PSY 430

  • 3000 BCE

    Edwin Smith Papyrus

    Edwin Smith Papyrus
    -Medical observations of the body
    -First documentation of the brain
    -The brain controlled the body
    -Ancient Egypt
  • 585 BCE

    Natural principles explain phenomena, not God

    Natural principles explain phenomena, not God
    -Thales
    -Critical Tradition, question everything
  • 571 BCE

    Rationalism

    Rationalism
    -Pythagoras
    -Natural phenomena followed patterns/laws
  • 501 BCE

    Emphasis on thinking

    Emphasis on thinking
    -Parmenides
    -Introspection
    -Understanding is not observing, must think abstractly
  • 485 BCE

    Subjective Nature of Reality

    Subjective Nature of Reality
    -Sophists/Protagoras
    -We all see our world through a unique lens
    **gestalt/cognitive psychology
  • 469 BCE

    Introspection

    Introspection
    -Socrates
    -"know thyself"
    **psychodynamic psychology
  • 460 BCE

    Reductionism

    Reductionism
    -Democritus
    -To understand something complex it must be reduced to its smallest elements
    **neuroscience
  • 407 BCE

    Must control good/bad forces of personality

    Must control good/bad forces of personality
    -Plato
    -"The Golden Chariot"
    **ID, ego, super ego
  • 367 BCE

    Empiricism

    Empiricism
    -Aristotle
    -Test theories in controlled settings
  • 367 BCE

    Memory

    Memory
    -Aristotle
    -Law of Contiguity- when things occur together we remember them together
    **Classical conditioning
  • 367 BCE

    Early Behavioral Psychology

    Early Behavioral Psychology
    -Aristotle
    -It is human nature to seek pleasure and avoid pain
  • 322 BCE

    Positive/Life Psychology

    Positive/Life Psychology
    -Ancient Rome
    -Focus was regulating behavior for happiness
    -Catholic church forbid philosophy & scientific thinking because it was blasphemous and sinful
    -Epicurians: interested in living a good and balanced life
    -Stoics: Interested in how emotions effect thoughts & actions
    -Skeptics- promoted being critical and suspended beliefs of philosophers
    -Neo-Platonists: body and soul are 2 different things
  • Jan 1, 800

    Indo-Arabic Number System

    Indo-Arabic Number System
    -Al-Kindi
    -Much simpler
  • Jan 1, 965

    Visual System

    Visual System
    -Alhazen
    -light coming in to the eye caused us to see
    -medical and physical observations of the body and mind
  • Jan 1, 980

    Innate Self Awareness

    Innate Self Awareness
    -Avicenna
    -"floating man"
    -Innate self consciousness/awareness is separate from sensation and perception
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Humanistic Psychology

    Humanistic Psychology
    -Renaissance
    -Focus on your goals, thoughts feelings, behaviors, abilities
    -Individual desires, abilities
    -"know thyself"
    -Free will, understand why people make choices
    -Each individual is unique (anti-scientific dogma)
  • Innate Mind/Consciousness

    Innate Mind/Consciousness
    -Descartes
    -Naturally full of ideas
    -Don't need to rely on senses to think
    -Ideas exist prior to any specific sensory experience; therefore, they derive from the thinking soul itself
  • Reflexes

    Reflexes
    -Descartes
    -Sensory input -->brain-->motor command
  • Mind Body Interactive Dualism

    Mind Body Interactive Dualism
    -Descartes
    -Mind does not equal the body
    -The mind and body interact in the brain, specifically the pineal gland
    -Passions control emotions
    -Localized physical function to the brain, but believed it was not complex enough/too compartmentalized to contain the mind
    **neuropsychology
  • Brain Anatomy Atlas

    Brain Anatomy Atlas
    -Willis
    -An increase in technology allowed him to conduct careful dissections
    -Published in 1664
    -recognized white vs. gray matter
    -established blood supply to the brain
    -cutting off blood flow leads to apoplexy
  • Tabula Rosa

    Tabula Rosa
    -Locke
    -Contents of our mind are completely built from sensory experiences
    -Mind is a (blank slate)
  • Phenomenal World

    Phenomenal World
    -Kant
    -World of our perceptions is created by our mind
    -The mind is using more than raw data from the senses to create perceptions
    -Differences in our subjective experiences is due to "an active conscious mind"
  • Mesmerism

    Mesmerism
    -Mesmer
    -Process of inducing and relieving symptoms through the use of magnets
  • Discovery that the brain is an electrically sensitive organ

    Discovery that the brain is an electrically sensitive organ
    -Luigi Galvani
  • Comparative Neuroanatomy

    Comparative Neuroanatomy
    -Franz Josef Gall
    -animals to humans
    -damaged to healthy
    -children to adults
    -Conclusion: higher abilities were the result of large/more developed brains
  • Scientists accepted the brain as the center of mental and physical functioning

    Scientists accepted the brain as the center of mental and physical functioning
    -Franz Josef Gall-comaprative neuroanatomy
  • Physiognomy

    Physiognomy
    -Franz Josef Gall
    -Personality traits correlated to physical features
  • Phrenology

    Phrenology
    -Franz Josef Gall
    -Bumps & dents in the skull indicated under/over developed areas in the brain, leading to under/over developed abilities
    -Rejected by the scientific community
  • Suggestion that animals change gradually

    Suggestion that animals change gradually
    -Jean- Baptiste Lamarck
    -Bodies change due to use or disuse
  • First evidence of the brain as a unified organ

    First evidence of the brain as a unified organ
    -Flourens
    -Ablation studies in animals
    -Found that generalized impairments followed the damage
    -More damage=more disabled
    -First evidence that the brain word together as a whole
  • Uniformitarianism

    Uniformitarianism
    -Lyell
    -Earth's major features resulted from gradual processes occurring over a vast amount of time
    -Gradual long term changes can result in physical changes
    -Contrast to catastrophism- massive and sudden change
  • "Just noticeable difference"

    "Just noticeable difference"
    -Fechner & Weber
    -Thresh hold of energy/intensity at which we detect a difference in our perception
  • Law of specific nerve energies

    Law of specific nerve energies
    -Bell
    -Individual sensory neurons only conveyed information appropriate/relevant to that sensory system
  • Mesmerism and Medicine

    Mesmerism and Medicine
    -Esdaile
    -Used the power of suggestion to distract patients from pain
    -Mortality rates dropped from 50%-5%
  • Perceptual Adaptation

    Perceptual Adaptation
    -Helmholtz & duBois
    -when a visual field is altered the brain adapts to the new perceptions automatically and unconsciously
  • Electrochemical Pattern of neuron communication

    Electrochemical Pattern of neuron communication
    -Helmholtz & duBois
    -The body transfers energy from the environment into a "message" that causes changes in the brain/body
  • Hypnotism

    Hypnotism
    -Term coined by Braid
    -Scientifically tested mesmerism-made it scientific
    -From the greek word hypnos (sleep)
  • First experiments on sensation & perception

    First experiments on sensation & perception
    -Muller & Helmholtz
    -First step to psychology becoming a genuine science
    -Systematic studies discovered lawful relationships between newly measurable energy & subjective reactions of the mind/body
  • Natural Selection

    Natural Selection
    -Darwin
    -Built off of ideas of Lamarck
    -Physical changes in animals or humans would result if the changes would benefit survival
    -changes would be inherited by future generations
  • Monogenesis

    Monogenesis
    -Darwin
    -All human races shared a common ancestry
    -Physical differences resulted from a difference in environment (Darwin)
    -Others believed physical differences were a curse
    -Extended environmental pressures to creating mental/intellectual changes
  • Sexual Selection

    Sexual Selection
    -Darwin
    -Differences in men & women's traits
    -Gradual selection resulted in appearance and propagation of physical traits that relate to reproductive success
    -Universally attractive traits- generally reflect overall health & fitness, men-strength/dominance
  • Language was localized to a region in the left frontal lobe

    Language was localized to a region in the left frontal lobe
    -Jean Baptiste Bouillard & Ernest Aubertin
    -Could not speak easily if the area was damaged
  • Broca's Area

    Broca's Area
    -Paul Broca
    -Case of "Tan"
    -Area in the left frontal lobe was responsible for speech production
  • Suggestibility

    Suggestibility
    -Liebeault
    -Studied the individual differences in response to hypnotism
    -Suggestibility=trait of being easily hypnotized
  • The Nancy School

    The Nancy School
    -training hypnotherapists
    -scientific investigation into hypnotism
  • Discovery of the primary motor cortex

    Discovery of the primary motor cortex
    -Gustav Fritsch & Eduard Hitzig
    -Electrical stimulation brain studies
    -Stimulation of cortex=body movement
  • Hysteria

    Hysteria
    -Charcot
    -Condition characterized by a range of physical and mental symptoms with no underlying medical cause
    -Women only disease
  • Discovery of additional cortexes

    Discovery of additional cortexes
    -David Ferrier
    -Awake brain surgery
    -Primary somatosensory cortex-feelings/sensations
    -Visual cortex-process visual info
    -Auditory cortex-process sound info
    -Association cortex- area where primary functions overlapped
  • Wernicke's Area

    Wernicke's Area
    -Carl Wernicke
    -Speech/language comprehension
  • Memories

    Memories
    -Wernicke
    -Localized throughout the cortex
    -Memories=all of the areas of the cortex where basic functions were integrated
    -Basic functions were stored together in areas as memories
  • Launch of the child study movement

    Launch of the child study movement
    -Hall
    -Mental growth drew on the controversy of physical development
    -Mental development of a child recapitulates mental development of the human race
  • Foundation of modern psychology

    Foundation of modern psychology
    -Wundt
    -Established a lab at the University of Leipzig solely for psychology
    -Labeled this science and distinguished it from the natural sciences
  • Cultural Psychology

    Cultural Psychology
    -Wundt
    -Now known as social psych
    -Dealt with how stages of mental development manifest through language, art, myths, social customs, laws, and morals
  • Study of conscious experience

    Study of conscious experience
    -Wundt
    -Subject matter of his work: consciousness
    *psychology was the study of the conscious mind
    Conscious mind=immediate+mediate experiences
  • Introspection

    Introspection
    -Wundt
    -Method of observation used to examine the conscious experience
    -Examination of one's mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts and feelings
  • Structuralism

    Structuralism
    -Titchener
    -The key to understanding the conscious mind was to understand the individual structures that made it up
    -Reducing conscious experience into smaller experiences
  • Salpetriere School

    Salpetriere School
    -Charcot
    -Hypnotizable suggestibility was a symptom of hysteria
    -Downfall: Charcot accused of training patients
  • Successfully experimented on higher mental processes

    Successfully experimented on higher mental processes
    -Ebbinghaus
    -Proved Wundt wrong
  • Functionalism

    Functionalism
    -William James
    -Psychology should focus on the function or purpose of consciousness and how it leads to adaptive behavior
    -Belief that scientific psych should be modeled on Darwinian theory
  • Subfields in Psychology

    Subfields in Psychology
    -Educational psych, industrial psych
    -The focus of psych became solving real world issues, and that's what these subfields aimed to do
  • Pragmatism

    Pragmatism
    -Science needed to be practical and useful
    -Part of psych in America
  • Twin Studies

    Twin Studies
    -Galton
    -Used questionnaires to determine the role of genes and environment on human development and behavior
  • Intelligence Testing

    Intelligence Testing
    -Galton
    -Intelligence is inherited and biological based
    -Human nature and intelligence can be measured scientifically
    -Used reaction time tests
    -Attempted to apply Darwin's theory of evolution to the study of human abilities
    -Intelligence is quantifiable and normally distributed
  • Eugenics

    Eugenics
    -Galton
    -Science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics
  • Foundation of the American Psychological Association

    Foundation of the American Psychological Association
    -G. Stanley Hall
  • Oedipus Complex

    Oedipus Complex
    -Freud
    -A desire for involvement with the parent of the opposite sex
    -Competes with parent of same sex for affection
  • Psychosexual Stages of Development

    Psychosexual Stages of Development
    -Freud
    -Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  • Psychoanalysis

    Psychoanalysis
    -Freud
    -Developed by incorporating Bruer's "talking cure", Charcot's views on traumatic hysteria, and his own technique for reconstructing repressed memories though interpretation and free-association
  • Free Association

    Free Association
    -Freud
    -Patients are encouraged to say whatever comes to mind during a session
    -Believed that this revealed unconscious feelings or thoughts that had been repressed
  • Importance of Dreams

    Importance of Dreams
    -Freud
    -"Dreams are the avenue through which traumatic experiences in our past manifest themselves"
    -It is possible to figure out which traumatic event is causing the symptoms by analyzing individual components of the dream
  • Individual Psychology

    Individual Psychology
    -Binet
    -The psychological processes which vary from one individual to another
    -Projective tests
  • Intelligence Testing

    Intelligence Testing
    -Binet
    -Intelligence is a capacity that grows with children's age but varies by the individual
    -Intelligence can be improved by training- "Mental Orthopedics"
    -Children with special needs should be identified and graded in terms of maximum potential
  • Classical Conditioning

    Classical Conditioning
    -Pavlov
    -Learn the meaning of or to respond to a new object by its association with a familiar object
  • Gestalt Psychology

    Gestalt Psychology
    -Focuses on the way the mind organizes experiences and perceptions into organized wholes that are more than the sums of their separate parts
    -Figure ground illusions
    -Impacted neurology (brain injury patients treated holistically)
    -Impacted psychotherapy (treat whole patient)
  • "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it"

    "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it"
    -Watson
    -Defined psychology as an objective science
    -rejected introspection
    -redefined behavior as the main subject of psychological science
    -Goal: predict and control behavior
    -recognized no distinction between animals & humans
  • Founding of Behaviorism

    Founding of Behaviorism
    -Watson
    -Study of observable behavior
  • Conditioned Emotional Reactions

    Conditioned Emotional Reactions
    -Watson applied classical conditioning to human emotional responses
    -Fear, rage & love- 3 innate responses
    -Believed human emotional experiences were the result of classical conditioning
  • Radical Environmentalism

    Radical Environmentalism
    -Watson
    -Behavior is a product of the environment we are in
    -downplayed the role of genetics
    -"Blank Slate"- he claimed he could take any baby and turn them into a thief/lawyer etc.
  • "Little Albert" Study

    "Little Albert" Study
    -Watson
    -performed to confirm his theory of emotions
    -conditioned Albert to fear a white rat
    -Loud sound + Rat (UCS)= Fear (UCR)
    -Rat (CS)= Fear (CR)
  • "Little Peter"

    "Little Peter"
    -Watson & Mary Cover Jones
    -Counter Conditioning- Classical conditioning to remove fear
    -Used gradual exposure and positive stimuli (candy, other kids) to remove his fear of rabbits
  • Rorschach Test

    Rorschach Test
    -Harrower
    -A psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretations and/or complex algorithms
    -Can be used to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning
  • Language Learning/ "Universal Grammar"

    Language Learning/ "Universal Grammar"
    -Chomsky
    -Learning of the rules=language learning
    -Believed we had an innate, hard wired mental structure, "Universal Grammar" that predisposed humans to learn language
    -Behaviorism/Conditioning could not possibly explain how we learn our languages because language learning is faster and natural
  • Equipotentiality

    Equipotentiality
    -Lashley
    -Any region of the intact brain could adopt the function of a damaged section
    -Brain/neural plasticity
    -younger=better at relearning
  • Redundancy Hypothesis

    Redundancy Hypothesis
    -Lashley
    -Different aspects of a memory are stored in different locations throughout the brain
  • Psychotherapy

    Psychotherapy
    -Used by clinical psychologists
    -The therapeutic treatment of individual mental and emotional problems
  • Child Development

    Child Development
    -Piaget
    -Cannot skip stages
    -Sensorimotor Stage:birth-2, all about exploration, egocentric- Main development:object permanence
    -Preoperational:2-7, egocentric, lack conservation of quality-Main development prepare to use logic
    -Concrete Operational:7-11, understand conservation of quantity, think more logically, less egocentric
    -Formal Operational: Adolescence-Adulthood, Abstract concepts, can form hypotheses
  • National Mental Health Act of 1946

    National Mental Health Act of 1946
    -Mental health patients became the governments responsibility
    -Led to the National Institute of Mental Health and the provision of funding to train more psychotherapists
    -Left behind Freudian psychology
    -By 1977 clinical psychologists were permitted to practice psychotherapy in all 50 states
  • The Boulder Conference

    The Boulder Conference
    -August 20-September 3, 1949
    -The goal of the conference was to agree upon a standard training plan for clinical psychologists
    -Led to the formation of the Boulder-Model ("scientist-practioner model")
  • Scientist Practitioner Model

    Scientist Practitioner Model
    -Based on the medical model of the mental disorders and proposed that practitioners in the field of psychology needed to be trained in a manner that blended the researcher with clinician
  • Depth Perception

    Depth Perception
    -Gibson
    -The brain's ability to build 3D perceptions from 2D images coming from each eye
  • Temporal Lobe

    Temporal Lobe
    -Penfield
    -Memory & emotion
    -Elicited memories (episodic) and emotional states
    -"Interpretive cortex"
    -Experiential response
    -Interpretive response
  • Operant Conditioning

    Operant Conditioning
    -Skinner
    -We learn to respond to and control our environments though the consequences of our behavior
    -Operant chamber (skinner boxes) used so researchers could observe changes in behavior
  • "The Cognition Project"

    "The Cognition Project"
    -Bruner
    -Perceptual set, mental factors demonstrated to influence one's perception
    -Prior experience/knowledge
    -Context
    -Expectations/motivation
  • Identified Hippocampus

    Identified Hippocampus
    -Milner
    -Temporal lobe and hippocampus necessary for short term memory and storing long term memory
  • Human Emotional Expression

    Human Emotional Expression
    -Ekman
    -6 universal emotional expressions
    -sadness, anger, fear, joy, surprise, disgust
    -Supported theory & Darwin's belief that emotional expression is biological and innate
  • Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies

    Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies
    -Cofounded- Bruner & Miller
    -First of its kind in America
  • Differentiated between types of memory

    Differentiated between types of memory
    -Milner
    -Short term
    -Long term
    -Episodic
    -Semantic
    -Procedural
  • "Cognitive Psychology"

    "Cognitive Psychology"
    -Neisser
    -Published "Cognitive Psychology", the first textbook published on this subfield