Romantic Era Timeline

  • Cherubini

    (1760-1842) An Italian composer who created the opera "Lodoïska".
  • Beethoven

    (1770-1827) The transitional figure from the Classical to Romantic era, creating heroic music for the heroic age.
  • Wenzel

    (1773-1859) Chancellor of Austria, was instrumental in hosting social activities which fueled the Character piece and Lied genres.
  • Lodoïska

    An opera written by Cherubini that displayed liberty and heroism, which fueled opera and other musical performances.
  • Schubert

    (1797-1828) Early Romantic composer who composed all genres and over 600 lieders. Was able to bring horror into text and music.
  • Berlioz

    (1803-1869) French composer who was considered one of the most important early innovators of newer genres and orchestration.
  • Fanny Mendelssohn

    (1805-1847) Equally talented to her brother, but was unable to make a career in music since she was a woman, yet flourished in a man's career with 100+ solo piano works and 200+ lieder.
  • Mendelssohn

    (1809-1847) A composer who revived Bach's music and started a trend of older music.
  • Chopin

    (1810-1849) Well known pianist and composer with a delicate playing style and who was very appreciated by the upper class.
  • Schumann

    (1810-1856) German composer, writer, and pianist who composed 4 symphonies and over 300 lieder.
  • Liszt

    (1811-1886) Composer who lived throughout early and late Romantic period. Piano virtuoso, writer, and conductor.
  • Wagner

    (1813-1883) One of the most influential composers of this period who revolutionized music with harmonic and orchestral innovations.
  • Ophicleide

    Invented in 1817, it is a keyed brass instrument that was patented by Jean Hilaire Asté.
  • Clara Schumann

    (1819-1896) Married to R. Schumann, she was a child prodigy and famous virtuoso who toured as a concert pianist.
  • Start of the Romantic Era

    Emotional content is the main focus of musicians in this period, rules of composition became more flexible. More minor keys/less phrasing
  • Melodic Chromaticism

    Romantic-era practice that appears in a melody but does not affect the harmonic structure.
  • Harmonic Chromaticism

    Romantic-era practice that affects chords and causes a vagueness in the key or tonality of a piece. (favored)
  • Focus on Romanticism

    The idea of longing is portrayed in music, as Romanticism longs for peace, love, and happiness. Leads to more musical freedoms.
  • Smetana

    (1824-1884) Considered the founder of Czech music, created a programmatic cycle of poems titled "Má vlast".
  • Character Pieces

    Piano pieces with one movement, such as ballads, etudes, nocturnes, etc.
  • Lieds/Lieders

    A lied is a song, while a lieder is a song for a singer and a piano.
  • Individualism

    Composers are more valued than performers in the Romantic era, as individuals were more valued.
  • Tone Pieces

    A newer genre containing a one-movement orchestral work that often had programmatic associations.
  • Program Music

    Non-vocal music associated with a story, poem, or other suggestion outside of the music.
  • Foster

    (1826-1864) First American to make a living as a songwriter.
  • Gottschalk

    (1829-1869) An American nationalist and composer whose talent was praised by Chopin and Berlioz.
  • The Supernatural

    Macabre is important and supernatural topics are of high interest, ultimately creating more sinister-sounding harmonies and sounds.
  • Melodies/Harmonies

    Melodies wider in range and more emotional, while harmonies become more complex with newer chords and unique progression.
  • Brahms

    (1833-1897) German composer who continued Classical traditions, composing 4 symphonies and no operas.
  • Harriett Smithson

    Created the concept of a fixed idea
  • Idée fixe (Fixed Idea)

    A theme created by Smithson, representing a person, place, or thing that plays throughout a work and is a unifying device.
  • Orchestral Changes

    Brass and percussive instruments were used more in the Romantic era and orchestras increased in size.
  • Bildung

    The idea that art and music are used for intellectual growth and intellectual formation. It is somewhat spiritual in a secular way.
  • Concert Overture

    A form of program music that is a single-movement orchestral piece and embodies some kind of poetic or patriotic idea.
  • Program Symphony

    A multi-movement work for an orchestra that is associated with extra-musical ideas and can tell a story.
  • Tchaikovsky

    (1840-1893) A composer of various Romantic ballets (Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, the Nutcracker) who specialized in symphonies and poems.
  • Song Cycle

    A set of lieder connected in some way, such as a narrative thread, relation in topic, or same poet.
  • Puccini

    (1858-1924) The most important Italian composer after Verdi who pursued a career in Operatic Composition.
  • Mahler

    (1860-1911) Bohemian conductor and composer that created styles very popular in the early 20th century.
  • Lietmotiv

    A short motif created by Wagner that was assigned to a person, place, or thing throughout a drama as a unifying device.
  • Bartók

    (1881-1945) Published nearly 2000 tunes he collected internationally, as well as tunes he arranged based on other nations.