Sui DynastySuiSui Dynasty
-Happened after a long conflict for control of China
-Emerged at the end of the 6th century
-Had three emperors and lasted for only 38 years
Significance: Signaled a strong dynastic control in China. Economic and political advances were achieved. Unified China by defeating the southern dynasties and had strong imperial administration.
Emperor Yang Jian/Wendi<a
Emperor Yang Jian
-Founded the Sui dynasty
-In 589, his armies attacked and conquered the weak and divided the Chen kingdom
Significance: Reunited and reorganized China after 300 yeas of instability. Well known for winning support by lowering taxes and creating granaries through his rule, making China prosperous.
Jan 3, 604
-Second member of Sui dynasty
-Murdered his father to gain throne
-Assassinated in 618
Significance: Recognized both as a tyrant and a good emperor for consolidating and developing China. Promoted scholar-gentry and Confucian system. Responsible construction of Chinese canal system that made China prosperous.
Jan 18, 604
Grand CanalGrand CanalGrand Canal
-Built in 7th century during the reign of Yangdi
-nearly 1200 miles long
-Linked the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin
Significance: Allowed the movement of people and goods from north to the south in which would later lead to economic prosperity. It allowed trade of rice and food crops available to everyone.
Jan 5, 618
Tang DynastyTangTang Dynasty
-Most prosperous dynasty in China
-Vast control over Korea, southern Manchuria, and northern Vietnam
-Strong imperial bureacracy and civil service examinations
Significance: Tang dynasty was the greatest golden age of China and it was well known for its wealth, art, and literature. Had strong intellectual and financial growth.
Jan 8, 618
-Ancient capital city of the Tang dynasty
-Population of 2 million
-Larger than any other city in the world at that time
Significance: Center of cultural and political renaissance in Ancient China. By the Grand Canal, it was connected with ports of southern China and by Silk Road with other empires, making it a grand attraction center and luxerious trade center where foreign exchange occured.
Jan 9, 618
Ministry of RitesMinistry of RitesMinistry of Rites
-Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
-Part of the core of the central government administration
Significance: It was in charge of the rituals, ceremonies, the civil service examinations, and education system. Responsible for success in gaining power for the students on their potential government roles.
Jan 10, 618
-Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature
-Became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
Significance: Allowed upper class families' positions to be of higher rank in office and allowed all won candidates to gain special social status. Method of recruitment into bureaucracy.
Jan 19, 618
-Practice in Chinese society to multilate women's feet in order to make them smaller
-Produced pain and restricted women's movement
-Made it easier to confine women to the household
Significance: It showed men's dominance over women and was the sign of women's weakness in Chinese society. It limited women's capabilities in this time and later periods.
Jan 4, 623
Emperor Li YuanLi YuanEmperor Li Yuan
-Duke of Tang
-Minister for Yangdi
-First emperor of Tang dynasty
Significance: Brought a new golden age of the Tang by restoring many policies from the Sui dynasty, reuniting China through conquering regions, relaxing harsh laws, and promoting trade (made China economically prosperous).
Jan 6, 626
Emperor Tang TaizongTaizongEmperor Tang Taizong
-One of the greatest leaders of China
-Followed after Li Yuan stepped down
-Driving force behind his father's uprising against the Sui dynasty
Significance: Well known for being an intelligent general and strategist. Consolidated China by launching military conquests against his rivals and improved political system. Made China to have a literary taste and was also a skilled calliographer.
Jan 11, 638
Chan/Zen BuddhismChan/ZenChan/Zen Buddhism
-Known as Zen in Japan and Chan in China
-Stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty
-Popular with members of elite Chinese society
Significance: Enphasized on spontaneity and naturalness of all things which greatly influenced painting, poetry, calliography, and other types of arts. Also was used to achieve enlightenment in life.
Jan 7, 668
Emperor GaozongGaozongEmperor Gaozong
-9th son of Li Shimin (Tang Taizong)
-Third emperor of the Tang dynasty
-Husband of Empress Wu Zetian
Significance: Considered a weak ruler because he was assisted by Empress Wu Zetian for most of his reign, showing the potential rise of women's power. Continued his father's foreign conquests and made Silla as a vassal kingdom.
Jan 12, 690
Empress WuWuEmpress Wu
-One of the concubines of Taizong and the empress of Gaozong
-Supported Buddhist establishment
Significance: Tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion. Had multistory statues of Buddha created. Only female emperor in Chinese history who ruled the whole country for almost half a century. Well known for her intelligence and charisma in her political career.
Jan 14, 710
Empress WeiWeiEmpress Wei
-Wife of the son of Empress Wu
-Poisoned her husband and placed her own child on the throne
-Stopped by another prince (Xuanzong) in her attempt to seek power
Significance: Tried to emulate Wu Zetian and seize power for herself. Also increased her political power and domain by killing all of her political enemies. Well-known for securing her power at times of crisis.
Nov 20, 712
Poet Li BoLi BoLi Bo
-Most famous poet of the Tang era
-Blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings
-Studied classic Confucian works as well as other more esoteric and romantic literature
Significance: Li Bo was the author of 100,000 poems and was well known for participation in court revels. His poems were literary and known for being based on the events that happened on the mundane world.
Jan 15, 713
-Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty
-Patronized arts and enjoyed pleasures
Significance: Marked the peak of Tang power and the high point of Chinese civilization under the dynasty. Made Tang dynasty to be filled with arts and luxerious pleasure in cities. Later he was the major factor of military and economic distress.
Jan 16, 719
Yang GuifeiYang GuifeiYang Guifei
-Royal concubine during the reign of Xuanzong
-Introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt
-Assumed a greater role in court politics
Significance: Was well known for her sex appeal and political charisma at that time. Was one of the major reasons of the rise of the revolt against the Tang dynasty. Was a cause of popular unrest by rival cliques.
Jan 13, 841
Emperor WuzongWuzongEmperor Wuzong
-Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries
-Made the nuns and monks to return to normal life and subject to taxation
Significance: Well known for religious persecution in his reign and viewed Buddhism as a foreign religion that harm Chinese society. Reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology.
Jan 17, 1070
Wang AnshiWang AnshiWang Anshi
-Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s
-Introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists
-Ward off the collapse of the dynasty
Significance: Advocated greater state intervention in society. Encouraged agricultural expansion, taxed landlord and scholarly classes, and reorganized education.