Germany 1933 - 1945

  • Hitler becomes Chancellor

    Hitler becomes Chancellor
    Appointed by President Hindenburg and von Papan
  • The Reichstag Fire

    The Reichstag Fire
    The Reichstag government building was burnt down. Hitler blamed the communists. There are theories that it was infact the Nazis.
  • Emergency Decree

    Issued by President Hindenburg at Hitlers request.
    - The police could arrest suspects and hold them without trial
    - Hitler to take over the regional governments of Germany
  • Enabling Act

    Hitler bullies the Reichstag into passing this. It gives HItler the power to make any law without consulting the Reichstag.
    The Reichstag passed the law that would make them effectively finished.
    The act made Hitler a legal dictator.
  • Nazi boycott of Jewish Businesses

    The Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany took place on 1 April 1933, soon after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. The boycott was the first of many measures against the Jews of Germany, which ultimately culminated in the "Final Solution".
  • Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service

    On 7 April 1933, the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed, which restricted employment in the civil service to "Aryans." This meant that Jews could not serve as teachers, professors, judges, or other government positions. Jewish government workers, including teachers in public schools and universities, were fired. Doctors followed closely behind.
  • The Night of the Long Knives

    n Germany, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler orders a bloody purge of his own political party, assassinating hundreds of Nazis whom he believed had the potential to become political enemies in the future. The leadership of the Nazi Storm Troopers (SA), whose four million members had helped bring Hitler to power in the early 1930s, was especially targeted. Hitler feared that some of his followers had taken his early "National Socialism" propaganda too seriously.
  • Hindenburg dies

    Hindenburg dies
    This was the last person in the way of Hitler becoming a full dictator
  • Hitler becomes the Fuhrer

    Hitler becomes the Fuhrer
    Replaces Hindenburg.
  • Socialist Party Banned

    Adolf Hitler prohibited the party in 1933 under the Enabling Act - some party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile.
  • Rearmament

    The German re-armament was a massive effort led by the NSDAP in the early 1930s in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 would provide an ideal testing ground for the proficiency of the new weapons produced by the German factories during the re-armament years.
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    Nazi Church Control

    • 1935 – Gestapo arrested 700 protestant ministers who were opposed to the Nazis.
    • 1936 – Nazis ran a campaign to encourage children to stop going to church. Anti-Nazi nuns and priests were sent to prison on trumped up charges such as homosexuality and illegal currency dealing.
    • 1937 – carols and nativity plays banned from schools.
    • 1938 – priests banned from teaching RE in schools.
    • 1939 – all remaining church schools were abolished.
  • The Nuremberg Laws

    The Nuremberg Laws
    The first law, The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, prohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between "Jews" and "Germans" and also the employment of "German" females under forty-five in Jewish households. The second law, The Reich Citizenship Law, declared those not of German blood to be Staatsangehörige (state subjects) while those classified as "Aryans" were Reichsbürger (citizens of the Reich)
  • Germany reoccupies the Rhineland

    Germany reoccupies the Rhineland
    In 1935, Hitler's plans to strengthen Germany and undermine the Treaty of Versailles were given a boost when the German-speaking Saar region voted to reunite with Germany. The region, important for coal production, had previously been removed from German control as a term of Versailles to weaken Germany industrially. Hitler took 20,000 troops, but was very wary of retaliation from French + Belgian troops. Hitler gave his troops orders to retreat if the allies advanced.
  • Jewish businesses banned

  • Berlin Olympics

    Berlin Olympics
    The 1936 Berlin Olympic Games had been handed to Berlin before the Nazis came to power but now it was the perfect opportunity for Hitler to demonstrate to the world, how efficient the Nazi Germany was. It was also the perfect opportunity for the Nazis to prove to the world the reality of the Master Race. The 'racially inferior' Owens won four gold medals; in the 100m, 200m, long jump and 4 x 100m relay. Hitler refused to place the gold medal around Owen's neck.
  • Women encouraged to work

  • Kristallnacht

    Kristallnacht -- literally, "Night of Crystal," is often referred to as the "Night of Broken Glass." The name refers to the wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms which took place on November 9 and 10, 1938, throughout Germany, annexed Austria, and in areas of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia recently occupied by German troops.
    Kristallnacht owes its name to the shards of shattered glass that lined German streets in the wake of the pogrom-broken glass from the windows of Jewish-owned buildings.
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    On September 1, 1939, the beginning of the German attack, Great Britain and France sent Adolf Hitler an ultimatum - either withdraw German forces from Poland or Great Britain and France would go to war against Germany. On September 3, with Germany's forces penetrating deeper into Poland, Great Britain and France both declared war on Germany.
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    World War II

  • First Air Raid on Berlin

    First Air Raid on Berlin
    The first RAF raid on Berlin took place on the night of 25 August 1940; 95 aircraft were dispatched to bomb Tempelhof Airport near the centre of Berlin and Siemensstadt, of which 81 dropped their bombs in and around Berlin, and while the damage was slight, the psychological effect on Hitler was greater. Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany, was subject to 363 air raids during the Second World War.
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    Operation Barbarossa - Germany Invasion of USSR

    Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during the Second World War. Beginning on 22 June 1941, over 3.9 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a 2,900 km front, the largest invasion in the history of warfare.
    The German invasion of the Soviet Union ultimately resulted in 95% of all German Army casualties from 1941 to 1944 and 65% of all Allied military casualties accumulated throughout the war.
  • The Final Solution

    The Final Solution was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of the systematic genocide of European Jews during World War II, resulting in the most deadly phase of the Holocaust. Mass killings of about one million Jews occurred before the plans of the Final Solution were fully implemented in 1942, but it was only with the decision to eradicate the entire Jewish population that the extermination camps were built and industrialized mass slaughter of Jews began in earnest.
  • Hamburg attacked

    Hamburg attacked
    The Battle of Hamburg, codenamed Operation Gomorrah, was a campaign of air raids beginning 24 July 1943 for 8 days and 7 nights. It was at the time the heaviest assault in the history of aerial warfare and was later called the Hiroshima of Germany by British officials. The Battle of Hamburg overlapped the Battle of the Ruhr which ended on 31 July. The operation was conducted by RAF Bomber Command and the USAAF Eighth Air Force.
  • Proffessional Sports banned

  • Operation Valkyrie

    Operation Valkyrie
    Operation Valkyrie is the title most associated with the attempted assassination of Hitler in July 1944. Ironically Operation Valkyrie was a plan approved by Hitler, which was to be put into operation if there was a breakdown in communication between Hitler and the High Command in Nazi Germany as a result of Allied bombing or an uprising. The conspirators involved in the July Bomb Plot planned to use Operation Valkyrie – which effectively passed command of Germany over to the Reserve (Home) Army
  • Edelweiss Pirates Execution

    Edelweiss Pirates Execution
    A key violent group were called the Edelweiss Pirates. They daubed anti-Nazi slogans, sheltered deserters and beat up Nazi officials. In 1944, the Cologne Pirates (the Edelweiss Pirates based in Cologne) killed the Gestapo chief, so the Nazis publicly hanged 12 of them.
  • Hitler commits suicide

    Hitler commits suicide
    On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler and Braun committed suicide; Braun bit into a cyanide capsule and Hitler shot himself with his 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol.
  • Third Reich Defeat

    Third Reich Defeat
    On 16 December 1944, Germany attempted its last desperate measure for success on the Western Front by using most of its remaining reserves to launch a massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes.
    In early April, the Western Allies finally pushed forward in Italy and swept across Western Germany, while Soviet forces stormed Berlin in late April; the two forces linked up on Elbe river on 25 April. On 30 April 1945, the Reichstag was captured, signalling the military defeat of Third Reich.