will happen in the history of black resistance to (policy of separating people by race).
  • Nelson Mandela moved from an Isolated Prison

    Nelson Mandela moved from an Isolated Prison
    Nelson Mandela and four other A.N.C. leaders are moved (from one place to another) from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison in the suburbs of Cape Town. While many believe the move is meant to lessen the influence of the famous prisoners, government (people in charge of something) later say they wanted a way to open a quiet (so nobody else will know) line of communication with the men.
  • Refuses Pardon

    South Africa's president, P. W. Botha, offers to free Nelson Mandela if he rejects violence. Nelson Mandela refuses, saying the government must first take apart racial separation.
  • Secret Meetings With Government Begin

    Secret Meetings With Government Begin
    Kobie Coetsee, South Africa's minister of justice, police and prisons, visits Mr. Mandela, who is in a hospital having surgery for an enlarged. Secret (back-and-forth conversations to agree on something) between Mr. Mandela and the government will continue for years without the public's knowledge. During this time, Mr. Mandela will be taken on secret trips outside the prison walls so he can reconnect with the world, after losing touch with it over at least 20 years as a prisoner.
  • Government Cracks Down on Dissent

    Government Cracks Down on Dissent
    The government declares a nationwide state of emergency, granting itself sweeping powers, including approval for the police to use force against protesters and to force (by laws that limit when people can be out on the street).The legal statement bans the promotion of illegal strikes(refusing to spend money on businesses or buy their products) and protests tight restrictions on the press. More than 1,000 (people who use action and strong words to support or oppose something) are detained.
  • Nelson Mandela transferred to another Prison

    Nelson Mandela is moved (from one place to another) to the Victor Verster Prison Farm, which is about 50 miles from Cape Town. The South African government says he will not have to return to Pollsmoor Prison.
  • Nelson Mandela meets with the South African president

    Nelson Mandela meets with the South African president
    Nelson Mandela meets Mr. Botha informally at the presidential office in Cape Town. It is the first meeting between Nelson Mandela and a government official outside prison that was publicly admitted
  • New President Pledges to Phase Out Apartheid

    New President Pledges to Phase Out Apartheid
    F. W. de Klerk is became the temporary president of South Africa, replacing Mr. Botha, who suffered a stroke in January. Saying the country is about to enter a time in history of change, Mr. de Klerk promises again phase out the white rule.
  • Prominent Political Prisoners Released

    Prominent Political Prisoners Released
    The government frees eight of the country's most well-known political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, 77, a respected teacher to Mr. Mandela and his close friend, in a action that is widely seen as a trial run for Mr. Mandela's release.
  • Ban Lifted on A.N.C.; Nelson Mandela's Release Promised

    Ban Lifted on A.N.C.; Nelson Mandela's Release Promised
    Mr. de Klerk lifts the ban on the A.N.C. and a few other political organisations, and lifts many of the restrictions put in place when the state of emergency was declared four years earlier. He promises that Nelson Mandela will be released shortly.
  • Nelson Mandela Freed

    Nelson Mandela Freed
    Nelson Mandela, now 71, is freed, ending 27 and a half years of (state of being locked in a prison). For Mr. de Klerk, (joining the military) Nelson Mandela seems to be the surest way to complete his/reach his stated goal: to end political rule by the white minority without replacing it with rule by the black majority.
  • A.N.C. Suspends Guerrilla Campaign

    The A.N.C. announces that it has ordered the immediate suspension of its warrior (series of actions to reach a goal) against racial separation, which started in the early 1960s.
  • Deliberations Over Constitution Begin With Rocky Start

    (back-and-forth conversations to agree on something) begin to prepare a (meantime/temporary time) constitution based on full political (state where all things are equal). Mr. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela trade accusations of crime, with Mr. de Klerk criticizing Mandela for not breaking up the A.N.C.'s inactive warrior operation and Nelson Mandela saying that the president "has very little idea of what (system or country where leaders are chosen by votes) is."
  • Attack on Boipatong Halts Negotiations

    Attack on Boipatong Halts Negotiations
    A mob moves downward on the black township of Boipatong, killing more than 40 people with guns, knives and axes. The A.N.C. says that Zulu men and white police officers were responsible for the violence. A week after the attacks, Nelson Mandela announces that the A.N.C. will pull out until the government takes steps to restore trust. The two sides do not return until September.
  • Popular Black Leader Killed; Clashes Follow

    Popular Black Leader Killed; Clashes Follow
    Chris Hani, the popular black leader of the South African Communist Party, is shot and killed by a white man. At least seven people are killed in disagrees over the next days. Nelson Mandela appears on national television and calls for calm, asking a stronger loyalty to (back-and-forth conversations to agree on something), a contrast to the A.N.C.'s angry reaction to the killing of many people in Boipatong the year before.
  • Nelson Mandela and de Klerk Share Nobel

    Nelson Mandela and de Klerk Share Nobel
    Nelson Mandela and Mr. de Klerk share the Nobel Peace Prize. The two men accept the award with the strained grace that has showed their relationship, and Mr. Mandela gets worse to repeat his much-quoted test of Mr. de Klerk as a man of (honest and good human quality).
  • Constitution moves Closer to Passage

    Black and white leaders recommend a new constitution for South Africa that tries to balance majority rule with safeguards to calm whites and other minorities, but the Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party and an organised row of white separatist groups threaten to (refuse to spend money on a business elections and hint at huge riot.
  • A.N.C. Wins Majority in Election; Nelson Mandela Becomes President

    A.N.C. Wins Majority in Election; Nelson Mandela Becomes President
    General voting opens in the first election in South African history that includes black participation. (even though there is the existence of) months of violence leading up to the vote, not a single person is reported killed in election-related violence. When the voting ends on April 29, the A.N.C. has won more than 62 percent of the vote, earning 252 of the 400 seats in Parliament's National Assembly. Nelson Mandela is chosen as president without fighting force.
  • Nelson Mandela Sworn In as President

    Nelson Mandela Sworn In as President
    Nelson Mandela is sworn in as president of South Africa, making a speech of shared country-loving that order to appear in court South Africans' shared excitement in their land and their relief at being freed from the world's disapproval.
  • Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki

    Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki
    Thabo Mbeki is began Nelson Mandela's thing that comes after something else as president of South Africa after another electoral victory for the A.N.C. After five years with Nelson Mandela in control, the country still faces serious problems of poorness and crime, but it has made the change (from one thing to another) to country where leaders are chosen by votes while maintaining (existing all over a large area) respect for the law and avoiding political revenge killings.
  • Retires From the Public Eye

    Retires From the Public Eye
    Mr. Mandela says he will very badly reduce his public activities so he can spend his remaining years resting and writing. A month shy of 86, he is more and more weak and has trouble walking.
  • Recurring Health Problems Stir Global Concern - 1

    Mr. Mandela is hospitalised for nearly 19 days, being treated for dangerous lung disease and having an operation for badly upsetstones, government (people in charge of something) say. He will be hospitalised times in 2013, as a more ugly fight over his (something given to future people) and money (suddenly becomes visible matter up and out).
  • Recurring Health Problems Stir Global Concern - 2

    Even the African National Congress, the party to which Nelson Mandela dedicated his life, will come under harsh criticism for releasing a video of party leaders visiting the visibly suffering (from sickness) former president. Mr. Mandela contracted (dangerous lung disease) during his 27-year (state of being locked in a prison) for fighting racial separation, and he has suffered from long-lasting lung problems.
  • Mandela died at 95

    Mandela died at 95
    The government announces that Nelson Mandela has died, leaving the nation without its moral center at a time of growing disappointment with the country's leaders.
    "Our nation has lost its greatest son," President Jacob Zuma said in a televised speech late Thursday night, adding that Nelson Mandela had died at 8:50 p.m. local time.