Trials and Tribulations of the Weimar Republic

  • Max of Baden adresses US president

    Armestice negotiations
  • November Revolution (Sailors mutiny)

    November Revolution (Sailors mutiny)
    +During the ongoing peace negotiations the german fleet is ordered to leave for the north sea. +Sailors fear that this nonsensical manouver would harm peace efforts and munity. +workers/soldiers counils are formed etc.
  • Phillip Scheideman proclaims republic

    Phillip Scheideman proclaims republic
    After Prince Max von Baden declared the emperor had abdicated and transferred his position of chancellor to Friedrich Ebert, leader of the SPD
  • Council of the Peoples Deputies

    +Joint leadership of Friedrich Ebert (SPD) and Hugo Haase (USPD).
    +a lot of approval but also critics such as the Spartacists (Karl Liebknecht + Rosa Luxemburg).
    +parliamentary democracy vs council democracy +both parties want womens suffrage, voting age 20, proportional representation, no censorship and amnesty for political crimes
  • Ebert-Groener Pact

    +Secret Telephone Call
    +SPD cooperation with the OHL, to balance USPDs worker support
    +Technically OHL was still in charge (Kaiser Wilhelm II Order)
    +SPD unsure weather it could control OHL
    +Groener+Ebert feared left wing movement
  • Imperial Council Convention

    Agrees to a Election Date for a National Assembly.
    Until then, the Convention holds legitaslative and executive power in order to put down competing institutions claiming to gouvern germany.
  • Spartacist Uprising

    Spartacist Uprising
    +After dismissal of USPD police chef Emil Eichhorn
    +USPD/KPD called for demonstrations
    +armed Spartacists occupy publishing house of SPD magazine Vorwärts
    +Karl Liebknecht declared gouvernment dismissed
    +NA has to meet in Weimar, not Berlin
    +SPD resorted to OHL support
    +Right-Wing Free Corps used to supress agitation
    => trying to stay soldiers in peace times (against Versailles)
    +FIghting only focus in life (ok doomer)
    +identify new enemy in leftists
  • Karl Liebknecht/Rosa Luxemburg Murdered

    +Arrested by a group of officers, violently abused and killed
    +Perpetrators faced only mild punishment from military court
  • Elections for National Assembly

    Elections for National Assembly
    +Jolt to the Left
    +Center Party/Bavarian Peoples: 19.7%
    +DDP: 18.5%
    +SPD 37.9%
    +Voter Participation: 84% of 36.8million eligible
    +NA has to meet in Weimar, not Berlin, because of the chaotic uprisings and violence
  • Friedrich Ebert elected Reichspräsident

    Establishes Weimar Coalition (SPD, CENTRE, DDP). NA wants to achieve peace and write a constitution.
  • Weimar Constitution passed

    +Distance form council democracy
    +Reichstag strengthened (comp 1871)
    +Reichsrat demoted to advisory legislative
    +Reichspräsident buffed (emergency decree atricle 48)
    +plebiscite/referendum initiated by reichspräsident after law is passed by reichstag
    +OR if a law is entertained by 10% of voters
    +basic rights at the end/minor value (but quite long)
    + 2/3rds majority to change basic rights and const. articles
  • Kapp Putsch

    Kapp Putsch
    ++Versailles/Stab in the back => right wing anger
    +Wolfgang Kapp, senior official and right wing politician is proclaimed Reich Chancellor
    +Walther von Lüttwitz had ordered the occupation of gouvernment buildings in berlin
    +Support of Free Corps that exceeded Versailles army limit
    +Putsch failed due to National Strike
    +refusal of civil servants to obey kapp
    +some workers protested, were bloodily put down
  • Treaty of Rapollo

    +Resumption of German-Russian diplomatic relations
  • Philip Scheidemann Asassination Attempt

    +two men tried to kill him with acid
    +no serious harm
    +right wing antagonize him for forming weimar republic +even though scheidemann opposed versailles treaty
  • Walther Ratheau Asassination

    +Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic
    +Fulfillment Policy
    +DDP Politician
    +Talented minister that tried to gain understanding of victorious powers
    +Anti-semitic attacks, since he was jewish
    More Information
  • Ruhr Occupation

    +Fulfillment Policy: Political Asassinations
    +When german payments fall short:
    +France occupies the Ruhr Area
    +German trade unions and gouvernment call for passive resistance
  • Hyperinflation

    +Autumn 1923
    +Ocupation/Reperations/Strikes obliterate german currency
    +Farmers and retailers refuse trade
    +Looting of groceries
    +enterpretneurs profit since dept is basically annulled
    +money lenders/banks meanwhile are fucked
  • Munich Beer Hall Putsch

    Munich Beer Hall Putsch
    +Gustav Ritter von Kahr, legitimate right wing-polititian, made bavarian troops subject to Munich command, disempowering Berlin
    +General Hans von Seeckt, commander of the German Army, refused to take military action
    +NSDP and Hitler campaigned for their cause
    +Hitler had armed party members used a meeting by Kahr in a Munich beer hall to proclaim a "national rising"
    +Forced Kahn/von Lossow to agree to provisional gouvernment
    +Kahr/lossow turn on hitler and violently disperse nazis
  • Dawes Plan

    +end of immediate demand for payments
    +increasing annual rates between one and 2.5 bn reichsmark
    +reperation agent controls germanys financial payments
    => currency stability has to be taken into account
    +no more onsided payment demands
    +germany now participates equally in negotiations +germany can now recieve US loans
  • Hitler is tried for treason (NSDAP banned)

    Hitler is tried for treason (NSDAP banned)
    +Hitler uses trial against von Seekt to attack Weimar
    +Judges acquitt Ludendorff and sentence Hitler to the minimum sentance, that he did not have to serve completely
    +Hitler released after nine months +Hitler promises party members to take power legally
  • Treaty of Locarno

    +Germany <-> Belgium/france
    +abstained from violent movement of borders
    +guaranteed by england and italy
  • Gustav Streseman Nobel Peace Price

    +together with Aristide Briand, the French Foreign Minister +Streseman had previously ended passive resistence in the ruhr area, stabilized currency
    +overcome international isolation
    +"Entspannungspolitik" with France
    +Dawnes Plan
  • Treaty of Berlin

    +Streseman promises German neutrality in case russia goes to war
    +Military cooperation with russia, circumventing versailles
  • Germany enters League of Nations

  • Young Plan

    +Germany should pay reparations until 1987/88
    +Controls of the Dawes Plan dont apply anymore
    +French troops have to withdraw from the rheineland
  • Wall Street Crash

    Wall Street Crash
    +1920: mass production of consumer goods and promoting credit
    +demand slowdown, high risk speculation and agriculture-price decline start the crisis
  • Black Friday

    Black Friday
    +effects of Wall Street Crash hit Europe
    +1926-1929: USA has 42% of industrial production, buys 40% of worlds raw materials, at the same time reducing credits
    => destabilisation of european banks
    +european govs can't do shit to fix this
    +America closes borders to exports; instead of taking responsibility, and keeping intern. payment flow balanced
    +the weimar republic had its unemployment system collapsed, weimar coalition broke on the question how to fix it
  • Begin of Presidential Cabinets

    +Chancellor Muüllers Gouvernment resignes
    +Weimar Coalition (CENTRE/SPD/DDP) broke over the unemployment system wuestion
  • Period: to

    Heinrich Brüning

    +General Kurt von Schleicher had promoted Brüning
    +supposed to launch a conservative change in policy
    +ruling without parliament via hindenburgs emergency powers +failed to pass financial programme
    => art 48
    +reconstruction of finances via long-term expendature cut
    =>great sacrifices for workers
    +deflationary policy and great depression boost unemployment
    +six million unemployed
    +brüning had lost all credit in the electorate
    +hindenburg finally dismisses brüning
  • Reelection-NSDAP rise

    Reelection-NSDAP rise
    +NSDAP quintouples its votes
    => second largest party
    +unemployed ppl more likely to vote KPD
    +NSDAP popular among Protestants
    +Marketed as young, fresh but strong
    +Gouvernment had enough evidence to ban NSDAP
    => information witheld
    => cautious treatment from moderates made them more acceptable
    +Hitler had promised party members to take power legally
    +young member base
  • Brüning dimissed

    +High-income earners talk hindenburg into dismissing Brüning
    +Franz von Papen is introduced to hindenburg, a man that could use his cabinet of barons to gouvern with the dnvp
    +Thoughts to include NSDAP in gouvernment to stabilize democracy
  • Period: to

    Franz von Papen

  • Lausanne Conference

    No more reparations due to economic crisis
  • Reelection - NSDAP Rise yet again

    Reelection - NSDAP Rise yet again
    +increase in nsdap support
    +all parties except KPD and CENTER, all parties lose voters
    +Hitler refuses to merely support the gouvernment
    => claims/demands chancellorship
  • Hindenburg cockblocks Hitler

    Hindenburg cockblocks Hitler
    +Public announcement sharply refusing to appoint hitler
  • Reelection - NSDAP drops

    Reelection - NSDAP drops
    • in the wake of hindenburgs sharp announcement nsdap voters decline slightly
    • NSDAP 37 -> 33 % +negotiations fail bc of hitlers stubborn claims to the post of the chancellor
  • Period: to

    Kurt von Schleicher

  • Hitler-Papen Agreement

    +FvP and Hitler agree to a new Gouvernment under Hitlers leadership
    +meet in Cologne
    +Apart from Hitler, the Cabinet would include only two other Nazis
    +FvP would become vice president
    +Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP) in the cabinet as well
    +It seemed that Hitler would be kept in check by conservatives
  • Hitler is appointed as chancellor

    Hitler is appointed as chancellor
    +Hindeburg agrees to the Hitler-Papen Solution
    +appoints Hitler